Etherege, George (Drama Criticism)
George Etherege 1636-1692?
English playwright and poet.
Etherege has been credited as a principal founder of the comedy of manners tradition in English drama. This dramatic genre represents the satirical exploitation of the manners and fashions of the aristocratic class on the stage for the aristocracy's own amusement. Critics have acknowledged Etherege as an accomplished writer of wit, speculating that his comedic voice was shaped by his experiences as a young traveler in France, where he likely witnessed the pioneering social comedy of Molière as well as the ostentatious display of Parisian court fashion and manners. Based on these experiences, Etherege wrote comedies in which he affectionately yet incisively parodied Carolinian attitudes toward a vast array of ideological concerns, including sexuality, naturalism, fashion, and social class. Despite achieving celebrity as a playwright during his lifetime, popular interest in Etherege and his comedies declined significantly in succeeding centuries, to the point that his plays are rarely performed for modern audiences.
Etherege was likely born in London in 1636, to Captain George Etherege and Mary Powney. Little is known about his formative years, other than the fact that his father, who was a royalist during the Civil War, fled to France in 1644 and died in exile six years later. Placed in the care of his grandfather, Etherege was apprenticed to attorney George Gosnold of Beaconsfield in 1654. Five years later, he was admitted to Clements Inn to study law, during which time he was involved in a lawsuit between his uncle and grandfather over a disputed inheritance. Literary scholars have noted that Etherege exhibited neither the aptitude nor the inclination to study law; instead, he began writing poems and bawdy verse that earned him some notoriety in academic and courtly circles. Scholars have discovered little evidence to indicate the substance of Etherege's activities as a young man, but some have argued that he traveled to Flanders and France at this time and became highly influenced by French comedy and manners. Also during this period, Etherege became acquainted with Charles Sackville, Lord Buckhurst, later the Earl of Dorset, who would become a close friend and patron. Back in London by 1664, Etherege became an instant celebrity when his Comical Revenge; or, Love in a Tub debuted to widespread popular acclaim at the Duke's playhouse. Apparently taking advantage of his newfound fame, Etherege embraced a lifestyle of drinking, gambling, and seducing women, earning the nicknames “gentle George” and “easy Etherege” for his devotion to free living. He also became acquainted with a group of court wits known as the “merry gang,” which included Buckhurst, Sir Charles Sedley and John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester. Rochester in particular shared Etherege's libertine proclivities and the two became fast friends. In fact, many scholars contend that the rake Dorimant in The Man of Mode; or, Sir Fopling Flutter (1676) was modeled on Rochester and his real-life antics. In 1668 Etherege's She Would If She Could premiered at the Duke's playhouse. Based on Samuel Pepys's eyewitness account, the audience was disappointed with the play, and Etherege himself placed the blame for the play's failure on the actors' uninspired performances. The failure of the play did not affect Etherege's court preferment; in fact, he was granted gentleman status and assigned as a secretary to the Turkish ambassador, Daniel Harvey. Etherege followed Harvey on a diplomatic mission to Constantinople in late 1668, and after some three years there, he made his way to Paris and then back to London. In London Etherege resumed his life of dissolution, occasionally circulating poems and songs but more often pursuing libertine activities with his “merry gang.” By 1676 Etherege had written his third and final play, The Man of Mode, which was staged at the Dorset Garden Theatre. That same year, Etherege and other members of the “merry gang” were involved in a fracas with a watchman at Epsom, which left a man dead. In the years that followed, Etherege was knighted and he married a rich widow named Mary Arnold. Some biographers have posited that Etherege married Arnold for her fortune in order to pay off his gambling debts and to purchase the knighthood. Based on Etherege's own letters, the union was not happy, and when he was appointed by James II as ambassador to Ratisbon, Germany, in 1685, Arnold did not join him at his new post. By all accounts, Etherege missed his life of ease at the English court. He despised living in conservative, provincial Germany, and he became embroiled in several gambling and sex scandals. Nevertheless, he remained at his post in Ratisbon until he learned of James II's ouster in the Glorious Revolution in late 1688. The following year, Etherege joined James and the exiled court in Paris, where it is believed that he died in 1691 or 1692.
While most commentators have censured Etherege's insubstantial plots and lack of dramatic action in his comedies, they nearly all have acknowledged the brilliance of his brisk and witty dialogue. It is this element, critics have contended, which invigorates his characters and creates humorous scenes which resonated with Carolinian audiences. Because of their lack of technical sophistication, Etherege's plays have often been viewed as prototypes of the later, more refined Restoration comedies of William Wycherley, William Congreve, and John Vanbrugh. In The Comical Revenge, critics have mainly focused on the comic sequences featuring Sir Frederick Frollick. They have posited that Frollick is the embryonic representation of a character type known as the Restoration rake, or a libertine aristocrat with a sharp wit who subscribes to free living, drinking, gambling, and pursuing women for romantic trysts. In She Would If She Could, critics have maintained, Etherege initiated a more complex exploration of sexual politics between his characters, especially Courtall and Lady Cockwood. They have argued that Courtall represents Etherege's ideal libertine of easy morals and fine wit who defies social convention, whereas Lady Cockwood embodies the playwright's disdain for those who succumb to sensual, naturalistic impulses but who hide behind social pretense to manipulate and seduce others. According to most commentators, Etherege achieved artistic maturity in The Man of Mode, a comedy which deftly combines witty dialogue, superbly drawn characters, and Etherege's trademark social satire. Critics have regarded Dorimant, the central character, as the consummate Restoration rake, still given to liberal excess, but also exhibiting a worldly cynicism that suggests a more complex perception of the character than the farcical, one-dimensional Sir Frederick Frollick. The significance of Sir Fopling Flutter as the foil to Dorimant has not been lost on critics: he is the epitome of the vain, superficial man of mode, who is wholly involved in his affectation of courtly manners and fashion. In fact, Sir Fopling initiated the popular stage convention of the foppish imitator of flamboyant French courtly manners who is oblivious to the mocking ridicule of the other characters.
During his lifetime, Etherege's comedies met with general approbation by his peers and audiences, and he was eulogized in numerous contemporary poems and pamphlets. A generation later, the comedies were disdained as vulgar products of a licentious and immoral age. Writing about The Man of Mode in 1711, Sir Richard Steele asserted: “This whole celebrated piece is a perfect contradiction to good manners, good sense, and common honesty.” Throughout the remainder of the eighteenth century and well into the nineteenth, Etherege and his comedies remained in a state of general neglect. In the late nineteenth century, commentators began to reexamine Etherege as a leading innovator in the English comedy of manners, but they still generally dismissed his works as superficial showpieces intended merely to appease the degenerate tastes of Carolinian theatergoers. Etherege's literary reputation suffered another blow when L. C. Knights wrote an essay in 1937 condemning Restoration comedies as “trivial, gross, and dull,” written by dramatists with a “miserably limited set of attitudes.” Knights's essay ignited a critical controversy in which literary scholars set out to restore the reputation of Restoration drama. Many mid- to late-twentieth-century literary scholars have applied a sophisticated, new level of critical analysis to Etherege's comedies. They have maintained that the subtexts of the comedies reveal a complex form of social satire which addressed the most controversial cultural and ethical issues of the Restoration period, including naturalism, skepticism, and libertinism. More recently, commentators have taken this analysis a step further, examining Etherege's comedies as highly charged ideological documents which subvert conventional morality and reveal the cultural dislocation of the aristocratic class in Restoration England. Despite these recent interpretations of Etherege's works, modern scholars nevertheless remain divided in their opinion of the level of his literary achievement. To some, the playwright has been redeemed as a brilliant satirist of the ideological turbulence of the Restoration period; to others, he remains an unsophisticated dramatist who merely intended to amuse and delight his peers by lampooning their court manners on the stage.
The Comical Revenge; or, Love in a Tub 1664
She Would If She Could 1668
The Man of Mode; or, Sir Fopling Flutter 1676
The Works of Sir George Etherege: Containing His Plays and Poems 1704
The Works of Sir George Etherege: Plays and Poems [edited by A. Wilson Verity] 1888
The Dramatic Works of Sir George Etherege. 2 vols. [edited by H. F. B. Brett-Smith] 1927
The Plays of Sir George Etherege [edited by Michael Cordner] 1982
The Letterbook of Sir George Etherege [edited by Sybil Rosenfeld] (letters) 1928
The Poems of Sir George Etherege [edited by James Thorpe] (poetry) 1963
Letters of Sir George Etherege [edited by Frederick Bracher] (letters) 1974
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Criticism: General Studies
SOURCE: Brown, Laura. “Dramatic Social Satire.” In English Dramatic Form, 1660-1760: An Essay in Generic History, pp. 28-65. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1981.
[In the essay below, Brown explores the evolution of social satire in Etherege's plays, finding little criticism of social standards in his two early comedies and a more outspoken approach in The Man of Mode.]
George Etherege's drama … falls into two main periods, a single work, The Man of Mode, constituting the second. And again, those two periods exemplify the course of generic evolution that we have been tracing in this chapter. Etherege's first plays (The Comical Revenge, 1664, and She Would If She Could, 1668) contain the same intriguelike or “all in fun” qualities as Dryden's early comedies: a tendency to emphasize a clever resolution of the plot at the expense of serious content, and, as a corollary, a consistent attempt to defuse conflict and eliminate sexual impropriety. But even more than Dryden's, Etherege's career clearly evolves toward full social satire. For this reason, the distinction between Etherege's early comedies and his last, best play provides a good basis for a clear definition of the form and ideology of the major dramatic social satire of the mid-1670s.
Etherege's first play, The Comical Revenge, is a multiple-plot tragicomedy with the characteristic...
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Criticism: The Comical Revenge (1664)
SOURCE: Huseboe, Arthur R. “The Comical Revenge; or, Love in a Tub (1664).” In Sir George Etherege, pp. 51-66. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1987.
[In the following essay, Huseboe analyzes the structure and major themes of The Comical Revenge, particularly noting Sir Frederick Frollick's significance as a unifying element in the play.]
“A NEW TONE AND ATTITUDE”
What was there in George Etherege's first play to make it the most popular comedy to be performed since the restoration of the London stage in 1660? Was it the novelty of his portraying lifelike people in contemporary London settings, as has been frequently suggested, that led to an unprecedented month-long run in March 1664? Or was it that Etherege had cleverly brought together in one comedy the best ingredients of a variety of different well-liked types of drama?
The combination in The Comical Revenge of social comedy with serious heroic play and lively farce was doubtless one of the reasons for its success. Most of the varied material in the play would have been familiar to audiences in 1664. The admirable heroic lovers, for example, a type that seems to modern readers too idealistic for comedy, had been seen recently in Sir William Davenant's popular plays; and viewers would have been sympathetic to their blank-verse sentiments, believing with Davenant that providing...
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Criticism: She Would If She Could (1668)
SOURCE: Cordner, Michael. “Etherege's She Would If She Could: Comedy, Complaisance and Anti-Climax.” In English Comedy, edited by Michael Cordner, Peter Holland, and John Kerrigan, pp. 158-79. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
[In the following essay, Cordner maintains that Etherege deliberately utilized the device of anticlimax in the courtship and marital discord plot lines in She Would If She Could to allow his rake-heroes the ability to maneuver successfully through the courtship process.]
The première of George Etherege's second comedy was an unhappy occasion. The triumphant success of its predecessor and the subsequent delay of four years before the unveiling of this sequel heightened expectations in advance of the first performance of She Would If She Could on 6 February 1668 at the Duke's Playhouse in Lincoln's Inn Fields. But, in the event, the new play pleased almost no one. Samuel Pepys, who was present at the première, reported how most spectators in the pit agreed with him in blaming ‘the play as a silly, dull thing, though there was something very roguish and witty; but the design of the play, and end, mighty insipid’. He did, however, also observe an embryonic group of dissenters from this prevailing view: ‘among the rest, here was the Duke of Buckingham today openly sat in the pit; and there I found him with my Lord Buckhurst and Sidly and...
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Criticism: The Man Of Mode (1676)
SOURCE: Davies, Paul C. “The State of Nature and the State of War: A Reconsideration of The Man of Mode.” University of Toronto Quarterly 39, no. 1 (October 1969): 53-62.
[In the following essay, Davies argues that a “true understanding” of the relationship between Dorimant and Harriet is essential for understanding The Man of Mode as a whole.]
In The First Modern Comedies Norman Holland spoke of the traditional dispraise of Restoration comedy under the general heading “The Critical Failure.”1 His book, together with Thomas H. Fujimura's, is a notable recent example of what we might call “The Critical Success” with regard to these dramatists.2 By relating the play to the current literature of ideas they, along with Dale Underwood,3 have done much to refute L. C. Knights' view that Restoration comedy “has no significant relation with the best thought of the time.”4
There seems, however, to be some difference of opinion about Etherege and, in particular, The Man of Mode. Underwood sees Dorimant as a libertine burning with a passion for conquest and power. Fujimura and Holland regard him more sympathetically and bring out the less sinister aspects of this “natural” man—his intelligence, wit, and charm. Both points of view are open to certain criticisms. Kathleen M. Lynch, John Hayman, and Leo...
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SOURCE: Hayman, John G. “Dorimant and the Comedy of A Man of Mode.” Modern Language Quarterly 30 (1969): 183-97.
[In the essay below, Hayman contends that the “comic movement” of The Man of Mode rests on Dorimant's “initial skill and subsequent failure in fulfilling the requirements of polite society and turning them to some ulterior end.”]
I will take for granted, that a fine Gentleman should be honest in his Actions, and refined in his Language. Instead of this, our Hero, in this Piece, is a direct Knave in his Designs, and a Clown in his Language.
(Richard Steele, The Spectator, No. 65, May 15, 1711)
Dorimont not only pass'd for a fine Gentleman with the Court of King Charles the Second, but he has pass'd for such with all the World, for Fifty Years together. And what indeed can one mean, when he speaks of a fine Gentleman, but one who is qualify'd in Conversation, to please the best Company of either Sex?
(John Dennis, A Defence of Sir Fopling Flutter )
The comments of Steele and Dennis indicate that even by the early eighteenth century there was disagreement about the relevant standards against which Dorimant should be viewed. It is perhaps to be expected therefore that even wider disagreement...
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SOURCE: Zimbardo, Rose A. “Of Women, Comic Imitation of Nature, and Etherege's The Man of Mode.” SEL: Studies in English Literature, 1500-1800 21, no. 3 (summer 1981): 373-87.
[In the essay below, Zimbardo analyzes the comic function of the female characters in The Man of Mode, noting that Etherege was one of the last playwrights of the Restoration period to utilize women to achieve proper comic perspective.]
Let [women] look with their clearest vision abroad and at home. They will see that where they have no social freedom, comedy is absent, where they are household drudges, the form of comedy is primitive; where they are tolerably independent, but uncultivated, exciting melodrama takes its place, and a sentimental vision of them. … But where women are on the road to an equal footing with men, in attainment and in liberty—in what they have won for themselves, and what has been granted them by a fair civilization—there, and only waiting to be transplanted from life to the stage, or the novel, or the poem, pure comedy flourishes.1
It has been nearly a hundred years since Meredith, in his famous lecture to the London Institution, pointed out the connection between comedy and women's freedom, and warned women that sentimentalism was their enemy. Yet scholars have considered Meredith's remarks on comedy too general to be of...
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SOURCE: Hughes, Derek. “Play and Passion in The Man of Mode.” Comparative Drama 15, no. 3 (fall 1981): 231-57.
[In the essay below, Hughes examines game-playing and religious imagery in The Man of Mode, maintaining that the subtly shifting images reveal Etherege's attitudes toward games and the losers in those games.]
Discussions of The Man of Mode repeatedly, and properly, dwell on two of its most clearly important elements. One is the portrayal of life as a game. Unable to decide “what, if anything, Etherege wants us to take seriously,” Norman N. Holland concludes that “Virtually every action of every character becomes a gambit in a great and meaningless social game.” But for other critics the game is far from meaningless. Virginia Ogden Birdsall sees Restoration comedy as a celebration of play and argues that Dorimant and Harriet are rewarded for their mastery in “the love game” and “the game of life.” Countering moralistic readings of the play, Harriett Hawkins also argues that the hero and heroine are to be admired for their supremacy in “the game of love.” Finally, in an excellent discussion of the play, Roberta F. S. Borkat again studies “the game of love,” and shows that metaphors of game-playing provide one of Etherege's most important and prominent patterns of imagery. The other widely analyzed thematic pattern is that of the religious imagery....
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SOURCE: Barnard, John. “Point of View in The Man of Mode.” Essays in Criticism 34, no. 4 (October 1984): 285-308.
[In the following essay, Barnard investigates the relationship between the text of The Man of Mode and how Restoration cultural milieu likely influenced the way it was staged in Etherege's time.]
Each performance of a play is a fresh collaborative creation between actors and audience. Even though an audience is worked upon by the combined skills of actors, designer, and director, its response is not passive but dynamic. The reader of a published play has a quite different relationship to the play-text, which, once in book form, has a fixity neither possible nor desirable on the stage—as Philip Gaskell's record of the first performed text and first printed text of Stoppard's Travesties demonstrates.1 Dramatic criticism has, traditionally, read drama more as literature than as performance but, despite Dr. Johnson, ‘a play read’ does not ‘affect the mind like a play acted’. Recent criticism of Shakespeare has made this increasingly apparent, as has criticism of Restoration comedy, most effectively in the work of Peter Holland and that of Robert Hume and Judith Milhous.2 Their main emphasis falls on the importance of a knowledge of stage conditions, actors, cast-lists and what was done on the stage rather than on the audience's...
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SOURCE: Walsh, Paul. “Performance, Space, and Seduction in George Etherege's The Man of Mode (Dorset Garden Theatre, 1676).” Essays in Theatre/Études Théâtrales 11, no. 2 (May 1993): 123-31.
[In the essay below, Walsh proposes a possible seventeenth-century staging of The Man of Mode, exploring how “performance space”—the physical environment of the theater and the audience interaction with the actors—perhaps influenced the “dynamics of seduction and revelation” in the play.]
George Etherege's The Man of Mode is widely considered an early example of what has come to be called the Comedy of Manners, a genre of English comedy that took particular form in the 1670s in imitation of Molière. Like the plays of such contemporaries as William Wycherley, Thomas Shadwell and Aphra Behn, however, Etherege's witty portrayal of the artificialities of social discourse turns quickly to an ironic, equivocal and generally ambiguous exposition of the dynamics of sexual desire, played out under the guise of a satiric city comedy. It is not surprising that The Man of Mode was attacked in later years as lewd, lascivious and generally indecent. Both thematically and structurally, it toys with strategies of seduction and scandal, inviting its audience to participate as judicious observers in a display of ambiguous signs that beg to be deciphered according to the hidden syntax of...
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SOURCE: Fisher, Judith W. “The Power of Performance: Sir George Etherege's The Man of Mode.” Restoration and Eighteenth-Century Theatre Research 10, no. 1 (summer 1995): 15-28.
[In the following essay, Fisher examines the text of The Man of Mode in an effort to reconstruct how the play might have been staged for Etherege's audience.]
For years plays have been subjected to literary analyses which overlook a fundamental aspect of drama—the performance. Many of the critics who have written on the subject of Restoration drama have acknowledged that the comedy of manners was so named because it reflected the manners of the society, that is, the audience for whom it was performed, but they pursued the matter of performance no further.1 In recent years several scholars have attempted to rectify this omission.2 A good play, of course, has no single interpretation of the kind a literary analysis seeks. In order to produce a play on stage, however, a choice must be made from among the various interpretations, or “bundle of potentialities” (Milhous and Hume 1985, 5), offered by the playwright's script. In this production analysis of Sir George Etherege's The Man of Mode I shall look at some of the more ambiguous areas of interpretation in an attempt to make choices based on the evidence in the text itself.
Some of the major problems, looked at...
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Mann, David D. Sir George Etherege: A Reference Guide. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co., 1981, 135 p.
Comprehensive bibliography of Etherege's life and works, ranging from 1664 to 1980.
Bell, Robert. “The Comedies of Etherege.” Fortnightly Review 3, no. 15 (15 December 1865): 298-316.
Acknowledges Etherege as the inventor of the comedy of manners and favorably surveys his dramatic works.
Berglund, Lisa. “The Language of Libertines: Subversive Morality in The Man of Mode.” SEL: Studies in English Literature, 1500-1800 30, no. 3 (summer 1990): 369-86.
Explores how Dorimant and his retinue use a “libertine language” of extended metaphors and analogies to subvert conventional morality in The Man of Mode.
Birdsall, Virginia Ogden. “The Man of Mode, or Sir Fopling Flutter.” In Wild Civility: The English Comic Spirit on the Restoration Stage, pp. 77-104. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1970.
Examines the contrast of lifestyles between Sir Fopling Flutter's rule-bound world of social pretense and Dormant and Harriet's natural, honest, and self-deterministic world.
Boyette, Purvis E. “The Songs of George Etherege.” SEL: Studies in English Literature,...
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