The Gulag Archipelago is a modern epic. It is not a scholarly history and it is not fiction, though it is to an extent fictionalized. Denied the tools of the historian (he was forbidden paper and pencil during his entire sentence, and he had no access to libraries or government archives), Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn was forced to rely on his memory to store nearly all the material that makes up this massive, eighteen-hundred-page work. Accepting Solzhenitsyn’s metaphor of the gulag as its own nation of islands within the Soviet Union, one might say that he single-handedly constructed the literature of the gulag.
Using his own experiences as a narrative thread tying together the stories he heard from other zeks, he manages to weave a tapestry depicting the cruelty and sorrow of the Soviet penal system. That tapestry is vast and filled with horrors. Few people in the West realize that Stalin’s victims, perhaps as many as thirty million, far outnumbered Hitler’s. In addition to the innocent millions murdered in the camps and in the prisons, fifteen million peasants died as a result of a single national program: the brutal resettlement that established the Soviet Union’s network of collective farms. Solzhenitsyn’s own story seems innocuous by comparison. He was but lightly tortured during interrogation; other prisoners were starved, beaten, or shot. Many women prisoners were raped. He served a single eight-year sentence; other prisoners had extra “tenners” given them for minor infractions of camp rules. He hoodwinked his captors and so spent half his sentence in the relative comfort of a sharashka; other prisoners served ten, fifteen, or even twenty years—though few survived that long—in Siberian hard labor camps. Nevertheless, his story is the thread by which the others are bound. All the political prisoners in the gulag suffered under a penal code that was administrative rather than legislative. The People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs established three-person Special Boards throughout the Soviet Union, with the power to imprison and execute “socially dangerous” people without trial. These Special Boards, abolished after Stalin’s death in 1953, applied their own criminal code containing eleven indictable offenses ranging from “anti-Soviet agitation” to “nurturing anti-Soviet feelings” to...
(The entire section is 964 words.)