Horton, George Moses
George Moses Horton 1797?-1883?
Referred to by some critics as “the slave bard of North Carolina,” Horton is generally praised for his poetic achievements, and his name is usually associated with several “firsts” in American literature. He was the first black southerner to have a book of poetry published; he was the only slave to derive a substantial income from selling his poems; he was the first American slave to write antislavery poems; and he was the only poet ever to publish a book of poetry before being able to write. His poems cover a wide variety of subjects, including freedom, antislavery, love, religion, and death, and although critics, in general, do not equate his talent with that of major nineteenth-century poets, they do find his achievements remarkable in light of the circumstances of his life as a slave.
Horton was born into slavery in North Carolina, probably in 1797, under the ownership of William Horton, a small landowner. Horton's mother and siblings were all slaves of the same owner, according to his autobiographical writings. He does not mention a great deal about his father except to say that he was his mother's second husband and apparently did not live with them. When Horton was very young, William Horton took his slaves and moved to a new farm near the town of Chapel Hill. George Moses Horton, of course, had no formal schooling, but with the help of his mother and her Wesley hymnal, which the slaves used at religious camp meetings, he did learn to read (before he could write). When Horton was about nineteen or twenty, he started making weekly treks from the farm into Chapel Hill on weekends to sell his master's fruit. Chapel Hill was the site of the state university, and it was on these weekend visits that Horton came into contact with university students and faculty. His literary “career” began when the students hired him to compose poetry, usually in the form of love poems or acrostics using their sweethearts' names. He would take “orders” on these weekends and create verse while working on the farm during the week. He would memorize the poems and later dictate them to one of the students, who would copy them. Horton made a tidy sum from this business venture, charging a minimum of twenty-five cents per poem. He became so popular with the students that he earned enough money to pay his owner, James Horton (son of William, to whom ownership of George had passed), to allow him to stay in Chapel Hill all week long for a fee of twenty-five cents per day, an unheard-of arrangement in those days. Some critics argue that Horton was such a poor farmhand that it was more lucrative for James Horton to take the fee than to have him in the fields. It was also during his time in Chapel Hill that Horton met the poet and writer Caroline Lee Hentz, wife of a university faculty member. She advised him on his writing technique and helped him get some of his poetry into print. One of Horton's poems was published in abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison's popular Liberator.
Two efforts were made by northern and southern abolitionists on Horton's behalf to secure his freedom, one of which involved the publication of Horton's first book of poetry, The Hope of Liberty (1829). His supporters hoped that the proceeds from this book would be great enough to pay off Horton's owner and gain his freedom. Although the desired result did not occur, the book was noteworthy for several reasons, not the least of which was that it was the first book ever published by a slave in a slaveholding state. Horton later published two more books of poetry, The Poetical Works of George M. Horton (1845) and Naked Genius (1865). Horton returned to the farm with the outbreak of the Civil War, as many of his clients had left to enlist in the war and he could no longer earn enough money to stay in Chapel Hill. After the war, as a free man, he went to Philadelphia, and little is known about his activities there and until his death. Some critics suggest that he might have returned to North Carolina and died there; others believe he died in Philadelphia. At some point, perhaps around the late 1830s, Horton had married a slave woman from another farm and had two children with her, but since he never mentioned his family overtly in any of his writing, little is known about them.
Critics focus most of their commentary on Horton's first book, The Hope of Liberty, a collection of more than twenty poems about love, death, religion, and slavery, themes that Horton would revisit in his two other books. John L. Cobbs argues that all of the poems have the underlying theme of flight—in essence, freedom—binding them together, and most critics agree that Horton's verse is influenced by biblical writings and hymns, as well as by British poets, especially Lord Byron, one of Horton's favorites. The Hope of Liberty was republished as Poems by a Slave in 1937 in Philadelphia by abolitionist Lewis Gunn. Horton's second book, Poetical Works, was published after the North Carolina state legislature had passed a law banning all slaves from learning how to read and write, it is therefore noteworthy that the book was published at all. Although the editors would have had to have been careful not to include poems about slavery and liberty, a few of the poems contain Horton's antislavery views. The poems in this volume also address the themes of religion, patriotism, drinking, scholarship, fame, and love. Horton's third poetry collection, Naked Genius, resulted from Horton's collaboration with a Civil War officer from Michigan named William Banks. This is by far the largest of the three volumes, containing over 130 poems. While many of these poems are on themes Horton had addressed previously, those on slavery are angrier and more strident than in earlier efforts. The volume also contains humorous and misogynistic poems. Some critics have speculated on whether the negative comments on women were directed at Horton's wife.
Although Horton did well for himself financially and socially with his poems for the students at the university, he did not enjoy the same success with his three volumes of poetry. None of the three books brought him any significant financial gain nor any critical commentary; he was largely ignored. The latter is also largely true for the first half of the twentieth century; his work received some attention from critics, but most of it was dismissive or at best, mixed. Since then, however, Horton's poetry has gained a greater audience from those who recognize his talent and achievements despite the fact that his poetry is not considered among the best in American literature. Instead of dismissing Horton's poetry outright, these critics look at his entire life and career and find him quite unusual and extraordinary.
The Hope of Liberty (poetry) 1829; revised as Poems by a Slave 1937
The Poetical Works of George M. Horton, The Colored Bard of North Carolina to Which is Prefixed the Life of the Author Written by Himself (poetry) 1845
Naked Genius (poetry) 1865
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SOURCE: “George Moses Horton: Slave Poet,” in The Southern Workman, Vol. XLIII, No. 10, October, 1914, pp. 571-77.
[In the following essay, Weeks offers a brief overview of Horton's life and literary works.]
“Honor and shame from no condition rise; Act well your part, there all the honor lies.”
Thus wrote Alexander Pope, and his lines had a unique fulfillment in the life of George Moses Horton, a slave of Chatham County, N.C., who has been recently characterized by a modern North Carolina scholar as “a slave who owned his master; a poet ignorant of the rules of prosody; a man of letters before he learned to read; a writer of short stories who published in several papers simultaneously before the day of newspaper syndicates; an author who supported himself and his family in an intellectual center before authorship had attained the dignity of a profession in America.”
The documentary evidence on the life of George Moses Horton is small and the traditional accounts are more or less conflicting, but it is believed that the following is substantially correct. According to the preface to “The Hope of Liberty” George was born a slave in 1797. Professor George S. Willis, a careful and enthusiastic scholar who has gone into the matter of George's history at some length, says that George was born the slave of Mr. William Horton on Roanoke River in Northampton...
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SOURCE: “Prodigy at the University,” in The Black Poet, Philosophical Library, 1966, pp. 18-51.
[In the following essay, from the first and only biography of Horton, Walser details Horton's years as a poet-for-hire among the students at the University of North Carolina.]
When he was nineteen or twenty, George Moses began his regular visits to Chapel Hill, seat of the University of North Carolina then only a quarter of a century old. He had heard that the young students cared for poetry as did he, and he was secretly eager to form their acquaintance. Though not apprised of the real reasons, James Horton was agreeable to his request to go there, provided the trips were made on free time and he would take along plantation products to sell.
For the next fifty years, Chapel Hill was to George Moses a place where he caroused in poetry and notoriety, delighting collegians and astounding the skeptics. He was first and foremost of a long line of campus curiosities.
The Chapel Hill of the late 1810s was still the primeval grove so appealing to the founding fathers of the university. As George Moses trudged up the hill on that last mile into the village, he passed through scrub and high oaks. Intersected by the Raleigh-Hillsborough road was the one street, called Franklin, which jutted along the hillside and provided frontage for a blacksmith's shop, a hotel, two stores, two...
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SOURCE: “George Moses Horton: Poet for Freedom,” in CLA Journal, Vol. XIV, No. 3, March, 1971, pp. 227-41.
[In the following essay, Farrison intersperses biographical information about Horton with commentary on his poems about antislavery and freedom.]
During his sixty-eight years in slavery in North Carolina, a mode of existence by no means conducive to an interest in literature, George Moses Horton managed to study poets and the art of poetry and to publish three remarkable collections of original verse. Of pure African parentage, it has been said, he was born on the plantation of William Horton in Northampton County, North Carolina, in 1797. When Horton was about six years old, William Horton moved his family and slaves to a new farm in Chatham County, about ten miles southwest of Chapel Hill. From that time until the end of the Civil War, Horton's home—as far as a slave could be said to have a home—was on that farm.
Horton's interest in learning to read, rhyme, and write was stimulated by the hymns which he heard at revival meetings, by the songs he saw in a hymnal his mother owned, and by his hearing the Bible read. In spite of a want of opportunities, not to speak of conveniences, for study, and although discouraged by his fellow-slaves who said “I was a vain fool to attempt learning to read with as little chance as I had,” Horton persevered and “entered into reading...
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SOURCE: “Roots of Our Literary Culture: George Moses Horton and Biblical Protest,” in Obsidian, Vol. 7, Nos. 2 and 3, Summer/Winter, 1981, pp. 18-28.
[In the following essay, O’Neale analyzes Horton's poem “The Slave” to argue that Horton used biblical symbolism to voice his antislavery sentiments.]
George Moses Horton, the Nineteenth Century Slave poet who is known as the antebellum Black bard of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, had the most romantic style among the three Early Black American poets—Horton, Jupiter Hammon and Phillis Wheatley—who published before the Civil War while they were still in slavery. That is ironic when one considers that unlike those two elder poets, Horton did not have the comparatively easier life of a Northern house servant or administrative slave worker. No, Horton's creative drive was marred by rough agrarian tasks and unrelenting Southern servitude. Of all the poets in the cannon of African-American literature, if any had the right not to sing, not to be filled with hope, not to be a romantic, it was Horton. Instead, as a slave he outpublished both Hammon and Wheatley while maintaining his romantic vision and the same devotion to egalitarian principles of Christianity which they also held.
Horton was owned by a middle-class farmer who cared nothing for education, who scoffed at Horton's reputed genius and who required a...
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SOURCE: “George Moses Horton's Hope of Liberty: Thematic Unity in Early American Black Poetry,” in CLA Journal, Vol. XXIV, No. 4, June, 1982, pp. 441-50.
[In the following essay, Cobbs argues that Horton's first published book of poetry has a common theme throughout what some critics have called a random assortment of poems—the motif of flight.]
A hundred and fifty years after its publication in 1829 in Raleigh, North Carolina, George Moses Horton's Hope of Liberty1 is a little-read landmark in the development of black American poetry. There is no point in claiming for this slim volume of twenty-two poems either great intrinsic literary worth or lasting influence on the progress of either white or black literature. We don’t know how many copies of the first edition were published, but literary historians are unanimous in claiming that sales were disappointing. None of the poems contained more than a few short stanzas, and all were representative of the florid rhetoric and derivative style that characterizes most—one is tempted to say all—early American poetry. Still, Hope of Liberty is a remarkable document, and one which deserves more than the passing reference it receives in even the most distinguished surveys of black literature.
To appreciate Hope of Liberty we must first understand the context within which it appeared. The Colonies...
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Brabham, Robin. “To the Tip-Top Belles' of Mecklenburg County: Two Acrostics by George Moses Horton.” CLA Journal XXX, No. 4 (June 1987): 454-60.
Discusses two acrostics by Horton recovered from the Torrance and Banks family papers in North Carolina.
Brawley, Benjamin. “Three Negro Poets: Horton, Mrs. Harper, and Whitman.” The Journal of Negro History 2, No. 4 (October 1917): 384-92.
Very brief review of the work of three black poets.
Jackson, Blyden. “George Moses Horton, North Carolinian.” The North Carolina Historical Review LIII, No. 2 (April 1976): 140-47.
Brief biography of Horton with some critical commentary on his poetry.
Reeves, William J. “The Significance of Audience in Black Poetry.” Negro American Literature Forum 9, No. 1 (Spring 1975): 30-32.
Uses three examples of black poetry—including “On Liberty and Slavery” by Horton—to consider what influence audience has in interpreting the poems.
M. A. Richmond. “The Slave and the Citadel,” in Bid the Vassal Soar: Interpretive Essays on the Life and Poetry of Phillis Wheatley (ca. 1753-1784) and George Moses Horton (ca. 1797-1883), pp. 84–96. Washington D.C.:Howard University Press, 1974.
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