A Good Man Is Hard to Find, Flannery O'Connor
"A Good Man Is Hard to Find" O'Connor, Flannery
(Full name Mary Flannery O'Connor) American short story writer, novelist, and essayist.
The following entry presents criticism of O'Connor's story "A Good Man Is Hard to Find," first published in her 1955 collection A Good Man Is Hard to Find, and Other Stories. See also Flannery O'Connor Short Story Criticism.
Considered one of O'Connor's best short stories, "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" depicts the callous murder of a family by a group of escaped convicts led by a notorious killer called The Misfit. The story is noted for its religious aspects, in particular O'Connor's penchant for depicting salvation through a shocking, often violent experience undergone by characters who are spiritually or physically grotesque. Commentators have praised "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" for O'Connor's effective use of local color and the rich comic detail of her Southern milieu, as well as her ability to record with a keen ear the idiosyncratic dialect of characters such as the grandmother and The Misfit.
Plot and Major CharactersThe opening scene of "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" introduces us to an unappealing family: a vain and manipulative grandmother, her taciturn son Bailey, his passive wife and baby, and their difficult children, June Star and John Wesley. The family plans to travel on vacation from their home in Georgia to the state of Florida. Alarmed by newspaper accounts of an escaped convict, The Misfit, the grandmother attempts to persuade the family to change their vacation destination away from the vicinity of the fugitive. Derided for her concern, she responds by concealing her cat in the car against her son's wishes. During their long trip through Georgia the grandmother relates the story of a nearby plantation house with a secret panel. The story fires the children's interest, consequently forcing Bailey to take a unplanned detour down a rough dirt road in search of the house. Suddenly, the grandmother realizes that her memory has deceived her. In her acute embarrassment, she involuntarily releases the cat from its hiding place, causing Bailey to lose control of the car. As the family members struggle to free themselves from the ensuing wreck, three men in an ominous black car appear on the horizon. The grandmother's blurted recognition of The Misfit seals her family's fate and, in spite of her desperate attempts to win the convict's confidence, each is taken separately into the woods and shot. Left alone with The Misfit, the grandmother tries to bargain for her life by calling on him to pray. He responds by complaining that Jesus offers him no choice between blind faith or violent nihilism, and his pain unexpectedly moves the grandmother to a feeling of kinship. As she reaches out to touch him, however, he reacts by shooting her three times in the chest.
With rare, but significant, exceptions most critics accept O'Connor's description of "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" as a tale of redemptive grace in a fallen world. The story's religious concerns are expressed through a series of motifs and emblems, cleverly muted by O'Connor's superficially naturalistic style. Critics point to the disastrous detour into the dark woods of error, for example, as a traditional theme in Christian exempla, from Dante's Divine Comedy to Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress. The Misfit himself typifies the existential despair and guilt of the fallen sinner. As many commentators argue, the grandmother's epiphanic recognition of her kinship with the desperate figure belatedly redeems her from a life that has been petty, materialistic, and selfish. Her child-like expression as she collapses with crossed legs into her own grave has been suggested as a symbol of her sudden accession to Christian grace.
"A Good Man Is Hard to Find" is regarded as one of O'Connor's best stories and has drawn much critical attention. Most discussions of "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" have focused on the story's extreme violence. O'Connor herself justified the use of terror to shock spiritually complacent modern readers: "To the hard of hearing you shout and for the almost blind you draw large and startling figures." While many critics accept this rationalization, others are less comfortable with the story's abrupt descent into brutality. For some commentators, the jarring shift from comedy to tragedy takes unfair advantage of a group of characters whose depiction verges on caricature. More recent interpretations of the tale range from structural and political analysis to an examination of its classical and medieval literary influences.
SOURCE: "A Reasonable Use of the Unreasonable," in Mystery and Manners: Occasional Prose, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1969, pp. 107-14.
[In the following lecture given at Hollins College, Virginia, on October 14, 1963, O'Connor discusses the function of violence in "A Good Man Is Hard to Find. "]
Last fall I received a letter from a student who said she would be "graciously appreciative" if I would tell her "just what enlightenment" I expected her to get from each of my stories. I suspect she had a paper to write. I wrote her back to forget about the enlightenment and just try to enjoy them. I knew that was the most unsatisfactory answer I could have given because, of course, she didn't want to enjoy them, she just wanted to figure them out.
In most English classes the short story has become a kind of literary specimen to be dissected. Every time a story of mine appears in a Freshman anthology, I have a vision of it, with its little organs laid open, like a frog in a bottle.
I realize that a certain amount of this what-is-the-significance has to go on, but I think something has gone wrong in the process when, for so many students, the story becomes simply a problem to be solved, something which you evaporate to get Instant Enlightenment.
A story really isn't any good unless it successfully resists paraphrase, unless it hangs on and expands in the...
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SOURCE: "Advertisements for Grace: Flannery O'Connor's 'A Good Man Is Hard to Find'," in Studies in Short Fiction, Vol. IV, No. 1, Fall, 1966, pp. 19-37.
[In the following essay, Marks analyzes "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" as religious allegory.]
As a narrative stylist, Flannery O'Connor belongs, however peripherally, to a Pauline or Augustinian tradition extending from Langland to Bunyan and Hawthorne. Her tastes for gothicism, allegory, and regional setting derive from that special admiration for The House of the Seven Gables evident in so many important Southern writers from Faulkner to Truman Capote. The mingled scorn and sorrow with which Hawthorne faced the decline of New England, his ambivalent attitude towards Puritanism, and his dubious hopefulness about America's spiritual future find echoes throughout Miss O'Connor's stories of Evangelical awakening amid the scattered ashes of plantation Georgia. In "The Fiction Writer and Her Country," she makes this statement about writers in the South:
The anguish that most of us have observed for some time now has been caused not by the fact that the South is alienated from the rest of the country, but by the fact that it is not alienated enough, that every day we are getting more and more like the rest of the country, that we are being forced out, not only of our many sins, but out of our few virtues....
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SOURCE: "Miss Flannery's 'Good Man'," in The Denver Quarterly, Vol. III, No. 3, Autumn, 1968, pp. 1-19.
[In the following essay, Montgomery explores the spiritual aspects of "A Good Man Is Hard to Find. "]
And if Christ is not risen, then is our preaching vain, and your faith is also vain
I. Corinthians 15:14
I'm going to preach there was no Fall because there was nothing to fall from and no Redemption because there was no Fall and no Judgment because there wasn't the first two. Nothing matters but that Jesus was a liar.
Hazel Motes, in Wise Blood
The Dragon is by the side of the road, watching those who pass. Beware lest he devour you. We go to the Father of Souls, but it is necessary to pass by the Dragon.
Epigram to "A Good Man Is Hard to Find," from St. Cyril of Jerusalem
In an interview at the Vanderbilt Literary Symposium in April, 1959, speaking of the technical difficulties she had as a fiction writer, given the handicap that is hers as a Christian writer, Flannery O'Connor remarked:
I think it is easier to come out with something that is negative because it is just nearer fallen nature. You have to strain for the other, strenuously, too....
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SOURCE: "Flannery O'Connor and Southern Literature," in The World of Flannery O'Connor, Indiana University Press, 1970, pp. 147-51.
[Hendin is an American educator and critic. In the following excerpt, she compares The Misfit to other violent characters in Southern literature.]
While, from a statistical point of view considering annual income, national origin, and religion, some of O'Connor's heroes could wander into [Faulkner's fictional setting of] Yoknapatawpha, one senses they would find it totally alien. Faulkner and Styron build their countries out of the South's greatest literary virtue: its ability to lag behind the rest of America in giving up the romantic sense of the hero and of history. O'Connor and Capote have abandoned the South's most distinctive concerns. Whether by choice or default, they write out of the mainstream of the American consciousness, In their murder scenes, a framework of meaning, if it exists at all, has receded into so remote a distance that it provides no scale of value. While [Faulkner's] Christmas and [Styron's] Turner transcend a life of ambivalence and ambiguity, make of their murders and death a resolution of significance to them and to us, the fate of [O'Connor's] the Misfit and Motes, of [Capote's] Smith and Hickock, remains irrelevant in a larger sense, even to them.
Smith, Motes, and the Misfit can connect nothing with nothing. They are...
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SOURCE: "Theme and Setting in 'A Good Man Is Hard to Find'," in Renascence, Vol. XXIV, No. 4, Summer, 1972, pp. 177-80, 206.
[In the following essay, Kropf surveys the major themes of "A Good Man Is Hard to Find. "]
The Criticism of Flannery O'Connor's work has failed to throw any considerable light on one of her most popular stories, "A Good Man Is Hard to Find." To a large extent critics of Miss O'Connor have been preoccupied with the religious meaning of her symbols and the relation of her stories to Catholic doctrine. To a degree such a preoccupation is obviously valid; Miss O'Connor's own comments in "The Fiction Writer and His Country" to the effect that "I see from the standpoint of Christian orthodoxy" have encouraged commentators on her works to bring to their task the assumption, rarely qualified or explained, that as Thomas A. Lorch has written "Flannery O'Connor was a Catholic writer, and she expressed her religious vision in her art" [Critique, 1968]. The reader of such criticism, however, is led to the unfortunate conclusion that her religious vision is all that Miss O'Connor's art contains. This specialized doctrinaire approach I take to be responsible for the critical failure to appreciate the complexity of Miss O'Connor's artistic achievement in her works as a whole, and in "A Good Man" in particular, which as the title story of the volume in which it appears would seem to...
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SOURCE: "Belief and the Tonal Dimension," in The Question of Flannery O'Connor, Louisiana State University, 1973, pp. 18-36.
[Stephens is an American critic. In the following excerpt, she examines the abrupt shift from comedy to tragedy in "A Good Man Is Hard to Find. "]
"A Good Man Is Hard to Find" divides, in terms of the time it encompasses, into two parts. The opening page of the story describes the grandmother's attempt to get the family to go to Tennessee instead of Florida on their vacation; this serves as a kind of brief prologue to the rest of the tale, all of which takes place the following day as the family begins its fatal trip to Florida. The trip itself then divides into two parts of its own. The first part—the morning ride through middle Georgia with the grandmother and children reacting to the sights along the roadside and the grandmother entertaining the children with stories of her girlhood—is climaxed by a highly entertaining scene at Red Sam's Barbecue. The second part of the story may be said to begin, as the family starts out again after lunch, with the grandmother's suggestion, clamorously taken up by the children, that they turn off the highway onto a certain dirt road which leads to an old plantation house the grandmother had visited in her youth. Or—even better—let us say that this scene in which the aggravated father finally agrees to take the turn onto the dirt road to...
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SOURCE: "Everything Off Balance: Protestant Election in Flannery O'Connor's 'A Good Man Is Hard to Find'," in The Flannery O'Connor Bulletin, Vol. VII, Autumn, 1979, pp. 116-24.
[In the following essay, Bellamy determines the role of Protestantism in "A Good Man Is Hard to Find, " maintaining that "it is difficult to explain the crucial event in this story, the sudden and abrupt conversion of the grandmother, without reference to evangelical Protestantism. "]
Robert Milder's article "The Protestantism of Flannery O'Connor," [which was published in The Southern Review, Vol. II, 1975] is based on two essential aspects of Protestantism he finds in O'Connor's so-called Catholic fiction: "The first is an insistence upon the absolute and irremediable corruption of the natural man, and consequently upon the necessity of divine grace for every good work; the second is an exaltation of private religious experience at the expense of the sacraments and the institutional Church." Late in his essay, Milder mentions that "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" is one of O'Connor's more Catholic stories. I would like to take issue with Milder, not because of his association of O'Connor's writings with Protestantism, but rather because, at least in the case of "A Good Man," he does not go far enough. It is difficult to explain the crucial event in this story, the sudden and abrupt conversion of the grandmother, without...
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SOURCE: "The 'New Jesus'," in Flannery O'Connor: Voice of the Peacock, Fordham University Press, 1982, pp. 69-76.
[Feeley is an American author and educator with a special interest in the work of Flannery O'Connor. In the following excerpt, she views "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" as a clash between "a romanticist creating her own reality and an agnostic cut off from spiritual reality."]
A romanticist creating her own reality and an agnostic cut off from spiritual reality come into violent conflict in the title story of the first collection of O'Connor short stories, A Good Man Is Hard to Find. One of her most perfectly wrought artifacts, it relates the meeting of a vacation-bound grandmother and her family with the Misfit, a psychopathic killer. A piece of comic realism, the story explores the characters' apprehension of reality—both natural and supernatural. The grandmother dominates the first half of the story; through its events one sees that her inability to grasp reality truly alienates her from its spiritual extensions. When the Misfit enters, he brings a different kind of alienation: he has an absolutely honest conception of reality which embodies all reason and no faith. His agnosticism cuts him off from the supernatural world. The violent conflict of these two views marks the advent of grace. About this violence, the author stated:
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SOURCE: "The Genesis of Flannery O'Connor's 'A Good Man Is Hard to Find'," in Studies in American Fiction, Vol. X, No. 2, Autumn, 1982, pp. 227-31.
[In the following essay, Lasseter explores the real-life incidents that probably inspired O'Connor's "A Good Man Is Hard to Find."]
Flannery O'Connor's "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" begins as Bailey reads the sports section of the Atlanta Journal (the evening edition of the Constitution). The tableau is appropriate: a study of the genesis of "A Good Man" shows that from 1950 to 1952 O'Connor found substantial pieces of her short story in the Atlanta newspaper; her transformation of newspaper clippings into a tale of theology and violence on a Georgia back road provides insights into her creative process.
O'Connor frequently used newspaper accounts as source material for her fiction. Harvey Klevar has shown how O'Connor used advertisements and news articles from the Milledgeville Union Recorder for "A Late Encounter with the Enemy," "The Displaced Person," and for parts of Wise Blood. Like the woman in "Greenleaf" who collects morbid stories from the newspaper, O'Connor delighted in sending friends clippings of Hadacol advertisements, odd names from birth announcements, and such human interest stories as the report of Roy Rogers' horse attending church in California or the seven-year-old who won a talent contest...
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SOURCE: "A Good Man's Predicament," in The Southern Review, Vol. XX, No. 4, Autumn, 1984, pp. 836-41.
[In the following essay, Jones offers an alternative to O'Connor's interpretation of the controversial conclusion of "A Good Man Is Hard to Find."]
Flannery O'Connor's "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" has been for the past decade or more a subject of virtually countless critical readings. Any brilliant work of fiction resists a single interpretation acceptable to everyone, but judging by the variousness and irreconcilability of so many readings of "A Good Man" one might conclude, as R. V. Cassili does, that like the work of Kafka the story "may not be susceptible to exhaustive rational analysis." The suggestion, I believe, would be quite apt if applied to a good many O'Connor stories. Not this one, however. If there are in fact authorial lapses, moments when the reader's gaze is led a little awry, they are simply that, lapses, instances of O'Connor nodding.
Much has been made of O'Connor's use of the grotesque, and the vacationing family in "A Good Man" is a case in point. The family members are portrayed almost exclusively in terms of their vices, so much so, it would seem, as to put them at risk of losing entirely not only the reader's sympathy but even his recognition of them as representatively human—a result certain to drain the story of most of its meaning and power. Such is not the...
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SOURCE: "'The Meanest of Them Sparkled': Beauty and Landscape in Flannery O'Connor's Fiction," in Realist of Distances: Flannery O'Connor Revisited, edited by Karl-Heinz Westarp and Jan Nordby Gretlund, Aarhus University Press, 1987, pp. 147-55.
[Martin is an American author and educator with a special interest in O'Connor's work. In the following excerpt, he examines moments of epiphanic beauty in "A Good Man Is Hard to Find."]
"'We've had an ACCIDENT,'" the children cry gleefully. "'But nobody's killed,' June Star said with disappointment." Within a few minutes, June Star is dead, and so is the rest of her family. This extraordinary irony informs the story in several ways. Like Eliot being surprised that so many have crossed the bridge or Ransom's characters being astonished at a child's death, we as readers of "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" are awed by the swiftness and finality of the six deaths effected by The Misfit. I think we come back to the story time and again to experience this awe and to inquire into it. We are, in this, somewhat like Mrs. Greenleaf, who clips stories of grotesque deaths and bizarre suffering so that she can wallow in the dirt and pray over them. There is a medieval quality about the centrality of death in O'Connor's fiction.
There are, however, other dimensions to the irony of "A Good Man Is Hard to Find," specifically, that the automobile accident and the...
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SOURCE: "Cats, Crime, and Punishment: The Mikado's Pitti-Sing in 'A Good Man Is Hard to Find'," in English Studies in Canada, Vol. XIV, No. 4, December, 1988, pp. 436-50.
[In the following essay, Dyson explores the links between The Mikado and "A Good Man Is Hard to Find, " maintaining that "both works explore thematically the significance of the mysteriously arbitrary design by which characters and situations are moved despite themselves."]
If the grandmother is, as she appears to be, the "good man" who is so hard to find in Flannery O'Connor's story, "A Good Man Is Hard to Find," then who or what, one wonders, is Pitty Sing, the grandmother's cat? Her namesake is of course one of the "Three Little Maids from School" who come tripping on-stage early in Act 1 of Gilbert and Sullivan's operetta The Mikado. The connection between Pitti-Sing and Pitty Sing might not appear to be worth following up but for two reasons: the first is the nature of the fiction O'Connor was writing at this stage of her career; the second, growing out of the first, is that O'Connor herself seems clearly to reinforce the connection of the names by making one of the key utterances in her tale a clear echo of the best-known sentence from W. S. Gilbert's sardonic libretto. The Mikado explains himself and his conception of justice to his subjects by announcing, "My object all sublime / I shall achieve in...
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SOURCE: "Deconstructed Meaning in Two Short Stories by Flannery O'Connor," in Ambiguities in Literature and Film, edited by Hans P. Braendlin, The Rorida State University Press, 1988, pp. 125-34.
[In the following excerpt, Schenck offers a deconstructionist analysis of "A Good Man Is Hard to Find."]
Many contemporary theories of criticism address problems of meaning based on philosophies of language and the aesthetics of reception, so we worry less today about the author's conscious intentions than in previous times. Nevertheless, interpreting works of an author who has commented extensively on his or her own art may still be considered presumptuous. When the author has offered religious interpretations, counterarguments may seem to border on the heretical. Such are the risks for critics attempting to discuss how the fiction of Flannery O'Connor creates meanings in addition to or in contrast with what she herself said about her work.
O'Connor frequently commented on the Catholic faith, which she insisted formed her work, and most critics accept her own exegetical interpretations of her bizarre and troubling stories. Although the stories seem too brutal to be illustrations of Christian doctrine, at least as we conventionally conceive of it, O'Connor was able to justify her preoccupation with the ugly and grotesque by insisting on the writer's role as a prophet who must shake the reader...
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SOURCE: "A Good Grandmother Is Hard to Find: Story as Exemplum," in The Antigonish Review, Nos. 81-2, Spring-Summer, 1990, pp. 143-55.
[In the following essay, Currie examines "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" as a religious exemplum.]
Near the end of "A Good Man Is Hard to Find," The Misfit's henchmen Hiram and Bobby Lee shoot the grandmother's son, Bailey, the two grandchildren, and the children's mother. After she exhausts her repertoire of verbal manoeuvers, in a desperate effort to save herself, the grandmother reaches out and touches The Misfit on the shoulder. He responds with three pistol shots to the chest, aborting a promising encounter between two people who have much in common. Then:
Hiram and Bobby Lee returned from the woods and stood over the ditch, looking down at the grandmother who half sat and half lay in a puddle of blood with her legs crossed under her like a child's and her face smiling up at the cloudless sky.
This is the second mention of her legs, first as twisted, now as crossed. Critics seem agreed the author intends the reader to understand crossed legs as a sign of Christ's cross implying that the grandmother, at the last moment, accepts the gift of grace and is redeemed. Before the shots, before she reached to touch The Misfit on the shoulder, "She saw the man's twisted face close to her own as if he were...
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SOURCE: "O'Connor's Ancient Comedy: Form in 'A Good Man Is Hard to Find'," in Journal of the Short Story in English, No. 16, Spring, 1991, pp. 29-39.
[In the following essay, Donahoo analyzes the influence of Dantean and Aristophanean comedy on "A Good Man Is Hard to Find. "]
More than any other short story in the Flannery O'Connor canon, "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" has attracted the attention of commentators, not the least of whom is the author herself. Both in letters and lectures, O'Connor found herself explaining the story, trying to recover it from the grasp of symbol hunters and allegory explicators, by ending a frustration perhaps summarized by her description of an exchange with an "earnest" young teacher seeking to know why the Misfit's hat was black. "Anyway," O'Connor wrote to Dr. Ted Spivey, "that's what's happening to the teaching of literature."
Perhaps this explains why, in a lecture to English teachers, O'Connor attacked what she saw as the usual ways literature is taught and called for "attention, of a technical kind." She elaborates:
The student has to have tools to understand a story or a novel, and these are tools proper to the structure of the work, tools proper to the craft. They are tools that operate inside the work and not outside it; they are concerned with how this story is made and with what makes it work as a story....
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SOURCE: "Christian Realism and O'Connor's 'A Good Man Is Hard to Find'," in American Fiction in the Cold War, The University of Wisconsin Press, 1991, pp. 125-36.
[Schaub is an American educator and critic. In the following excerpt, he examines "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" in the context of the revisionary liberalism of the 1950s.]
The idea of "the South" and of "southern writing" also helps to situate O'Connor's [A Good Man Is Hard to Find], for during the fifties specific political and cultural meanings were attributed to the southern experience. When Walker Percy won the National Book Award in 1961 for The Moviegoer, he was asked why the South was contributing so many fine writers. He answered, "Because we lost the War." O'Connor gave her interpretation of Percy's meaning in an essay she contributed to Esprit: "He didn't mean by that simply that a lost war makes good subject matter," O'Connor wrote. "We have gone into the modern world with an inburnt knowledge of human limitations and with a sense of mystery which could not have developed in our first state of innocence—as it has not sufficiently developed in the rest of our country." This is a summary identical to those we can find in the writing of Hartz, Niebuhr, and Vann Woodward—all of whom used the experience of the South as a source of directives for United States foreign policy.
There is some evidence...
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SOURCE: An introduction to A Good Man Is Hard to Find, by Flannery O'Connor, Rutgers University Press, 1993, pp. 3-9, 17-24.
[Asals is an American educator and critic. In this excerpt, he lauds thematic and stylistic aspects of "A Good Man Is Hard to Find, " praising, in particular, the significant role of the grandmother in the story.]
"A Good Man Is Hard to Find" is probably now, as during her lifetime, the single story by which Flannery O'Connor is best known. She herself may have had something to do with this: when she was asked to give a reading or a talk to students, "A Good Man" was the story she usually proposed. As she wrote to John Hawkes, she preferred a reading with commentary to a lecture because "It's better to try to make one story live for them than to tell them a lot of junk they'll forget in five minutes and that I have no confidence in anyhow." It was not, she claimed, her favorite among her stories (that honor she accorded "The Artificial Nigger"); she chose "A Good Man" for public readings (or so a friend told me) because it was the only one she could get through and not "bust out laughing."
Whatever force these readings had in establishing the story, she had already singled it out by making it the title piece of her first collection, published in 1955 (A Good Man Is Hard to Find and Other Stories). That alone might not have sufficed to give it preeminence...
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Browning, Preston M., Jr. "A Good Man Is Hard to Find." In Flannery O'Connor, pp. 40-71. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1974.
Discusses the title story of A Good Man Is Hard to Find in the context of the entire volume.
Bryant, Hallman B. "Reading the Map in 'A Good Man Is Hard to Find."' Studies in Short Fiction XVIII, No. 3 (Summer 1981): 301-07.
Surveys the significant settings and place names in O'Connor's short story.
Desmond, John F. "Signs of the Times: Lancelot and The Misfit." The Flannery O'Connor Bulletin XVIII (1989): 91-8.
Considers similarities between the anti-heroes in the fiction of Walker Percy and Flannery O'Connor.
DiRenzo, Anthony. "Grinning Devils and Ludicrous Saints: The Grotesque and the Dialectic between Satire and Sanctity." In American Gargoyles: Flannery O'Connor and the Medieval Grotesque, pp. 134-49, 153-62. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1993.
Compares O'Connor's use of the grotesque to medieval religious art.
Doxey, William S. "A Dissenting Opinion of Flannery O'Connor's 'A Good Man Is Hard to Find.'" Studies in Short Fiction X, No. 2 (1973): 199-204.
Provides a structural analysis of O'Connor's short story. Doxey maintains that "the point-of-view shifts...
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