The Giver Lesson Plan - Lesson Plan

eNotes Lesson Plan

Introductory Lecture and Objectives

The Giver eNotes Lesson Plan content

Introductory Lecture

A futuristic tale, The Giver subtly and convincingly warns us of the unintended consequences of “Sameness”—of communities that lack any sharp edges, of societies that root out and eradicate difference, and of lives lived without any reference to those that came before. Indeed, the role of memory—how and what we remember and how it shapes our lives—is a central theme Lois Lowry set out to explore in The Giver, a young adult novel awarded the prestigious Newbery Medal in 1994. 

In accepting the award, Lowry spoke of the memories that helped form The Giver

A spring, perhaps, at the beginning, bubbling up from the earth; then a trickle from a glacier; a mountain stream entering farther along; and each tributary bringing with it the collected bits and pieces from the past. 

Lowry recounts a classmate in college, an outsider whom she and her friends ostracized for her difference; she remembers a painter she met who could “see” color differently than she could, noting that he later went blind. She thinks of her aged father looking at a photograph of her deceased sister, spared the pain of remembering his daughter’s death. These are some of the tributaries of Lowry’s past that helped form The Giver

Indeed, it is perhaps Lowry’s own self-awareness that makes this book so powerful. Drawing from her past experiences, Lowry brilliantly and subtly demonstrates how easy it is for our everyday choices— made with an eye only toward convenience and predictability—to prove harmful. Often without meaning to, we begin to make decisions and take actions to exert control, eradicate individuality, and neaten the messy margins of emotion and passion. Perhaps the most extreme example of such behavior is selective euthanasia, a highly charged topic Lowry addresses and which ironically has made The Giver a frequent target for censors; it is often banned from school reading lists. 

The end result of embracing “Sameness,” Lowry warns, could be to create a society like Jonas’s. On the cusp of adulthood, Jonas and his friends, Asher and Fiona, ride their bicycles about town largely worry free, going from school to meaningful volunteer work with ease. Even the occasional scraped knee is easily dealt with through relief-of-pain. At home, neatly formed families of four are matched perfectly, taking age, gender, intellect, and activity level into account. Once the Old outlive their usefulness, they enjoy a celebratory “release.” So too do fussy infants or unhealthy babies who might otherwise tax their mothers and fathers. Food is plentiful, everyone has a job he or she is well suited for, and the Elders think deeply on issues related to the community. What more could they—or any of us—want? 

The answer to that question forms the crux of this haunting tale that explores a society perhaps not that far from our own. Lowry expertly teases out simple yet probing questions about free will and choice, about the inherent beauty of difference and the discomfort it causes, and about the wisdom we can and must glean from the past. 

By the end of the unit the student will be able to: 

1. Explain how the novel shifts from a utopian to a dystopian story. 

2. Describe the role that our past plays in shaping our future. 

3. Explain the relationship between freedom and security in Jonas’s society. 

4. Explain how this novel acts as an allegory for limiting or curbing choice, including expression, relationships, and sexuality. 

5. Use examples to show how language is used to control behavior in Jonas’s society and in our own. 

6. Trace Jonas’s evolution from child to man, including sexual development and his growing awareness of selflessness and responsibility. 

7. Identify how and why uniformity is promoted in Jonas’s society and in other societies; explain its effects. 

8. Show how the author employs sensory language to highlight deficiencies in Jonas’s community.

Instructional Focus: Teaching With an eNotes Lesson Plan

This eNotes lesson plan is designed so that it may be used in numerous ways to accommodate ESL students and to differentiate instruction in the classroom. 

Student Study Guide 

• The Study Guide is organized for a chapter-by-chapter study of the novel. Study Guide pages may be assigned individually and completed at a student’s own pace. 

• Study Guide pages may be used as pre-reading activities to preview for students the vocabulary words they will encounter in reading each chapter and to acquaint them generally with the chapter’s content. 

• Before chapter Study Guide pages are assigned, questions may be selected from them to use as short quizzes to assess reading comprehension. 

• Study Guide vocabulary lists include words from the novel that vary in difficulty. 

1. The vocabulary lists for each chapter are sufficiently comprehensive so that shorter lists of vocabulary words can be constructed from them. 

2. Working from the lesson plan’s chapter vocabulary lists, the teacher also may construct vocabulary studies for individual students, choosing specific words from each chapter that are most appropriate for them. 

Discussion Questions 

The discussion questions vary in degree of difficulty. 

1. Some questions require higher levels of critical thinking; others engage students with less challenging inquiry. 

2. Individual discussion questions may be assigned to students working in pairs or in small study groups; their contributions may then be added to a whole-class discussion. 

Multiple-Choice/Essay Test 

Test questions also vary in degree of difficulty. 

1. Some multiple-choice questions address the factual content of the novel; others require students to employ critical thinking skills, such as analyzing; comparing and contrasting; and drawing inferences. 

2. The teacher may select specific multiple-choice questions and one or more essay questions to assess an individual student’s understanding of the novel. 

3. The essay portion of the test appears on a separate page so that it may be omitted altogether in testing.

Before students read through the book, point out to them the following themes, or universal ideas, that will be addressed in the novel: 

  • Free will 
  • Control vs. chaos (sexuality, language, emotion, art) 
  • Individual vs. society 
  • Coming of age 
  • Euthanasia 

Talk with your students about how a motif is a recurring pattern or repeated action, element, or idea in a book. As they read, have them pay attention to the following motifs: 

  • Apology 
  • Safety 
  • Release 
  • Sensory elements (colors, smells, temperatures, textures) 
  • Nomenclature (a naming system or way of classifying and distinguishing objects) 

A symbol is a concrete object or place that has significance in a literary work because it communicates an idea. Have your students talk about how the author uses the following symbols and look for other symbols on their own as they read: 

  • Sled 
  • Light eyes 
  • Bicycle 
  • Front-buttoned jacket 
  • Books 
  • Gabriel 
  • Rosemary

Essay and Discussion Questions

1. According to The Giver, the worst part of holding the memories is the inability to share them with anyone. How would it affect you if the past and history of the world were yours alone to know and bear? How important is it for society that we know and study history? 

2. The nomenclature, or classification system, used in Jonas’s society is quite different from that used in our own. Some examples include numbering instead of naming children before they are adopted by families, referring to families as “family units,” and saying “comfort objects” instead of “stuffed animals” or “toys.” Why do you think Lowry created these terms? What role do they play in Jonas’s society? How do they affect the mood of the book? 

3. In The Giver, we see many women in powerful positions, from the Chief Elder to Jonas’s mother. Conversely, we see males assigned roles that center around empathy, nurturing, and caring. These include Jonas’s father and The Giver, as well as Jonas. Why do you think the author chose to reverse these gender stereotypes? How does reversing them help shape the novel? 

4. Why do you think Lowry chose to tell the story from Jonas’s point of view? How would it differ if told from The Giver’s point of view? How would the story change if it were told from Lily’s point of view? 

5. The concept of “release” and how it is illustrated in the book are highly controversial. Are there any cases of “release” that are the same in our society and in Jonas’s? In what cases, if any, do you think “release” is appropriate? 

6. How does the family structure in Jonas’s society differ from what we are used to? Are there any similarities? What common issues have they dealt with by creating homes for the Old and for Childless Adults? 

7. If your elders and those around you could observe you at all times, what Assignment do you...

(The entire section is 607 words.)

Chapter 1

Vocabulary 

adequately: sufficiently 

apprehensive: fearful, worried about something 

defiant: challenging, disobedient 

ironic: purposefully contradictory in meaning 

jeering: heckling, mocking 

navigational: having to do with steering or directing a course or path 

palpable: able to be felt or perceived 

patriotic: expressing pride in one’s country 

distraught: hysterical, extremely upset 

squat: short, stubby 

trembled: shook slightly (especially from fear) 

wheedle: coax, persuade incessantly 

Study Questions

1. As the book begins, why is Jonas frightened? 

Although Jonas initially states he is frightened, he ultimately decides that “frightened” is not the right word to describe his feelings. Jonas is very careful with language, a characteristic we soon discover is important in his society. Jonas is instead “apprehensive” about the impending “special December.” 

2. Who is not as precise as Jonas in word choice and usage? What example is given as evidence? How does the discussion of language help set the tone for the book? 

Jonas’s friend, Asher, often makes verbal mistakes, to his classmates’ great amusement. When Asher is late to school, he stands in the front of the class to give a formal apology for his tardiness. He says he was late because he stopped to watch the salmon at the hatchery and was “distraught”; he meant to say “distracted.” Through the discussion of language, the author conveys a sense of control and punishment. 

3. How does Jonas’s discussion of the precision of language affect the mood? 

Though Jonas provides a lighthearted example of his friend’s confusing words and their meanings, Jonas’s expressed worry about December and his clear concern over properly expressing his worry...

(The entire section is 693 words.)

Chapter 2

Vocabulary 

acquired: obtained, received 

adherence: observance (such as fidelity to a rule, a law, a custom, a policy, or a convention) 

appeal: question an official decision 

aptitude: talent, gift 

fidgeting: making small movements (usually from boredom) 

fret: to worry 

recreation: activity for fun or pleasure 

Study Questions

1. What do we discover about his society through Jonas’s description of the “Ceremony for the Ones”? 

Every December there is a mass celebration for the aging of all the children—exactly fifty in each year if none is released. Individuality has been subsumed into the more generic...

(The entire section is 551 words.)

Chapter 3

Vocabulary 

bewilderment: confusion 

chastise: scold, rebuke 

conviction: belief 

dwelling: home, house 

hoarded: saved, stored 

hovered: stood over 

lurk: wait in hiding for the purpose of ambush 

remorse: self-reproach, regret 

tunic: long and loose garment usually worn over pants 

Study Questions

1. Why does Lily say Gabriel’s and Jonas’s eyes are “funny”? 

Most people in their society have dark eyes, but Jonas, Gabriel, and another little girl all have light eyes. Eyes are not differentiated by color, only by being light or dark. 

2. What does Lily mean when she teases...

(The entire section is 386 words.)

Chapter 4

Vocabulary 

bypass: skip over 

chortled: laughed happily, chuckled 

frail: weak 

gravitating: moving toward 

invariably: always, in every case 

rehabilitation: restoring someone or something to a previous state; restoring normalcy 

serene: peaceful 

tabulate: count, add up 

Study Questions

1. What do citizens do when they become Eights? 

They sign up for volunteer hours and may choose where to spend them. 

2. Where does Jonas choose to volunteer? What are his duties? 

On this day he rides his bicycle until he finds Asher’s bicycle outside the House of the Old. His groupmate...

(The entire section is 281 words.)

Chapter 5

Vocabulary 

disquieting: anxiety provoking 

infraction: violation 

murky: dirty, dark 

perspiring: sweating 

Study Questions

1. What do family units do every morning? 

They share their dreams and talk them through, just as later in the day they discuss their days, sharing their feelings and experiences. 

2. What does Jonas dream about? Why is he embarrassed? 

Jonas rarely remembers his dreams, but he has a vivid dream about wanting Fiona to take off her clothes and get into the baths with him at the House of the Old. He is also naked. Jonas has reached puberty and is beginning to have sexual...

(The entire section is 244 words.)

Chapter 6

Vocabulary 

buoyancy: ability to float 

disposition: countenance, temperament 

gleaming: shining 

hastily: quickly 

indulgently: generously 

infringed on: invaded; interfered with 

merriment: joy, fun 

meticulously: very carefully with attention to detail 

murmuring: speaking quietly in a low voice 

relinquish: give up 

reprieve: postponement of a sentence or punishment 

scrupulously: thoroughly, diligently 

stowed: placed, kept 

throng: crowd of people 

transgressions: violations, rule breaking 

unaccustomed: unusual, out of the ordinary 

Study Questions

1. What...

(The entire section is 429 words.)

Chapter 7

Vocabulary 

amidst: in the middle of 

avert: turn away 

exasperated: frustrated, irritated 

impose: to put in place forcibly 

mischief: playful troublemaking 

pampered: spoiled, treated indulgently 

prestige: honor 

retroactive: valid or taking effect from a set point in the past 

sheepish: embarrassed 

Study Questions

1. What does Jonas’s full number, Eleven-Nineteen, signify? 

He was the nineteenth child born in his year; he is one of the Elevens. 

2. Who gives the main speech before the Assignments are given out? What is the speech about? 

The Chief Elder, who is...

(The entire section is 310 words.)

Chapter 8

Vocabulary 

attribute: a quality 

benign: harmless; kindly 

crescendo: gradual increase in volume 

indolence: laziness 

integrity: strong morality, honesty 

jaunty: cheerful, confident 

kinship: camaraderie 

magnitude: great size 

painstaking: thorough, detailed 

piecemeal: scattered, random 

Study Questions

1. Why is Jonas not assigned? 

He has been selected to be the next Receiver of Memory, a rare honor. 

2. How is the current Receiver described? 

He is a bearded old man with pale eyes. 

3. When was the previous Receiver chosen? What...

(The entire section is 283 words.)

Chapter 9

Vocabulary 

compel: to force 

reeled: spun 

requisition: official request 

steeled: prepared, made strong for 

utmost: greatest 

vital: essential 

Study Questions

1. How is Jonas immediately affected by his selection? 

He feels alone and set apart from others. His peers and the rest of the community have already begun to see him differently. 

2. What do Jonas’s parents tell him about the former Receiver? 

They tell him a female was chosen during the Ceremony of Twelve. They are not allowed to say her name. No one is allowed to ever say her name again or use it for a newchild. After she was...

(The entire section is 309 words.)

Chapter 10

Vocabulary 

alcove: recess or niche in a room 

diminish: lessen 

exhilarating: thrilling, exciting 

intricate: detailed 

splendid: magnificent 

Study Questions

1. What does the Attendant do that is surprising when Jonas enters the lobby of the Annex? 

She stands; she is showing Jonas respect for his position. 

2. How does the Receiver’s dwelling differ from the others in the community? 

His furnishings are ornate; they show an appreciation of beauty, not just of function and necessity. Most importantly, his dwelling contains thousands of books. In other dwellings, there are only a few functional...

(The entire section is 353 words.)

Chapter 11

Vocabulary 

basking: relaxing in warmth 

conveyance: means of transfer or transport 

frigid: very cold 

quizzical: curious, puzzled 

torrent: strong stream 

Study Questions

1. How does the author convey the understanding of “snow”? 

Lowry uses sensory language to make the reader feel snow, just as Jonas would have felt it for the first time. Jonas breathes in the cold and feels “the sharp intake of frigid air.” He feels “cold air swirling around his entire body” and “blow against his hands where they lay at his sides, and over his back.” Then he feels “an entirely new sensation: pinpricks? No, because they were soft...

(The entire section is 387 words.)

Chapter 12

Vocabulary 

admonition: warning 

distinctive: pertaining to one thing in particular, unique 

dumbfounded: amazed 

fleeting: momentary, brief 

fretful: distressed, anxious 

genetic: related to heredity 

precise: exact 

Study Questions

1. What does Jonas do the morning after his training that he has never done before? 

He tells a lie of omission to his mother; he does not share his dream from the night before. He had dreamed of the snowy hill and felt sure that there was something significant in the distance that he needed to reach but didn’t know how to get there. It is a good feeling. 

2. Why is...

(The entire section is 268 words.)

Chapter 13

Vocabulary 

absurdity: ridiculousness 

alien: strange, unknown 

assimilated: taken in, absorbed 

electrode: conductor through which electricity passes into someone or something 

embedded: implanted within the surroundings 

exempted: excused, absolved 

grimly: darkly, dismally 

immense: huge, great 

irrationally: unreasonably, without logical thought 

massive: huge 

mutilated: disfigured 

sinuous: curvy, twisting 

skeptically: doubtfully 

subsided: lessened 

vast: immense 

vibrance: liveliness, vigorousness 

Study Questions

1. What does Jonas discover has been...

(The entire section is 443 words.)

Chapter 14

Vocabulary 

assuage: lessen, relieve 

daub: a smear 

distended: swollen 

excruciating: unbearably painful 

jarred: shaken 

ominous: threatening, worrying 

skittered: jerked, moved quickly and unevenly 

wry: cleverly humorous (often in a cynical or ironic way) 

Study Questions

1. How does the sledding memory change when it is transmitted to Jonas again? 

In this memory, the sled is out of control, and he suffers a terrible accident. Jonas comes out of the memory in horrible pain, and The Giver will not provide him relief-of-pain. 

2. How does the memory change Jonas, bringing him closer to...

(The entire section is 526 words.)

Chapter 15

Vocabulary 

carnage: bloody massacre with many dead 

grimy: dirty 

grotesquely: disturbingly, repulsively 

imploring: begging 

parched: dried out 

rigid: stiff, unyielding, inflexible 

sprawled: laid out with arms and legs spread 

stench: strong and repulsive odor 

surging: gaining, cresting 

Study Questions

1. When Jonas arrives for training, The Giver is in terrible pain. Instead of going away, Jonas asks to take some of it away from The Giver. What does he see when The Giver lays his hands on him? 

He is on a battlefield. All around him are death and pain—shrieking horses and bloodied soldiers. He...

(The entire section is 243 words.)

Chapter 16

Vocabulary 

ecstatic: extremely happy, joyful 

faltered: paused in speech 

luxuriating: indulging 

obsolete: no longer in use 

puzzled: confused 

tentatively: cautiously, hesitantly 

vague: unclear, indefinite 

wisp: thin piece or strand 

Study Questions

1. What has Jonas traded for the memories, honor, wisdom, and pain? 

Jonas has traded his childhood—essentially, his innocence. The pain Jonas feels results from his growing awareness of the truth of the human condition. 

2. What are some of the good memories Jonas has seen? 

He has seen a birthday party, where a child was...

(The entire section is 471 words.)

Chapter 17

Vocabulary 

expertise: considerable or expert knowledge in a particular field of accomplishment 

glum: sad, morose 

horde: large group 

permeated: spread throughout 

suppressing: holding back 

warily: cautiously 

Study Questions

1. How does Jonas’s family learn it’s an unscheduled holiday? 

The announcement comes from a speaker on the wall. 

2. What has happened since Jonas stopped taking his pills four weeks earlier? 

The effects of puberty, the Stirrings, have returned, and Jonas is once again having pleasurable dreams. He thinks they are in part due to the memories he has been...

(The entire section is 355 words.)

Chapter 18

Vocabulary 

dejected: sad, depressed 

luminous: bright, full of light 

ruefully: regretfully 

self-possessed: confident; in control of oneself 

Study Questions

1. Why can’t The Giver request his own release? 

He is unable to request release until The Receiver is fully trained, by which time the transfer of memory and history will be complete. The same command was given to Jonas when he was made The Receiver. 

2. What happened in the “failure”? 

A young woman named Rosemary was chosen as the Receiver-in-Training. At first she seemed to The Giver to be a good candidate, but she...

(The entire section is 336 words.)

Chapter 19

Vocabulary 

emerge: come forward 

puncturing: making a small hole, piercing 

seldom: rarely 

solemn: serious 

wretched: deeply unhappy, despondent 

Study Questions

1. What is Jonas’s father slated to do at the beginning of the chapter? How does The Giver seem to feel about it? 

He is supposed to release the smaller of identical twins. The Nurturers will weigh each newchild and then Jonas’s father will release the lighter of the two. The Giver shakes his head and says he wishes they wouldn’t do that. Jonas replies that he would like to watch the process. 

2. The Giver seems insistent on granting Jonas’s...

(The entire section is 244 words.)

Chapter 20

Vocabulary 

apparent: obvious, easily noticed 

emphatically: forcefully 

mimicked: imitated, copied 

mounting: growing, burgeoning 

sarcastic: marked by irony for the purpose of conveying contempt 

successor: one who comes after, one that takes another’s place 

Study Questions

1. Why does The Giver have Jonas spend the night with him? 

Jonas is too upset to go home; very angry, he says he can never return home again. The Giver lies, saying there is more training Jonas must do that evening. He tells Jonas that no one must hear him cry. 

2. For what reason are the people who release the Old and newborns...

(The entire section is 777 words.)

Chapter 21

Vocabulary 

augmented: increased 

condemned: given harsh punishment or rebuke; sentenced to death 

frazzled: exhausted, worn out 

fugitives: wanted criminals who escape capture 

haphazard: disorganized 

languid: lazy, relaxed 

rutted: marked by grooves or tracks 

vigilant: watchful 

Study Questions

1. Why does The Giver’s and Jonas’s plan fall apart? What does Jonas do? 

When Jonas goes home and has dinner with his family, his father mentions that Gabriel had spent the past evening at the Nurturing Center and still is sleeping poorly. The Nurturers, including Jonas’s father, had voted unanimously to release...

(The entire section is 270 words.)

Chapter 22

Vocabulary 

gullies: small depressions or channels 

methodically: systematically, done according to an established procedure 

perils: dangers 

subtle: understated 

warble: melodic or trilling singing 

Study Questions

1. How does the landscape begin to look different? 

Jonas and Gabriel are riding into a wilder place, less urban. 

2. What do Jonas and Gabriel see for the very first time? 

They see a waterfall and wildlife for the first time. 

3. What happens when Gabriel yells “Plane! Plane!” and points to the sky? 

Jonas turns to look and sees instead a bird,...

(The entire section is 216 words.)

Chapter 23

Vocabulary 

impeded: held back; complicated 

imperceptibly: indiscernibly, unnoticeably 

incision: precise cut (especially as made in surgery) 

lethargy: lack of energy 

resignation: giving up; hopelessness 

treacherously: dangerously 

yearning: longing 

Study Questions

1. What is the state of the two travelers as the chapter opens? 

They are both cold, tired, hungry, and weak. It has begun to snow. Though his senses belie his feelings, Jonas believes that Elsewhere must be close. In order to warm Gabriel, he unwraps his tunic and holds the child to his bare skin. Jonas tries to warm them with thoughts, but he...

(The entire section is 419 words.)

Multiple-Choice Test and Answer Key

1. What literary device is employed in the following passage? “He liked the thought of seeing his father perform the ceremony, and making the little twin clean and comfy. His father was such a gentle man.” 

A. allegory 

B. metaphor 

C. foreshadowing 

D. foil 

E. plot 

2. Which of these is not found anywhere in Jonas’s community? 

A. books 

B. grandparents 

C. cars 

D. schools 

E. holidays 

3. The Giver says of receiving memories that “it’s like going downhill through deep snow on a...

(The entire section is 861 words.)

Essay Exam Questions With Answers

1. When Jonas escapes and looks back at his community, he imagines the citizens all waking at dawn, when “the orderly, disciplined life he had always known would continue again, without him. The life where nothing was ever unexpected. Or inconvenient. Or unusual. The life without color, pain, or past.” Using this definition of Jonas’s community, give at least three examples of what the citizens have given up in order to live this life. What commentary is the author making about these tradeoffs and the consequences of those choices for humanity? 

When Jonas makes his escape with Gabriel, he encounters a completely new world. It is as though both he and Gabriel have been literally born again. Each curve of the road...

(The entire section is 2627 words.)

Ed. Scott Locklear