Study Guide

George Orwell

George Orwell Biography

Biography (History of the World: The 20th Century)

0111201567-Orwell.jpg(Library of Congress) Published by Salem Press, Inc.

Article abstract: Orwell’s uncompromising ideals, reflected consistently in the enormous and diverse body of his works, entitle him to be considered among the most personally courageous writers in the history of British letters, one whose social concern and distinctive style can be compared only to those of the eighteenth century political and social satirist Jonathan Swift.

Early Life

George Orwell was born Eric Arthur Blair on June 25, 1903, at Motihari, Bengal, in India. His father, Richard Walmesley Blair, was a relatively minor official in the Opium Department, the British civil service agency which regulated legalized opium trade with China as a government monopoly. Orwell’s mother, born Ida Mabel Limouzin, was of English-French background. She had lived in Moulmein, Burma, where her French father was a teak trader and boat builder and was eighteen years younger than her husband, whom she had married in 1896. Their first child, Marjorie, was born at Tehta, Bihar, India, in 1898. After Eric was born, the elder Blair’s almost annual changes in posting, often to remote towns within India, coupled with possibilities of better schooling, caused Ida Blair’s return to England with the children. Richard Blair did not see his family again until 1907 on a three-month leave; their last child, Avril, would be born as a result of this visit.

Orwell’s early childhood was, consequently, essentially a fatherless one. This was not a particularly unusual situation among overseas service families, but the need to maintain two residences on a meager civil service stipend meant that finances always remained tight and luxuries few. Though Orwell was born to what he refers to in The Road to Wigan Pier (1937) as the “lower-upper-middle” class, he appears to have become aware of his “shabby gentility” only upon attending St. Cyprian’s, a new but successful preparatory school, at age eight. St. Cyprian’s was considered “successful” because of its boys’ record of gaining admission to the “great” public schools, such as Eton and Harrow. “Such, Such Were the Joys,” an essay of uncertain date (internal features allow arguments for as early as 1938, though it was not submitted for publication until 1947), is a polemic on the ruthless class distinctions and favoritism in such privately founded schools.

Clearly, Orwell was never happy at St. Cyprian’s. Mr. and Mrs. Vaughan Wilkes, its founders (who also taught at the school), gauged its curriculum toward a successful outcome on the public school examinations. (In Great Britain, “public” schools are what in the United States are called “private” schools.) There was, accordingly, next to no instruction in authors after John Milton and precious little in history beyond dates of the British monarchs. In addition, Mr. Wilkes told Orwell when prepping him for the Eton exam that he had been given a half-scholarship to St. Cyprian’s because of his family’s financial circumstances, and that the now thirteen-year-old boy therefore had a special obligation to the school as well as to his parents to win his scholarship. The pressures on him were certainly unremitting, and two concerns which would dominate his works, money and the politics of the British class structure, have their origins in this period of Orwell’s life.

Orwell placed fourteenth on the King’s Scholars examination; this was not high enough to ensure a place at Eton for the fall, 1916, election, though it would mean acceptance by as early as Christmas of that year if a place became available. (The King’s Scholars could number no more than seventy, with between ten and thirteen in each “election,” or year; thus, availability depended upon how many boys left Eton during a given year.) Wilkes was pleased at the boy’s performance, nevertheless, and Orwell finished the year at St. Cyprian’s and spent nine miserable weeks of the winter, 1917, term at Wellington, a military school, waiting to hear from Eton.

By May, 1917, Orwell was at Eton, a member of the school’s intellectual elite, known as “College.” The boys of this group were marked to fill the most important positions in the intellectual and political life of Great Britain; nevertheless, Orwell’s resentment of class distinctions coupled with Eton’s rigid curriculum and his own free spirit led him to elect a large number of courses outside College among the regular students known as “Oppidans.” His mediocre performance even in these made a first-class diploma impossible and a scholarship to one of the Oxford colleges unobtainable. Thus, Orwell was graduated from Eton in December, 1921, with relatively poor prospects, despite what, by contemporary American standards, was an astoundingly deep knowledge of British literature and history for a young man only eighteen years old.

It was partly because of his father’s refusal (or inability) to finance an Oxford education and in part because of his lackluster record that Orwell went to a “crammer” for six months starting in January, 1922, to prepare for the India Office’s examinations. Class distinctions dogged Orwell’s steps whether he liked it or not, and the foreign civil service was the only realistic career option for him given his family background. Even Eton did not guarantee him a place in the civil service. He was still required to sit for a week of two-hour examinations in English, English history, mathematics, and French, plus three options (in Orwell’s case, Latin, Greek, and drawing). The exams were equivalent to “O” (“ordinary” as opposed to advanced) level college entrance tests. Thus it was that Orwell, in late October, 1922, came to be posted in Burma as an officer in the provincial police.

Even in Burma, Orwell’s limited finances as well as his own inclination to solitariness led him to remain by himself, reading as usual and spending what money he could on books and subscriptions, mostly on history and politics. He wrote some poetry during his five years in Burma, but Orwell was still Eric Blair and had no pretensions toward a career as a writer until recurring bronchitis, a complaint which had appeared as early as his school days, forced his return to England in 1927. It was at this time that he resigned from the service, much to his family’s dismay, not so much for health reasons as from a distaste for the nature of his work. He could not see himself as a preserver of the British Empire. This theme would ultimately emerge in his novel Burmese Days (1934) and essays such as “Shooting an Elephant.”

Life’s Work

August, 1927, found Orwell unemployed with few prospects, twenty-four years old, with an undistinguished school record, ill but with the announced intention of becoming a writer. One can imagine his family’s exasperation, particularly that of his father, who had viewed the Burma service as his son’s last chance to salvage some sort of future. Still, Orwell began to write that winter, not with the style and ease of his mature years and not about Burma or the British Empire as one might expect, but about poverty and degradation. The old Etonian lived among, dressed as, and associated with the poorest element of the British and French working class in 1928 and 1929, gathering material for what would eventually be published as Down and Out in London and Paris (1933). Meanwhile, Orwell wrote sketches and “potboilers,” with only indifferent success. Even Down and Out in London and Paris caused problems of publication, for its disjointed incidents fell somewhere between autobiography and the novel. The essay “How the Poor Die” was written as a result of his stay in a charity ward in a Paris hospital as he was felled again by the bronchitic condition which would afflict him throughout his life. It was published late in 1929 in Max Plowman’s magazine The Adelphi, and Orwell began a long though never lucrative association with that publication.

The pseudonym “George Orwell” was chosen to conceal the author’s identity and avoid embarrassment for his family upon publication of Down and Out in London and Paris. It came from a list of names which included P. S. Burton (the name Orwell actually used when tramping), Kenneth Miles, and H. Lewis Allways, and was mutually agreed upon by the author and Victor Gollancz, the book’s publisher. The Orwell was a river the author liked and knew well, and he believed that the whole name had a solid working-class ring to it. Even after he became an established author, however, Orwell never formally changed his name, and he continued to be called Eric Blair by those who had known him before his success.

By the mid-1930’s, Orwell’s works, among them numerous essays and reviews, began to find a small but faithful...

(The entire section is 3627 words.)

George Orwell Biography (Survey of Novels and Novellas)

George Orwell was born Eric Arthur Blair, the son of Richard Walmesley Blair and Ida (Limouzin) Blair. Orwell was born in India and lived there for four years, until his father moved the family back to England, to a small house named Nutshell, located in Henley-on-Thames. After a short leave, Orwell’s father returned alone to India; his wife and children remained in England, where he rejoined them later, upon his retirement. With his father’s return, Orwell, like most male members of the upper middle class, was sent away to boarding school, St. Cyprian’s, located at Eastbourne on the Sussex coast. After several miserable years, as Orwell describes them in his autobiographical Such, Such Were the Joys (1953), he won a...

(The entire section is 670 words.)

George Orwell Biography (Masterpieces of World Literature, Critical Edition)

ph_0111201567-Orwell.jpgGeorge Orwell. Published by Salem Press, Inc.

George Orwell was born Eric Arthur Blair in Motihari, Bengal, India, on June 25, 1903, the son of Richard Walmesley Blair, a minor official in the British government, and Ida Limouzin Blair. In 1904, Orwell’s mother took him to England, where the family lived at Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire. Orwell had two sisters, one five years older and the other five years younger. According to his own account in his essay “Why I Write,” Orwell, until he was eight years old, barely saw his father. Consequently, Orwell developed a habit of solitude that resulted from his developing “disagreeable mannerisms” that made him “unpopular” throughout his schooldays.

Orwell’s schooldays were spent at Sunnylands, an...

(The entire section is 1032 words.)

George Orwell Biography (Masterpieces of World Literature, Critical Edition)

George Orwell’s novels and essays have contributed to current literary and political writing an awareness of the connections among language and thinking and political actions. Particularly in his later works, Orwell focused his purpose on writing, merging art with politics, attacking the effects of the power motives of totalitarian governments in one’s humanity, warning his readers of the dangers inherent in “groupthink” and “doublespeak,” and grimly satirizing the human traits that have let oppressed peoples become the victims of those intoxicated by power. Though Orwell’s writing career, by twentieth century standards, was fairly short, several of his essays and novels hold for him a place in Western literature and...

(The entire section is 115 words.)

George Orwell Biography (Great Authors of World Literature, Critical Edition)

ph_0111201567-Orwell.jpgGeorge Orwell. Published by Salem Press, Inc.

George Orwell, with an international reputation based on his two finest works, Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four, has emerged as a prominent prose stylist and perhaps the twentieth century’s most important political writer. Born Eric Arthur Blair on June 25, 1903, at Motihari in Bengal, India, he was the second child of Richard Walmesley Blair and Ida Mabel Limouzin Blair. Richard Blair, an administrator in the Opium Department of the government of India, had a singularly undistinguished career, and in 1905 his wife and two young children returned to England, where he did not permanently join them until his retirement in 1911.{$S[A]Blair, Eric Arthur;Orwell, George}

Orwell’s early years in...

(The entire section is 962 words.)

George Orwell Biography (Critical Guide to Censorship and Literature)

0111201567-Orwell.jpgGeorge Orwell (Library of Congress) Published by eNotes.com, Inc.

During the 1930’s and 1940’s, when few English socialists had awakened to the full horrors of Soviet totalitarianism under Joseph Stalin, Orwell was an exception. He was aware not only of the threat to intellectual freedom that totalitarianism—of the Left as well as the Right—posed, but also of the peculiar nature of that threat: the totalitarian concept that the past is not unalterable, but can be continually recreated to suit prevailing orthodoxies. Censorship was then becoming a matter of the manipulation of language and thought, rather than such old-fashioned methods as public book-burnings or censors’ blue pencils.

Orwell had some personal experience of the cruder forms of censorship. His mail was...

(The entire section is 221 words.)

George Orwell Biography (Short Stories for Students)

George Orwell was born Eric Blair on June 25, 1903, in Motihari, Bengal, which was then a province of India under British rule. Richard...

(The entire section is 382 words.)

George Orwell Biography (Novels for Students)

George Orwell Published by Gale Cengage

George Orwell was born Eric Arthur Blair in Bengal India in 1903, into a middle-class family. The son of a British civil servant, Orwell was brought to England as a toddler. The boy became aware of class distinctions while attending St. Cyprian’s preparatory school in Sussex, where he received a fine education but felt out of place. He was teased and looked down upon because he was not from a wealthy family. This experience made him sensitive to the cruelty of social snobbery.

As a partial-scholarship student whose parents could not afford to pay his entire tuition, Orwell was also regularly reminded of his lowly economic status by school administrators. Conditions improved at Eton, where he studied next, but instead of continuing with university classes, in 1922 he joined the Indian Imperial Police. Stationed in Burma, his class-consciousness intensified as he served as one of the hated policemen enforcing British control of the native population. Sickened by his role as imperialist, he returned to England in 1927 and resigned his position. He planned to become a writer, a profession in which he had not before shown much interest.

In 1928, perhaps to erase guilt from his colonial experiences, he chose to live amongst the poor of London, and later, Paris. In Paris, he published articles in local newspapers, but his fiction was rejected. His own life finally provided the material for his first book, published in 1933. Down and Out in Paris and London, which combined fictional narrative based on his time spent in those two cities with social criticism, was his first work published as George Orwell. The pseudonym was used so his parents would not be shocked by the brutal living conditions described in the book. The next year, Orwell published Burmese Days, a novel based on his stay in Burma. Subsequent novels contain autobiographical references and served as vehicles for Orwell to explore his growing political convictions.

In 1936, Orwell traveled to Barcelona, Spain, to write about the Spanish Civil War and ended up joining the battle, fighting against Spanish leader Francisco Franco on the side of the Republicans. Wounded, he returned to England. Two nonfiction books, The Road to Wigan Pier, a report on deplorable conditions in the mining communities of northern England, and Homage to Catalonia, the story of his participation in the Spanish Civil War, allowed Orwell to explicitly defend his political ideas. Dozens of pointed essays also revealed his political viewpoint.

By that time, Orwell clearly saw himself as a political performer whose tool was writing. He wrote in a 1946 essay, “Why I Write,” that “every line of serious work that I have written since 1936 has been written, directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism and for democratic socialism, as I understand it.”

Orwell’s next book, Animal Farm, a fable about the events during and following the Russian Revolution, was well liked by critics and the public. He had had trouble finding a publisher during World War II because the work was a disguised criticism of Russia, England’s ally at the time. When it was finally published, just after the war, however, it was a smashing success.

The money Orwell made from Animal Farm allowed him, in 1947, to rent a house on Jura, an island off the coast of Scotland, where he began to work on 1984. His work was interrupted by treatment for tuberculosis, which he had contracted in the 1930s, and upon his release from the hospital in 1948 Orwell returned to Jura to complete the book. Under doctor’s orders to work no more than one hour a day, but unable to find a typist to travel to his home, he typed the manuscript himself and collapsed upon completion of the book. For the next two years he was bedridden. Many critics claim that Orwell’s failing health may have influenced the tone and outcome of the novel, and Orwell admitted that they were probably right.

Orwell did plan to write other books, according to his friends, and married while in the hospital, but three months later in 1950 he finally died of tuberculosis.

George Orwell Biography

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George Orwell (Eric Blair)

Introduction

How did it happen that a socialist wrote some of the greatest criticisms of totalitarianism published in the twentieth century? The answer: honesty and direct personal experience. George Orwell (Eric Allan Blair's pen name) is best known for his novels Animal Farm and 1984. The first is a fable written in simple language, the second is a dystopian novel full of brutal description and dense theoretical discussions of politics, but both methodically expose the dangers of the totalitarian state. Orwell is also known as one of the greatest essayists of the twentieth century. “Shooting an Elephant” and “Politics and the English Language” are still widely read today—and are still powerful statements on the nature of ethics, responsibility, politics, and writing.

Essential Facts

  1. Orwell was born in Bengal, India (which was still part of the British Empire at the time), but he was sent to England when he was a year old. Orwell’s father stayed in India, and Orwell didn’t see him again for years.
  2. One nice thing about Orwell is that you don’t have to guess what he thinks about a subject; he has usually left written records. In his essay “Such, Such Were the Joys,” Orwell describes in detail his unhappy experience at English boarding schools. The essay starts with him wetting the bed and moves quickly to him getting beaten for it.
  3. Orwell served in the Indian Imperial Police in Burma, which gave him a chance to see imperial and racial politics first hand.
  4. In his nonfiction work Down and Out in London and Paris, Orwell describes his experience tramping around England and France. He took low-paying jobs requiring very long hours, was unemployed at other times, and once had to sleep on the beach to dodge a landlord.
  5. While fighting on the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War, Orwell was shot through the neck and nearly died.

George Orwell Biography (Beacham's Guide to Literature for Young Adults)

Born Eric Arthur Blair in Motihari, Bengal, India, on June 25, 1903, George Orwell was the son of a British civil servant and belonged to...

(The entire section is 508 words.)

George Orwell Biography (Novels for Students)

George Orwell was born Eric Arthur Blair in Bengal, India, in 1903, into a family that had to struggle to make ends meet. The son of a...

(The entire section is 688 words.)

Ed. Scott Locklear