H. D. is best known as an exemplar of Imagism, the first important movement in twentieth-century poetry and a precursor of literary Modernism. As formulated by Ezra Pound, Imagism rejected conventional verse forms and upheld the image as the primary source of poetic expression. While H. D. gradually abandoned the movement's principles to accommodate her interest in mythology, occultism, and psychoanalysis, critical attention during her lifetime remained focused on her Imagist works and their revelations concerning her association with such prominent intellectuals as Pound, Richard Aldington, D. H. Lawrence, and Sigmund Freud. In recent years, however, scholars have more fully explored H. D.'s quest to define herself as an artist and to create in her later works a female mythology based on classical sources.
Hilda Doolittle was born in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, to an academic family with ties to the Moravian and Puritan faiths. She attended Bryn Mawr College for two years, during which time she became friends with the poets Marianne Moore and William Carlos Williams. In 1907 H. D. became engaged to Ezra Pound, whom she had met at the age of fifteen. Although they did not marry, their intermittent relationship drew H. D. to London, where Pound had settled in 1908. She actively participated in the city's literary scene, associating with D. H. Lawrence, May Sinclair, W. B. Yeats, and Richard Aldington, whom she married in 1913. That same year Pound arranged for the publication of several of H. D.'s poems in Poetry magazine. Submitted under the name "H. D., Imagiste," the poems "Hermes of the Ways," "Priapus," and "Epigram" embodied Pound's concept of Imagism, which incorporated elements from classical Greek lyrics, Japanese haiku, and French symbolism. Following the appearance of these poems, which were hailed as revolutionary by reviewers, H. D. assumed a leading role in the Imagist movement. During World War I she replaced Aldington as the literary editor of the Egoist, a forum for Imagist writers, and was a major contributor to Des Imagistes: An Anthology, a collection of Imagist poetry edited by Pound and published in 1915. When Pound abandoned Imagism following the publication of this volume, H. D. and Aldington, in conjunction with Amy Lowell, led and further developed the movement, arranging the publication of three succeeding Imagist anthologies.
In 1918 H. D. separated from Aldington and began living with the novelist Winifred Ellerman, who wrote under the pseudonym Bryher. They traveled extensively after the birth of H. D.'s daughter in 1919, visiting Italy, Greece, and Egypt before settling in Switzerland. In 1933 and 1934 H. D. underwent psychoanalysis with Sigmund Freud, a process that proved pivotal in her artistic development. She resolved many of her feelings concerning her bisexuality and her difficulties with writer's block. Psychoanalysis also prompted her to view her personal experiences as part of a universal pattern that linked her to women throughout the ages and to regard her poetry as the key to understanding that pattern. In 1956 she published her recollections of this period in Tribute to Freud, which Vincent Quinn characterized as essentially "a self-portrait brought into focus by her confrontation with Freud." H. D. later developed an interest in mysticism and esoteric religions, particularly those which emphasize the strength and independence of matriarchal figures. The poems she wrote during World War II while residing in Great Britain reflect these concerns. After the war she returned to Switzerland, where she wrote her third major work of fiction, Bid Me to Live (A Madrigal) (1960), a semi-autobiographical account of her life in London in the 1920s. In 1960 she became the first woman to receive the Award of Merit Medal from the American Academy of Arts and Letters. She died in 1961.
During the 1920s H. D. established herself as an important Imagist poet with the publication of the collections Hymen (1921) and Heliodora, and Other Poems (1924) and began to experiment more widely with different genres and techniques. For example, Palimpsest (1926) and Hedylus (1928), nominally considered novels though they defy easy categorization, evince H. D.'s development of her narrative voice, particularly her use of flash-backs and stream-of-consciousness monologues. H. D.'s verse, especially that collected in Sea Garden (1916), Hymen, and Heliodora, epitomized the practices of Imagism, which included the use of concrete, sensual images, common speech, concision, and the creation of new rhythms, intended to produce, according to the Imagist credo, "poetry that is hard and clear, never blurred nor indefinite." Her poems of this era, including "Oread" and "Garden," have been widely anthologized, and the publication of her Collected Poems in 1925 inextricably linked H. D. with the Imagist movement. H. D., however, once observed: "One writes the kind of poetry one likes. Other people put labels on it. Imagism was something that was important for poets learning their craft early in this century. But after learning his craft, the poet will find his true direction."
H. D.'s experimentation beyond the tenets of Imagism has drawn increasing attention from critics, particularly feminist scholars. In the verse following Collected Poems, she employed increasingly complex rhymes and rhythms and ultimately rejected the predominantly visual imagery characteristic of her early work in favor of phonetic and rhythmic effects to recreate moods and objects. Her "war trilogy," which includes the volumes The Walls Do Not Fall (1944), Tribute to the Angels (1945), and The Flowering of the Rod (1946), was inspired by the realities of living in war-torn London during World War II and presents the "Goddess," or mother-symbol, as a means of transcending the horrors of war and attaining spiritual wholeness and self-realization. H. D.'s last major work, Helen in Egypt (1961), is a book-length combination of poetry and prose that embodies the philosophical and aesthetic concerns that dominated her later work. Rejecting the traditional male focus of such epics as The Iliad and The Odyssey, H. D. concentrated on Helen of Troy and her efforts as an exile in Egypt to come to terms with her past and to forge an independent self-identity. Many commentators contend that this work and those that followed the Collected Poems are her best, although a few maintain that she broadened her range at the expense of the clarity and conciseness that had been her trademark as the quintessential Imagist poet.
H. D. has been recognized as a leading figure in the movement of Imagism and an important influence on modern poetry. Yet despite her prominent position in modern letters, several feminist critics have asserted that the critical neglect of her work is due to her gender and the fact that she wrote poetry about the struggles and concerns of women. Such scholars have praised her efforts to rescue women's stories from a masculine literary tradition, her questioning of masculine definitions of women, and her challenging of established gender roles. Commentators have also lauded her exploration of her own identity as a woman and author and her attempts to redefine literary traditions with a women's voice. In recent years, there has been increasing critical attention to H. D.'s oeuvre, particularly from feminist commentators. She has earned praise for her technical achievements, her poignant portrayals of her personal struggles, and the beauty of her work. H. D. has often been referred to as "the perfect Imagist" and is viewed as one of the major poets of the twentieth century.
Sea Garden (poetry) 1916
Hymen (poetry) 1921
Heliodora and Other Poems (poetry) 1924
Collected Poems of H. D. (poetry) 1925
Palimpsest (novel) 1926
Hedylus (novel) 1928
Red Roses for Bronze (poetry) 1931
Kora and Ka (novel) 1934
The Walls Do Not Fall (poetry) 1944
Tribute to the Angels (poetry) 1945
The Flowering of the Rod (poetry) 1946
By Avon River (poetry and prose) 1949
Tribute to Freud (memoir) 1956
Selected Poems of H. D. (poetry) 1957
Bid Me to Live (A Madrigal) (novel) 1960
Helen in Egypt (poetry and prose) 1961
* Hermetic Definition (poetry) 1972
Trilogy: The Walls Do Not Fall, Tribute to Angels, The Flowering of the Rod (poetry) 1973
† End to Torment: A Memoir of Ezra Pound (memoir) 1979
HERmione (memoir) 1981
The Gift (memoir) 1982
* This work includes the long poems Winter Love, Sagesse, and Vale Ave.
† This work includes "Hilda's Book," a collection of poems by Ezra Pound.
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SOURCE: Doolittle, Hilda. "Chapter One." In HERmione, pp. 3-8. New York: New Directions Publishing, 1981.
In the following excerpt from HERmione, a posthumously published novel, Doolittle opens the autobiographical work with a detailed inner portrait describing the mindset and torturous feelings experienced by protagonist Her (Hermione) Gart.
Her Gart went round in circles. "I am Her," she said to herself; she repeated, "Her, Her, Her," Her Gart tried to hold on to something; drowning she gasped, she caught at a smooth surface, her fingers slipped, she cried in her dementia. "I am Her, Her, Her," Her Gart had no word for her dementia, it was predictable by star, by star-sign, by year.
But Her Gart was then no prophet. She could not predict later common usage of uncommon syllogisms; "failure complex," "compensation reflex," and that conniving phrase "arrested development" had opened no door to her. Her development, forced along slippery lines of exact definition, marked supernorm, marked subnorm on some sort of chart or soul-barometer. She could not distinguish the supernorm, dragging her up from the subnorm, letting her down. She could not see the way out of marsh and bog. She said, "I am Hermione Gart precisely."
She said, "I...
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SOURCE: Friedman, Susan. "Who Buried H. D.?: A Poet, Her Critics, and Her Place in 'The Literary Tradition.'" College English 36, no. 7 (March 1975): 801-14.
In the following essay, Friedman contends that "as a woman writing about women, H. D. explored the untold half of the human story, and by that act she set herself outside of the established tradition."
H. D. is a major twentieth-century poet who all too often receives the response "H. D.?—who's he?" When people are reminded that "H. D." was the pen name for Hilda Doolittle, it is generally remembered that she was one of those imagist poets back in the beginning of the century who changed the course of modern poetry with their development of the "image" and free verse. Her early poems, like "Oread" or "Heat," still appear regularly in modern poetry anthologies, but the more difficult epic poetry she went on to write is seldom studied or taught. The canon of her major, largely unread work is considerable: The Walls Do Not Fall (1944), Tribute to the Angels (1945), and The Flowering of the Rod (1946) are the three long poems of her war Trilogy, which has recently been reissued; Helen in Egypt (1961) is the work she called her own "Cantos"; the newly published volume Hermetic Definition (1972) contains three more long poems, the title...
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SOURCE: Collecott, Diana. “Remembering Oneself: The Reputation and Later Poetry of H. D.” Critical Quarterly 27, no. 1 (spring 1985): 7-22.
In the following essay, Collecott investigates the critical neglect of H. D’s work and the poet’s recent rediscovery by female writers and critics.
Not to forget the forenames of presence. Labour: Clarice. The labour of un-forgetting, of un-silencing, of un-earthing, of unblinding and undeafening oneself …
—Hélène Cixous, Vivre l’Orange (1979)
For half a century there has been an absence among the poets of Anglo-American modernism. Its dominant voices have been those of men: T. S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, William Carlos Williams. H. D. (Hilda Doolittle Aldington, 1886-1961) belongs to this generation of writers and her career was closely associated with theirs, but in their company she has been forgotten, silenced. This silence was in part imposed from without, in part self-imposed.1 Until women writers and critics began the work of unearthing H. D.’s life and writings, she could be heard only faintly, through the texts of the men named above, seen distortedly through the partial accounts of some male critics.
Now an ‘un-forgetting’ is taking place. H. D.’s voice can be heard at...
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SOURCE: Rohrbach, Erika.“H. D. and Sappho: ‘A Precious Inch of Palimpsest.’” In Re-Reading Sappho: Reception and Transmission, edited by Ellen Greene, pp. 184-98. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1996.
In the following essay, Rohrbach examines H. D.’s identification with the classical female poet Sappho.
Like all deeply famous figures, Sappho keeps her anonymity. I do not mean this in the sense that Sappho is no one; rather, she could be anyone. Having borne witness to the 1890s ‘boom of interest in her, modernists were well aware of the interpretative leeway that Sappho’s ambiguous biography and minced verse grant readers. They saw in her a woman whose life had been erased, her poetry fragmented and written over, and yet whose style had been canonized. We think of modernist writers like H. D. and Richard Aldington, for whom the classical era represented the keystone of their own aesthetic, as attempting to rescue Sappho from centuries of scholarly misinterpretation and bad translation. But even though they set themselves up to be the archaeological Red Cross, these modernists knew that the “real” Sappho was an unrecoverable ideal. Hence, they explored the one aspect of study open to them: Sappho’s transmission through the ages.
I want to argue that H. D.’s identification with Sappho is primarily a...
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JOYCE LORRAINE BECK (ESSAY DATE SPRING 1982)
SOURCE: Beck, Joyce Lorraine. "Dea, Awakening: A Reading of H. D.'s Trilogy." San Jose Studies 8, no. 2 (spring 1982): 59-70.
In the following essay, Beck finds Trilogy to be a noteworthy feminist work because it exhibits an emerging spiritual consciousness and awareness embodied and symbolized in a central female figure, the Awakening Dea.
H. D., Hilda Doolittle Aldington, is best known as the co-founder—with T. E. Hulme, Ezra Pound, and others—of the pre-World War I English Imagist movement in poetry. However, while it has long been acknowledged that Pound, Eliot, and Williams moved beyond Imagism to more comprehensive and meaningful visions in Four Quartets, the Cantos, and Patterson, the longer and later "major works" of their female contemporary and colleague, H. D., have until recently gone largely unpraised, uncriticized, and unrecognized. Rachel Blau DuPlessis' essay "Romantic Thralldom in H. D.," which appeared in Contemporary Literature in the Spring of 1979, remains a convincing demonstration of how H. D.'s Helen in Egypt helps lead to a reconstructionist view of personal and human integrity, wholeness, or holiness which is relevant to, and present in, twentieth-century women, as well as men. Other...
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ALBERT GELPI (ESSAY DATE APRIL 1982)
SOURCE: Gelpi, Albert. "Hilda in Egypt." Southern Review 18, no. 2 (April 1982): 233-50.
In the following essay, Gelpi describes H. D.'s Helen in Egypt as "a final and climactic efflorescence of creative energy."
H. D. always wrote her own personal and psychological dilemma against and within the political turmoil of the twentieth century, the toils of love enmeshed in the convulsions of war. Her marriage to and separation from Richard Aldington turn on World War I, and that concatenation of private and public trauma stands behind the poems of Sea Garden, which sum up the Imagist concision of her first phase. The sequences of Trilogy, written through the London blitzes of World War II, usher in the longer, multivalent and more associative poems of her later years. The travail of aging and illness in her last years did not issue in the stoic silence which made Pound leave incomplete his life's work in the Cantos, but instead, as with William Carlos Williams, made for a final and climactic efflorescence of creative energy. The results were Helen in Egypt, published in 1961 almost concurrently with her death, and Hermetic Definition, published posthumously in 1972.
Even the reviewers who shied away from dealing...
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Boughn, Michael. H. D.: A Bibliography, 1905-1990. Charlottesville: Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia, 1993, 229 p.
Essential primary and secondary bibliography.
Guest, Barbara. Herself Defined: The Poet H. D. and Her World. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1984, 360 p.
Seeks to define the enigmatic life and work of H. D., providing a view into her lifelong search for self.
Buck, Claire. H. D. and Freud: Bisexuality and a Feminine Discourse. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1991, 195 p.
Thematic study of the links between sexuality and language in H. D.'s works.
Burnett, Gary. H. D. Between Image and Epic: The Mysteries of Her Poetics. Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press, 1990, 198 p.
Examines the poetry H. D. wrote between the World Wars.
Contemporary Literature 10, no. 4 (autumn 1969). Special issue devoted to H. D.'s works.
DiPace Fritz, Angela. Thought and Vision: A Critical Reading of H. D.'s Poetry. Washington, D.C.:...
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