Hard Labor Summary

Summary (Masterpieces of World Literature, Critical Edition)

This collection of poems is important for two reasons. First, in its conversational rhythms, the book is an attempt by Pavese to construct a realistic, twentieth century Italian poetic language rich in narrative detail and colloquial spontaneity. His indebtedness to American literature, and to Whitman in particular, is evident both in the spirit and structure of the collection. In an early appreciative essay on Whitman, Pavese declared that the American poet was the first to “see things with a virgin eye.” Whitman was the poet who comprehended the world in his own being. For Pavese, the vignettes of Leaves of Grass are not separate entities, but part of the all-embracing understanding.

Such an interpretation can be applied to the structure of Lavorare stanca. Like Whitman, Pavese set about in this work to create a new poetry, strong and honest in its presentation of life. All the poems in the collection tell stories or develop as vignettes. Just as Leaves of Grass begins with “Song of Myself,” a long poem that establishes for the poet a personality who assumes all, so Pavese opens Hard Labor with his longest poem, “I mari del Sud” (“South Seas”), which introduces a narrator who begins his quest for identity. The narrator of “South Seas,” wrote Pavese in his journal, was his “spiritual personality.” In its rhythms, the poem is a kind of Italian equivalent of Whitman’s free verse, though...

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Hard Labor Bibliography (Masterpieces of World Literature, Critical Edition)

Biasin, Gian-Paolo. The Smile of the Gods. Translated by Yvonne Freccero. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1968.

Binetti, Vincenzo. “Contextualizing Marginality: Urban Landscape and Female Communities in Cesare Pavese’s ’Among Women Only.’” In Italian Women and the City: Essays, edited by Janet Levarie Smarr and Dana Valentini. Madison, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2003.

Fiedler, Leslie. “Introducing Cesare Pavese.” Kenyon Review 16 (Autumn, 1954): 536-553.

Lajolo, Davide. An Absurd Vice. Translated and edited by Mario Pietralunga and Mark Pietralunga. New York: New Directions, 1983.

Norton, Peter M. “Cesare Pavese and the American Nightmare.” Modern Language Notes 77 (January, 1962): 24-36.

O’Healy, Aine. Cesare Pavese. Boston: Twayne, 1988.

Pavese, Cesare. Cesare Pavese and Anthony Chiuminatto: Their Correspondence. Edited by Mark Pietralunga. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007.

Simborowski, Nicoletta. Secrets and Puzzles: Silence and the Unsaid in Contemporary Italian Writing. Oxford, England: Legenda, European Humanities Research Centre, 2003.

Sontag, Susan. “The Artist as Exemplary Sufferer.” In Against Interpretation. New York: Anchor Books, 1990.

Thompson, Doug. Cesare Pavese. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982.