The Country (Encyclopedia of Global Resources)
Greece is a small, mountainous country occupying the southern portion of the Balkan Peninsula in southeastern Europe. It has a deeply indented coastline, and its more than 1,400 islands and islets make up about one-fifth of its area. Once very weak, Greece’s economy has expanded considerably since the middle of the twentieth century, thanks in large part to economic aid from other countries, trade with the rest of Europe and the Middle East, and a steadily increasing influx of tourists. The rapid industrialization that the country has experienced since the 1970’s has encouraged a shift of population from rural areas to cities and has created serious air and water pollution.
In 2008, Greece had an estimated gross domestic product (GDP) in purchasing power parity of $343.6 billion, making it the thirty-third or thirty-fourth largest economy in the world and the eleventh largest in Europe. Greece joined the European Union (EU) in 1981, and in 2008, its per capita GDP was estimated to be thirty-two thousand dollars, which was fourteen hundred dollars below the average of the European Union. Manufacturing accounts for approximately one-fifth of its GDP, with service industries accounting for most of the remainder. The value of the country’s exports is only about one-third of the value of its imports.
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Bauxite, Alumina, and Aluminum (Encyclopedia of Global Resources)
Greece possesses Europe’s largest known deposits of bauxite, the mixture of minerals from which aluminum is indirectly refined. bauxite is regarded as the only naturally occurring material that the country exploits at full capacity. Greece is believed to have reserves of more than 100 million metric tons of bauxite, with most of the deposits concentrated along the central mountain region of Parnassus-Giona-Helikon and on the country’s second largest island, Euboea, in the western Aegean Sea. Both underground and open-pit mines are operated.
Greece mined an estimated 2.16 million metric tons of bauxite in 2007, while its output of alumina, which represents an intermediate stage in the production of aluminum, reached an estimated 780,000 metric tons the same year. The combined value of its exports of bauxite, alumina, and related materials was $152 million in 2007. Greece is the largest supplier of bauxite in the European Union, although its increasing ability to produce its own aluminum has led to greater domestic consumption of bauxite and alumina.
Bauxites Parnasse Mining Company pioneered the extraction of bauxite in Greece in 1933. However, only with the creation of Aluminum of Greece S.A. did the nation’s production of the metal itself begin. Aluminum of Greece—a combine headed by the French-owned firm Pechiney and involving the American company Reynolds Metals as well as public and private...
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Perlite (Encyclopedia of Global Resources)
According to published figures, Greece produces more perlite than any other nation on earth, turning out an estimated 1.65 million metric tons of the material in crude and screened forms in 2007. Perlite is a volcanic glass whose particles expand to many times their original sizes when heated and is used extensively in construction, horticulture, and industry. It has also proven useful in dispersing oil spills at sea. Perlite is found associated with sites of ancient volcanic activity in the northeastern region of Thrace and on several islands in the southern Aegean Sea, including Melos, Kos, and Gyali—the last of which is also a major source of pumice.
S&B is the country’s (and the world’s) largest miner of perlite. The company maintains several open-pit facilities on Melos, where it discovered deposits in 1954 and opened the continent’s largest facility in 1975. It operates another mine on Kos. The company exports most of its production to Europe, North America (where Armstrong Industries is a major customer), and Asia. Smaller producers include S&B subsidiary Otavi Mines Hellas S.A., with operations on Melos, and Aegean Perlites S.A., on Gyali. Easy access to inexpensive transportation by ship has helped these companies maintain an international price advantage. Thanks to a project sponsored by the European Union, the expansion process necessary to perlite’s commercial utilization has also been greatly enhanced...
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Bentonite and Kaolin (Encyclopedia of Global Resources)
Greece produces more bentonite than any other country in Europe and is second in world production only to the United States. Its total output (crude and processed) amounted to an estimated 952,500 metric tons in 2007, nearly 9 percent of the world’s total. Bentonite is a clay utilized in iron ore pelletizing, in foundering, as a binding agent in cement and adhesives, and in pet litter. The material is usually formed from the weathering of volcanic ash, and deposits are found on Melos and, to a lesser extent, the island of Cimolus. It is mined from the surface in both locations.
As is the case with many of the country’s other minerals, the bentonite market is dominated by S&B, which absorbed the second largest bentonite mining operation on Melos, Mykobar Mining Company S.A., in 1999. Mediterranean Bentonite S.A. also operates a small surface mine on Melos, but S&B accounts for about 85 percent of the country’s production. Most is exported to other countries of the European Union and to North America.
Greece also possesses deposits of a second type of clay, kaolin, near Drama in the northeastern part of the country. The country produced an estimated 60,300 metric tons of kaolin in 2007, but because of its inferior nature, it was used only domestically in cement and ceramic glazes.
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Nickel (Encyclopedia of Global Resources)
The common, industrially important element nickel is utilized primarily in the manufacture of stainless steel and other alloys. Greece mined an estimated 2.7 million metric tons of nickel ore in 2007, a level it had maintained more or less unchanged over the preceding several years. The country is thought to have nickel reserves of 250 million metric tons, with deposits concentrated on the Aegean island of Euboea, on the mainland near Larimna opposite Euboea, and in northwestern Greece near the Albanian border. Deposits in the first two regions are “transported,” or secondary, meaning that they have been eroded and redeposited in new locations by natural forces—a situation that makes for easier extraction. The deposits of ore in the north evolved in place, and while they are more difficult to mine, they contain a higher content of nickel.
Greece’s primary nickel producer (and one of the largest in the world) is the state-controlled General Mining and Metallurgical Company S.A. (LARCO), which was founded in 1963 and operates complexes of underground, open-pit, and closed-pit mines. Its oldest operation is at Agios Ioannis near Larimna, the ore from which it began smelting in 1966. The company’s mines in Euboea went into operation three years later. Today LARCO is one of the world’s largest producers of iron-nickel alloys and exports to a number of steel manufacturers in Western Europe.
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Magnesite and Huntite (Encyclopedia of Global Resources)
Magnesite ore and its various processed forms—“dead burned” magnesia, calcined magnesite, and so on—have a variety of uses, including the manufacture of refractories (the linings of furnaces and the like) and synthetic rubber. The ore is also one of the sources of the important industrial metal magnesium. High-grade deposits of magnesite are found in the Chalcidice peninsula in the northern part of Greece as well as in Euboea, but the latter deposits were not exploited after 1999.
Greece produced more than 3 percent of the world supply of the material in 2007, an estimated 628,000 metric tons. Grecian Magnesite S.A. is the only active producer in Greece and the largest in the European Union. The company operates open-pit mines near Yerakina, where it also crushes and processes the magnesite into various application-specific grades, and exports virtually all its production to other European Union countries.
Deposits of the related mineral huntite are found in the Kozáni basin in the northern province of Macedonia (not to be confused with the Republic of Macedonia). It is used in paper coatings and sealants and as a component of flame retardants. Greece is virtually the only commercial source for huntite and produced an estimated 18,000 metric tons of the mineral in 2007, most of it for export. White Minerals S.A. and Microfine Hellas S.A. are the two producers.
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Greece is the second largest source of pumice in the world, producing an estimated 960,000 metric tons in 2007. The light, highly porous volcanic glass is used in horticulture and, particularly outside the United States, as aggregate in construction. pumice is found on several Greek islands in the southern Aegean Sea. It was once mined on Thíra (also known as Santorini), but today the only extraction taking place is on the island of Gyali, where pumice was deposited approximately 200,000 years ago by a volcano on the nearby island of Nísiros. lava Mining and Quarrying Company, a subsidiary of Heracles General Cement, is Greece’s only pumice producer as well as the largest pumice exporter in the world. The company quarries the pumice without the use of explosives and loads ships by means of a complex series of conveyor belts.
Lava Mining also quarries and distributes other industrial materials associated with ancient volcanic activity. It extracts pozzolanic rock at Xylokeratia on Melos and gypsum at Altsi on the island of Crete, with the bulk of its production of both materials going into the domestic manufacture of cement. The microcrystalline quartz it quarries on Melos is used in glass and ceramics.
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Lignite (Encyclopedia of Global Resources)
Lignite, or brown coal, is Greece’s only important natural fuel source, and it accounts for about 60 percent of the country’s power generation. The country is the second largest producer of the material in the European Union (after Germany) and the fourth largest in the world. Greece is thought to possess reserves of nearly 7 billion metric tons of lignite in more than forty widely scattered basins, the largest of which is in Macedonia. Lignite is an inferior grade of coal, and the deposits in the Megalópolis region in the Peloponnese Peninsula are of particularly poor quality. A large deposit in the Drama basin is also of poor quality and remains relatively unexploited. Greece produced an estimated 74 million metric tons of the material in 2007, most of it from open pits.
Virtually all Greek lignite is mined by Public Power Corporation (PPC) S.A., which was founded in 1951 to exploit the reserves in Aliveri on the island of Euboea. A second company, Ptolemais Lignite Mines (LIPTOL), undertook a larger operation to extract the material from the Ptolemais deposit in the Pindus Mountains of northern Greece, eventually leading to one of the most substantial lignite mining and processing operations in the world. PPC acquired 90 percent of LIPTOL in 1959, and the two merged in 1975. PPC owns rights to about 60 percent of Greece’s known lignite reserves, using most of the material itself. The company, which is state-controlled,...
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Other Resources (Encyclopedia of Global Resources)
Greece possesses modest deposits of gold, silver, chromite, lead, barite, and zinc. S&B has been active in identifying further deposits of gold, and Thracean Gold Mines S.A. (of which S&B is a part-owner) discovered a substantial deposit in Thrace in 1998.
A small oil field in the northern Aegean Sea has been exploited since 1981. Discovered by the American firm Oceanic and developed by the North Aegean petroleum Company (NAPC)—a consortium headed by Denison Mines of Canada—the field reached a maximum production of 30,000 barrels per day (bpd) in 1989. However, production has fallen, while the country’s dependence on foreign petroleum has grown. In 2004, a larger field in the same area was identified west of the island of Thásos. Believed to contain approximately 227 million barrels, it is being developed by Kavala Oil S.A. and Energiaki S.A. and may reach production levels of 50,000 bpd.
Marble has been quarried throughout Greece for millennia, and the country produced an estimated 150,000 cubic meters of the stone in various sizes of cuts in 2007. The major suppliers are Aghia Marina Marble Ltd., with quarries at Pallini, and Chris G. Karantanis & Sons Company at Corinth. Greece also produced about 60,000 metric tons of dolomite and 95,000 metric tons of flysch in 2007. Salt production yielded an estimated 195,000 metric tons the same year.
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Further Reading (Encyclopedia of Global Resources)
Arvanitidis, Nikos. “Northern Greece’s Industrial Minerals: Production and Environmental Technology Developments.” Journal of Geochemical Exploration 62, nos. 1-3 (1998): 217-227.
Couloumbis, Theodore A., Theodore Kariotis, and Fotini Bellou, eds. Greece in the Twentieth Century. New York: Frank Cass, 2003.
Curtis, Glenn E., ed. Greece: A Country Study. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress; Headquarters, Department of the Army, 1995.
Grossou-Valta, M., and F. Chalkiopoulou. “Industrial Minerals and Sustainable Development in Greece.” In Mineral Resource Base of the Southern Caucasus and Systems for Its Management in the Twenty-first Century, edited by Alexander G. Tvalchrelidze and Georges Morizot. Boston: Kluwer Academic, 2002.
Hatzilazaridou, Kiki. “A Review of Greek Industrial Minerals.” In Industrial Minerals and Extractive Industry Geology, edited by Peter W. Scott and Colin Malcolm Bristow. London: Geological Society, 2002.
Kavouridis, Konstantinos. “Lignite Industry in Greece Within a World Context: Mining, Energy Supply, and Environment.” Energy Policy 36, no. 4 (2008): 1257-1272.
Kennedy, Bruce A. Surface Mining. Littleton, Colo.: Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, 1990.
Kogel, Jessica Elzea, et al. Industrial Minerals and Rocks: Commodities,...
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Greece (International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis)
Reference to the history of psychoanalysis in Greece lends itself to reflection along two different lines.
First, there is the history of eventshat is, the diachronic line of events that, between 1915 and the 1980s and 1990s, sustained the slow (and somewhat difficult, owing to discontinuities) establishment of a framework for the psychoanalytic movement in Greece, with all of the consequences, both positive and negative, that such a framework entailed for psychoanalytic circles. This chronology shows that, around 1920, a circle of intellectuals and teachers were actively studying the works of Sigmund Freud and publishing on practices in psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. However, the official medical community and the broader public remained indifferent or even hostile to these currents of thought.
The active presence of Princess Marie Bonaparte in Athens beginning in 1946 seemed to offer a way of changing things. The interest of academics and doctors was mobilized on the occasion of a visit by Anna Freud, who was invited to Athens in 1949, but this lasted only for the short duration of her stay. Only two psychiatrists, Démétrios Kouretas and Georges Zavitzianos; a poet, Andreas Embirikos; and a physician, Nicolas Dracoulides, were interested in pursuing more in-depth psychoanalytic training. These four men formed a working group, and, supported by Marie Bonaparte, were accepted as members of the Société psychanalytique de Paris (Psychoanalytic Society of Paris) in 1950. However, the group was to be short-lived: It disbanded a year later, the four analysts having chosen to settle in three different countries.
After the end of World War II and the civil war that ravaged Greece, the creation of a few institutional, psychodynamically oriented mental health centers made it feasible to organize lecture series, seminars, and group discussions in Athens; these developments seemed to portend a possible new beginning for analytic work. Colleagues from abroaderge Lebovici was the firstere prepared to offer assistance, beginning in 1957. Three Greek analysts working in different areasouretas at the University of Athens, Pangiotis Sakellaropoulos at the Center of Thétokos, and Anna Potamianou at the Center for Mental Health and Researchrovided the impetus, as hopes for a new beginning took shape. And once again, the central figures comprised two psychiatrists and one person from outside of that field.
Numerous attempts to ensure sustained and systematic collaboration did not yield results. It was not until 1982, after countless efforts and failures, and with the help of a group of analysts who had trained overseas (Athena Alexandris, Pierre Hartocollis, Stavroula Beratis), that a "Greek psychoanalytic group" gained formal recognition as a study group of the International Psychoanalytic Association (IPA). This group, which includes four teaching analysts, ten members, eight corresponding members, and twenty-six candidates, was designated by election as an IPA member society in 2001.
Between 1989 and 1995, two groups inspired by the work of Jacques Lacan, the Freudian Praxis, and the Athenian Circle of the European School of Psychoanalysis, as well as another group whose members wished to remain independent of any school, were formed. Still two other groups follow the teachings of Alfred Adler. Thus, the diachronic axis in Greece reveals considerable oscillation between forward movement and movements of regression-repetition, attesting to an unconscious, but definite, fidelity to Freudian thought in connection with the psychic trajectory of individuals and groups.
A second line of reflection brings out even more clearly the similarities between the course of development of psychoanalysis in Greece and the very essence of the Freudian Logos. Marked by a convergence between the Jewish soul and the Hellenistic spirit, Freud's thought engraved a path of complementary opposites and constraints that mirrors the history of psychoanalysis in Greece. That history, it seems, is the fruit of conflicts whose unexpected violence often astonished spectators; it is also the result of harsh schisms and mutilating projections, the revelatory details of which can be found in the writings of those involved in its difficult and laborious gestation.
Opposition and indifference arose within the group; analysts departed to seek training abroad. There were abortive attempts, productive convergences, jolts, and contacts. It is certain that the development of psychoanalysis was not exempt from tumultuous adventures in any country. However, it is equally certain that in this land that engendered what for Freud doubled as the alien element of the unconscioushat is, the discourse and myths of the ancient Greekshe constraint of rejection and exclusion of analytic thought exerted its influence for too long. There are a variety of reasons for this, and they have been studied and discussed by such authors as Gerosimos Stephanotos, Athanase and Hélène Tzavaras and Anna Potamianou. Currently, this constraint has been eased somewhat. For Freud, the journey leading to Athens was not easy; the price he paid in terms of his autoanalysis was considerable. For Greek analysts today, there is certainly a price to be paid so that analysis may "be" in their country.
With regard to publications in Greek: Kouretas and Zavitzianos published numerous works, mainly concerning clinical practice and applied psychoanalysis. More recently, Greek psychoanalysts have mostly tended to publish in the language in which they received their training (English, French, or German), but numerous articles and several books, including four collaboratively written volumes, have also been written in Greek.
Potamianou, Anna. (1988). Episkepsis: Pensées autour de la visite d'Anna Freud à Athènes. Revue internationale d'histoire de la psychanalyse, 1, 247-254.
Stephanatos, Gerosimos. (1992). Un pari sous l'Acropole. Bulletin d'information du Quatrieme Groupe. 12, 56-63.
Tzavaras, Athanase. (1993). Psychanalyse "et" Grèceix ans après. IOevue Internationale de Psychanalyse, 4, 157-162.
Tzavaras, Hélène. (1993). Oedipe ou Ulysse? Identité et filiation de la psychanalyse en Grèce. IOevue Internationale de Psychanalyse, 4, 87-93.
Tzavaras, Hélène, and Tzavaras, Athanase. (1995). Au pays d'Oedipe. Panoramiques, 22, 156-158.