Maupassant, (Henri René Albert) Guy de
(Henri René Albert) Guy de Maupassant 1850–1893
French short story writer, novelist, journalist, poet, dramatist, and travel writer.
For further information on Maupassant's complete career, see NCLC, Volume 1; for additional information on Maupassant's novel Pierre and Jean, see NCLC, Volume 42.
Maupassant is generally considered to be one of the masters of the short story and a champion of the realist approach to writing (though he resisted any identification with literary movements). He also authored six novels, a volume of poetry, a number of plays, three travel journals, and several journalistic pieces. Short-story writing, however, was clearly his strength—he produced over three hundred short stories from 1880 to 1890, the decade during which he penned the majority of his other works as well. He would have preferred fame as a novelist and likely would have garnered more critical attention if he had published more novels; critics have tended to regard the short story as a "lesser" form of literature. As a result, at least in part, Maupassant, though widely recognized outside his native country, usually has not been numbered among the most acclaimed of France's nineteenth-century prose writers—Gustave Flaubert, Emile Zola, and Honoré de Balzac. Maupassant drew upon his own day-to-day life experiences as material for his works, focusing on the peasants native to his homeland, the service of government employees, the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, and his own private hallucinations and feelings of dread.
Maupassant was born in Normandy, and both the setting and character of his childhood left a distinct impression on his life and work. His childhood home was a wealthy but unhappy one; his mother, though intelligent and educated, was prone to neuroses, and his father turned to other women for comfort. When Maupassant was twelve years old, his parents separated and he lived with his mother, seeing little of his father. The young Maupassant's cynicism regarding marriage seems to have stemmed from these early experiences and is evident in much of his work. His stories often center on the fate of a rejected woman and the children of an ill-fated liaison, exploring the problems of identity and the individual's place in a rigid social structure. In
1863 Maupassant's mother enrolled him in a Catholic boarding school, from which he was later expelled for the nature of the poetry he had written during what he called his "imprisonment." With the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, Maupassant left his law studies in Paris (which he had begun in 1869) to enlist in the army. His experiences during the war inform some of his finest short stories, expressing his disgust for the degradation and folly of war. After the war, he worked first in the Ministry of the Navy from 1872 to 1878, and then the Ministry of Public Education from 1878 to 1882. This experience provided the setting for many of his stories in which he depicted the hopeless, repetitious life of the civil servant. He regularly escaped the boredom of his work through encounters with women, often prostitutes. One of these encounters would prove fatal, as in 1877 he was diagnosed with syphilis, for which there was no known cure.
Maupassant devoted a great deal of time to writing during his tenure as a civil servant, writing plays, poetry, and narrative prose. Gustave Flaubert became his friend and mentor, helping him with his writing and introducing him to Flaubert's literary circles. After Flaubert's death, Maupassant became a regular contributor to Le Gaulois, a respected Paris newspaper, and eventually wrote for the periodicals Gil Blas and the Figaro as well, often using the pseudonyms Joseph Prunier, Guy de Valmont, and Maufrigneuse. After he left the ministry, his literary output increased dramatically, especially from 1883 to 1885, and he enjoyed much success. The syphilis he had contracted as a young man led to recurrent problems with his eyesight and eventually to a complete physical and emotional collapse. Struggling with bouts of a debilitating mental disorder, Maupassant attempted suicide in 1892 and was subsequently confined to a sanatorium in Passy until his death.
Perhaps the greatest influence on Maupassant's life and career was Flaubert, a childhood friend of his mother, who personally asked Flaubert to take her son under his wing. In the company of Flaubert and his literary friends, which included Ivan Turgenev, Alphonse Daudet, and Emile Zola, Maupassant was truly at the center of European thought, and his work bears its legacy. His first published story, "Boule de suif" (1880) was part of a collaborative effort, Les Soirées de Médan, which includes the work of several young French Naturalists under the influence and direction of Zola. The work proved a minor success for the young Naturalists, but Maupassant's story was so clearly superior to those of his fellow contributors that it established him immediately as a strong young talent in short fiction. He subsequently broke with the Naturalist school, turning instead to the precepts of the Realist school. These principles, forged by Flaubert, called for a scrupulous concern with form and a dedication to precision of detail and exact description. Maupassant also shared with his mentor a severe pessimism toward life, as well as a disdain for bourgeois values. Indeed, his work met with problems of censorship as early as 1880, and his poem "Au bord de l'eau," whose subject matter was, according to a fellow poet, "a very banal copulation," shocked and offended bourgeois sensibilities. Maupassant's prolific literary output has often been remarked upon, but he constantly reshaped and reworked his material, repeating scenes, descriptions, and vignettes from his journal pieces in his stories and novels.
Throughout Maupassant's lifetime and into the twentieth century, scholars and writers generally have been united in their favorable assessments of his work. Flaubert, Leo Tolstoy, and Anatole France all recognized his talent. Critics did, however, have concerns with some aspects of his work. Many early critics faulted his narration, which they found unaffected by emotion. In addition, they expressed ethical concerns with what appeared to be the erotic nature of his writing, and they disliked the way in which he presented human beings as being motivated by the basest instincts. Readers, however, have consistently found Maupassant's stories fascinating, and his works have been widely translated.
The novels Maupassant wrote are generally considered less consistently successful than his short stories, which in their diversity and quality mark him as one of the finest exponents of the genre. These stories are characterized by both the clarity of their prose and the objective irony of their presentation. To the realists' ideal of scrupulous diction Maupassant added an economy of language and created a narrative style outstanding in its austere power and simplicity. Many modern critics have found rich material for study in the women characters in his tales. Noting that fewer than sixty of Maupassant's stories have minor female characters or no female characters at all, critic Mary Donaldson-Evans (1986) concentrated on the connection between the role of women in the tales and the author's clear "contempt for the concept of God." Other critics have pointed out Maupassant's generally cynical view of women. Mary L. Poteau-Tralie (1995), for example, traced Maupassant's increasingly pessimistic portrayal of mothers, in particular; whereas his early tales contain a primarily idealistic vision of motherhood—referring to the role as "a unique and privileged position"—his later tales focus on horrific versions of motherhood, involving infanticide, sexual promiscuity, and madness. According to Poteau-Tralie, this increasingly negative characterization was directly related to Maupassant's deteriorating mental and physical health and his growing pessimistic view of the world in general. Studying the relationship between prostitutes and their primarily middle-class male clientele in Maupassant's tales, critic Charles J. Stivale (1994) argued that Maupassant subverted traditional social and gender hierarchies, as the women characters typically proved more powerful than the bond "between men."
Other twentieth-century critics have covered such subjects as the structure of Maupassant's stories and the erotic nature of Maupassant's tales. Angela S. Moger (1985), studying Maupassant's use of "framed" stories—a story within another story—contended that this embedded tale is actually the primary tale and maintained that Maupassant used this form to further influence the readers' response to the stories, equating the narrator of the embedded story with the external audience. Looking at the censorship issue relative to Maupassant's tales, P. W. M. Cogman (1997) pointed out that Maupassant's writings often mock those of his fellow writers who refused to refer to explicit matters—especially sexual ones. To create tension as well as amusement, Maupassant used both inhibited narrators who were hesitant to tell the tales, as well as narratees who expressed shock at the nature of the stories.
(With Robert Pinchon) A la feuille de rose: Maison turque [Turkish Brothel] (drama) 1877
Histoire du vieux temps [Story of the Old Days] (drama) 1879
*"Boule de suif" (short story) published in Les Soirées de Médan 1880
Des vers (poetry) 1880
La Maison Tellier [Madame Tellier's Establishment] (short stories) 1881
Mademoiselle Fifi (short stories) 1882
Contes de la bécasse [Stories of the Woodcock] (short stories) 1883
Clair de lune [Moonlight] (short stories) 1883
Une Vie [A Woman's Life] (novel) 1883
Au soleil [African Wanderings] (travel essays) 1884
Miss Harriett (short stories) 1884
Les Soeurs Rondoli [The Sisters Rondoli] (short stories) 1884
Yvette (short stories) 1884
Bel-Ami (novel) 1885
Contes du jour et de la nuit [Day and Night Stories] (short stories) 1885
Contes et nouvelles (short stories and novellas) 1885
Monsieur Parent (short stories) 1885
La Petite Roque (short stories) 1886
Toine (short stories) 1886
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SOURCE: "Narrative Structure in Maupassant: Frames of Desire," in PMLA, Vol. 100, No. 3, May, 1985, pp. 315–27.
[In the following essay, Moger discusses Maupassant's narrative technique of using "framed" stories, where the story within the story is actually the primary tale within the frame. To accomplish this effect, according to the critic, Maupassant used a secondary narrator—often a doctor-narrator—and allowed readers to be maneuvered into a reciprocal relationship with the story such that the tales are created as much by the reader as by the storyteller.]
Here we might refer to G. K. Chesterton's remark that a landscape without a frame means almost nothing, but that it only requires the addition of some border (a frame, a window, an arch) to be perceived as a representation. In order to perceive the world of the work of art as a sign system, it is necessary to designate its borders: it is precisely these borders which create the representation. In many languages the meaning of the word "represent" is etymologically related to the meaning of the word "limit."
Boris Uspensky, A Poetics of Composition
A provocative constant of Maupassant's narrative technique is the rapid introduction, within a slender containing narrative, of a narrator persona responsible for presenting the drama at the heart of the story. The...
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SOURCE: "Women and Religion," in A Woman's Revenge: The Chronology of Dispossession in Maupassant's Fiction, French Forum, Publishers, 1986, pp. 82–108.
[In the following excerpt, Donaldson-Evans examines Maupassant's skepticism of traditional religion through his portrayal of various feminine types, including the pious woman; the woman who identifies herself with the Divinity; the woman as Virgin Mother; the sadistic woman incapable of love; and the cruel mother.]
The disaffection for traditional religion that was prevalent at the end of the 19th century in France had many sources, literary, philosophical, scientific, historical. France's sobering defeat at the hands of the Prussians in the War of 1870 shattered French self-confidence; the horrors of the Commune even further shocked the nation and plunged her into an emotional depression from which she did not fully emerge until the end of the century. Marked by a resurgent interest in Romanticism's dark side,1 the literature of this period reflects the pessimism of the day, a faithless pessimism that found the roots of its disbelief in the determinism of Darwin and Taine, the cynicism of Schopenhauer and the tradition of blasphemy going back to Sade.
A superficial reading of Maupassant's work suggests that he was in perfect step with the fin-de-siècle skepticism preached by his contemporaries. The profanatory...
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SOURCE: "Maupassant's Journalism: The Conservative Anarchist," in Maupassant in the Hall of Mirrors: Ironies of Repetition in the Work of Guy de Maupassant, St. Martin's Press, 1990, pp. 25–36.
[In the following essay, Harris focuses on Maupassant's journalistic writings, pointing out how understanding Maupassant's nostalgia for the past (including his elitism and nationalism) and his perceptions of scientific progress is essential in evaluating his narrative technique.]
In 'Adieu mystères', an article published in 1881, Maupassant argues that poetry draws its power from the unknown. Comparing the latter to 'une épaisse et redoutée forêt', Maupassant implores would-be poets to work quickly, since, 'Ô poètes, vous n'avez plus qu'un coin de forêt où nous conduire'.1 This race against time is prompted by the advance of modern science, which drives the unknown before it. In an intriguing inversion of Herbert Spencer's famous image, Maupassant implies that human contact with the unknown is finite and that it decreases with the expansion of knowledge. It is clear that, for Maupassant, a watershed has been reached. He intimates that poets are hard-pressed to compete with men of science, whose thrilling discoveries and inventions reduce the artist's exploitation of the unknown to a rather feeble rivalry. Maupassant mocks and yet sympathises with poets, claiming that 'vos pauvres fantômes...
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SOURCE: "Figures of Male Repute," in The Art of Rupture: Narrative Desire and Duplicity in the Tales of Guy de Maupassant, University of Michigan Press, 1994, pp. 111-41.
[In the following excerpt, Stivale examines Maupassant's portrayal of the struggle between prostitutes and their environment through their relationships with les hommesfilles (men-harlots). The critic does this in three ways: by analyzing Maupassant's depiction of registered prostitutes; by studying the interactions between filles (prostitutes) and hommes filles; and by considering how women are depicted as "other" (for example, the lesbian woman, the exotic woman, or the anonymous woman).]
Maupassant's strategic maneuvers of narrative desire and duplicity situate the social type that he calls I'hommefille as an ambiguous agent in various scenarios of the art of rupture. Writing in the Gil Blas, where he also published such chroniques as "Politiciennes" ["Women politicians"] and "La Guerre," Maupassant seems implicitly to identify himself, through his narrator, with this group given that "the most irritating of the species is assuredly the Parisian and the boulevardier" ("L'Homme-fille," CSS 715; CN 1:757).1 In this chapter, I wish to examine such scenarios within tales of the war-machine that functions to degrade women of the demimonde and grand monde...
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SOURCE: "Violating a Sacred Bond: Monstrous Mothers on Trial," in Voices of Authority: Criminal Obsession in Guy de Maupassant's Short Works, Peter Lang, 1995, pp. 45-87.
[In the following excerpt, Poteau-Tralie traces the portrayal of the mother in Maupassant's works—focusing on the "good" mother, the criminal mother, the monstrous mother, and the "unnatural" mother—within the context of prevailing nineteenth-century thought; Maupassant's childhood; his thoughts on God, religion, and children; and his worldview.]
Maupassant paints a generally cynical picture of women in his fiction; however, one type of woman enjoys a unique and privileged position: the mother. There is a definite evolutionary process from the earliest short stories in which an idealization of the concept of motherhood is placed upon a pedestal, to the increasingly pessimistic portrayal of mothers which marks the final works. One could argue that Maupassant's relationship with his own mother, Laure Le Poittevin de Maupassant, caused him to dwell on the maternal figure and to find in her a constant source of inspiration. Maupassant's parents separated when he was quite young, leaving him only occasional contact with his father. His mother became the focal point of his life and the driving force behind his work. Much has been written regarding the extent of Laure's influence in Guy's life:...
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SOURCE: "Maupassant's Inhibited Narrators," in Neophilologus, Vol. 81, No. 1, January, 1997, pp. 35-47.
[In the following essay, Cogman discusses how Maupassant, in his disgust for censorship of any kind, demonstrated his desire to expose the shocking and the explicit (especially with regard to sexual matters) in his work.]
"Ça se fait, tout le monde le sait, mais ça ne se dit pas, sauf nécessité."
Hautot père et fils1
Early in his writing career, Maupassant had (like Flaubert before him) difficulties with the public censorship of the written word at the time. His poem Une Fille had been threatened with prosecution for "outrage à la morale publique et religieuse et aux bonnes moeurs" in 1880, and in 1883 Hachette had briefly banned Une Vie from sale on railway bookstalls. It is therefore not surprising to find him expressing vigorously opposition to censorship in his correspondence and his chroniques. He may be ready, as a writer seeking to live from his works and adjusting accordingly, to adapt his expression to the different constraints of newspapers and the greater freedom of publication in volume, and to angle different stories to different outlets,2 though without compromising his vision.3 Aware that the nouvelle L'Héritage might be a bit "vive" for the...
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Lerner, Michael G. Maupassant. New York: George Braziller, 1975, 301 p.
Biography of Maupassant. Includes discussion of his period's social and literary evolution and how it affected his development as a writer.
Abamine, E. P. "German-French Sexual Encounters of the Franco-Prussian War Period in the Fiction of Guy de Maupassant." CLA Journal 32, No. 3 (March 1989): 323-34.
Considers the sexual aspect of the German military occupation of France following the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71) in three of Maupassant's stories—"Boule de suif," "Mademoiselle Fifi," and "Le Lit 29."
Bolster, Richard. "The Patriotic Prostitutes of Maupassant: Fact or Fantasy?" French Studies Bulletin, No. 51 (Summer 1994): 16-17.
Briefly discusses the connection between Maupassant's characterization of the patriotic French prostitute in his works and a newspaper article published during the Franco-Prussian War.
Bowles, Thelma. "The Stacked Deck: A Study of Technique in Maupassant's Novels." Romance Notes 36, No. 1 (Fall 1985): 55-62.
Using Maupassant's six novels, argues that although the characters seem to exist in a realistic...
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