Rutherford B. Hayes (Dictionary of World Biography: The 19th Century)
Article abstract: Though an ardent Radical Republican early in the Reconstruction era, Hayes moderated his views and as president ended that era by withdrawing military support for Republican state governments in the South. During his administration, Hayes also opposed inflation, defended the presidency from congressional attacks, and fought for civil service reform.
The posthumous son of Rutherford Hayes, Rutherford Birchard Hayes was so weak that his mother, Sophia Birchard Hayes, did not expect him to survive. His parents, who were of old New England stock, had migrated to Ohio from Vermont in 1817, and, on his death, his father had left his mother a farm which she rented, some additional land, and a house in town, where she kept two lodgers. Her sorrow was deepened in January, 1825, when Hayes’s older brother, a sturdy nine-year-old, drowned while ice skating, leaving only Hayes, a feeble two-year-old, and his four-year-old sister, Fanny. She was his constant companion, whom he adored and whose dolls he played with until he grew older and replaced them with toy soldiers. His understandably protective mother allowed him neither to do household chores nor to play games with boys until he was nine. A friendly, cheerful child, Hayes admired his mother’s carefree, younger bachelor brother, Sardis Birchard, who left their household when Hayes was four but returned often for visits and paid for Hayes’s...
(The entire section is 2704 words.)
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Hayes, Rutherford Birchard (West's Encyclopedia of American Law)
Rutherford Birchard Hayes was a respected and successful lawyer in his home state of Ohio. He achieved further success while serving in the Union Army during the U.S. CIVIL WAR, and he went on to gain prominence as a politician from Ohio. His service as governor of Ohio and as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives led to his election as the nineteenth president of the United States.
Hayes was born October 4, 1822, in Delaware, Ohio. His father, Rutherford Hayes, died before Hayes was born and Hayes was raised by his mother, Sophia Birchard Hayes, with the help of his uncle, Sardis Birchard, a bachelor. Hayes was enrolled at Norwalk Academy, a Methodist school in Ohio, in the spring of 1836. The next year he joined Isaac Webb's Preparatory School, in Middletown, Connecticut, where Sardis aided with his tuition. In 1838 Hayes enrolled at Kenyon College, in Gambier, Ohio. He graduated first in his class in August 1842 and delivered the valedictory address. After graduating he studied French and German on his own.
He went on to Harvard Law School in 1843 and was later admitted to the Ohio bar. He began...
(The entire section is 1087 words.)