Scudéry, George de
Georges de Scudéry 1601-1667
French playwright, novelist, poet, and critic.
Scudéry was a popular playwright, a successful poet and novelist, and a member of the Académie Française. He was also well known for several influential works of literary criticism, particularly Observations sur Le Cid (1637). This critique of Pierre Corneille's play Le Cid started a heated literary debate on the proper definition of tragedy, known as the “Querelle du Cid.” Scudéry's career as a novelist has been more difficult to assess. His younger sister, Madeleine de Scudéry, was also a novelist, and it is believed that she either shared authorship or wholly wrote many of the novels published under Scudéry's name. Despite such unresolved questions, Scudéry has been regarded as a vital force in seventeenth-century French literature.
Scudéry was born in 1601, the son of Georges de Scudéry and Madeleine de Martel de Goustimesnil. Of the couple's five children, only Scudéry and his sister Madeleine survived past infancy. Scudéry's father was of noble extraction, served in the army as an officer and administrator, and was the captain of the port of Le Havre. Scudéry and his sister were orphaned when their parents died within months of each other in 1613. The children were reared by an uncle who, well schooled himself, gave them an excellent education. In the early 1620s Scudéry joined the military, serving in several campaigns and in a regiment of the Guards. Scudéry often bragged of his military exploits to the point of exaggeration, but most scholars believe his service was generally honorable. His time in the military coincided with the start of his literary career. In 1623 he published his first work, Elégie sur l'arrest de Théophile, in defense of Théophile de Viau, who had been forced into exile from Paris because his writings were declared obscene. Around 1630, about the time he left the army, Scudéry's first play, Lygdamon et Lidias; ou, La Ressemblance, was staged. Between that time and 1643 he wrote sixteen plays. After the failure of Arminius (1643), Scudéry ceased writing plays and began producing novels. Although these multi-volume works were published under Scudéry’s name, critics note that many volumes were written in collaboration with his sister—some insist that most if not all were composed by Madeleine. In 1644 Scudéry left Paris, having been named the governor and capitaine des gallères of Notre Dame de la Garde at Marseilles. He returned to Paris three years later, possibly having been dismissed from his post. In 1649 Scudéry published one of his several volumes of poetry, Poésies diverses, and was elected to the Académie Française the following year. He was forced to leave Paris in the early 1650s as a result of his support of the rebels in the Fronde, an abortive revolution. He went first to Granville, then to Normandy, where he married Marie Madeleine de Martin-Vast in 1654. About this time he became estranged from his sister. In 1661 Scudéry returned to Paris and received a pension from the king. In his last years he did some translating work and wrote Les Femmes illustres; ou, Les Harangues héroïques. He died on May 14, 1667.
Scudéry's first literary success came in the theater. Twelve of his sixteen plays were tragicomedies, including his first, Lygdamon et Lidias, and the one often considered his best, L'Amour tyrannique (1638). Scudéry was also well known for several influential works of literary criticism. Observations sur Le Cid was one of his most important critical works. In this essay, published in 1637, he censured Corneille's drama Le Cid on several fronts, including the morality of the play, the liberties Corneille took with established dramatic rules, the quality of the dialogue, and the questionable merit of the subject matter itself. Corneille's vicious response to Observations sur Le Cid and his other critiques of Scudéry's work began the so-called “Querelle du Cid,” a heated literary debate on the proper definition of tragedy. Scudéry further elaborated his views on drama in L'Apoligie du théâtre (1639). Scudéry's reputation as a novelist is clouded by questions of the degree to which he or his sister should be considered the author of the works published under his name. While scholars concede that Scudéry's share in Ibrahim, Artamène, ou Le Grand Cyrus (1649-53), Clélie (1654-60), and Almahide; ou, L'Esclave reine (1660-63) can never be definitively established, most acknowledge that he contributed in some manner to these works—possibly creating plot outlines and constructing battle scenes. Throughout his career, Scudéry also wrote verse of varied subject matter and form. Notable among his poetic works are Le Cabinet de M. de Scudéry (1646), a collection of poems based on paintings, both contemporary and ancient, and Alaric, ou Rome vaincue (1654), a twelve-volume epic poem on the king of the Visigoths that went through seven editions in Scudéry's lifetime.
A highly regarded playwright and novelist, Scudéry was a prominent figure in his day. His theatrical pieces were admired by his contemporaries as well as by later critics; Scudéry's most famous play, L'Amour tyrannique, won him the respect of Honore de Balzac, who contended that Scudéry was a great poet. Scudéry's plays have continued to be studied by modern critics, such as Henry Carrington Lancaster, who has examined his last tragicomedy, Le Prince déguisé, and praised its unity, intrigue, and “spectacular setting.” Barbara Matulka has also studied Le Prince déguisé, focusing on the possible sources of the play and listing the Spanish novel Primaleón (1512) and Juan de Flores's Historia de Aurelio e Isabella as primary sources for Scudéry's play. The critic noted that although Scudéry relied heavily on his sources for his plot and themes, he was able to position his play “in a new and clever disguise,” thus introducing a sense of novelty to the well-worn themes of his sources. Scudéry's novels have also been the subject of many critical studies. Jerome W. Schweitzer has investigated the influence of Scudéry's works on Samuel Richardson, who is considered by many to be the father of the modern English novel, and on playwright John Dryden, who used Almahide as source material for his plays. The authorship question has inevitably played a role in the criticism of Scudéry's novels. Both William Roberts and Schweitzer have contended that Scudéry, not his sister, wrote Almahide. Schweitzer also noted the novel’s value as “a document of seventeenth-century life” and contended that it is worthy of more praise than it has received. Scudéry's poetry has not been as highly esteemed as his novels and plays. Schweitzer has maintained that much of his poetry is “worthless,” contending that “as a poet he was admittedly mediocre except on those rare occasions when inspired by nature or by a sense of history.” Scudéry's literary criticism and theoretical works, particularly Observations sur Le Cid and his preface to Ibrahim, have also been studied by critics for their influence on his contemporaries and later writers.
Elégie sur l'arrest de Théophile (poetry) 1623
Lygdamon et Lidias; ou, La Ressemblance (play) 1630
Le Trompeur puni; ou, L'Histoire septentrionalde (play) 1631
La Vassal généreux, poème tragi-comique (play) 1632
Orante (play) 1633
Le Temple, poème à la gloire du Roi et de M. le cardinal de Richelieu (poetry) 1633
La Comédie des comédiens, poème de nouvelle invention (play) 1634
Le Fils supposé (play) 1634
Le Prince déguisé (play) 1634
Discours de la France à Mgr le cardinal duc de Richelieu après son retour de Nancy (poetry) 1635
La Mort de César (play) 1635
Didon (play) 1635-36
L'Amant libéral (play) 1636-37
Observations sur Le Cid (criticism) 1637
L'Amour tyrannique (play) 1638
L'Apoligie du théâtre (essay) 1639
Eudoxe (play) 1639
Andromire (play) 1640
Ibrahim; ou, L'Illustre Bassa. 4 vols. [with Madeleine de Scudéry] (novel) 1641
Ibrahim; ou, L'Illustre Bassa (play) 1641-42
Axiane, tragi-comédie en prose (play) 1642-43...
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SOURCE: Lancaster, Henry Carrington. “Tragi-comedy from 1630 to 1634: Tragi-comedies by Scudéry, du Ryer, and Rotrou.” In A History of French Dramatic Literature in the Seventeenth Century. Part I: The Pre-Classical Period, 1610-1634, Volume II, pp. 472-500. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1929.
[In following excerpt, Lancaster analyzes Scudéry's tragicomedies, discussing their sources and providing original production information.]
We come now to three authors who were well known in their century and have preserved a certain amount of celebrity even today, Georges de Scudéry, the soldier, Pierre Du Ryer, the scholar, and Jean Rotrou, the magistrate. Of these the last two had written plays before 1630, while Scudéry made his début probably in this year. His father belonged to a noble family of Provence, but had taken up his residence at Le Havre because of his career as an army officer and administrator. There he married and became in 1601 the father of Georges, of the more famous Madeleine in 16081. After the death of his parents, Georges was apparently brought up by his relatives and served in the army for a number of years, taking part in the affair of the Pas de Suze (March, 1629). He left the regiment of Guards not long after this date and wrote his first play2, which could hardly have been composed and acted before 1630. His first published work had appeared in...
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SOURCE: Matulka, Barbara. “The Influence of the Grisel y Mirabella in France: Scudéry: Le Prince Déguisé.” In The Novels of Juan de Flores and Their European Diffusion: A Study in Comparative Literature, pp. 203-11. New York: Institute of French Studies, 1931.
[In the excerpt below, Matulka argues that while Le Prince déguisé is indebted to Flores's Historia de Aurelio e Isabella, for its principal themes, the play incorporates elements from a number of other sources as well.]
The principal influence in France of Juan de Flores' Historia de Aurelio e Isabella is found in Scudéry's Le Prince Déguisé.1 In a general way this connection has been noted by scholars,2 but the exact relation of Scudéry's tragi-comedy to its Spanish, as well as to its other sources, has been only lately investigated. For the purposes of the present study, we shall condense here the conclusions at which we arrived in a previous publication.3
Clearque, son of the King of Naples, had wandered over Europe disguised as a knight, to study statecraft. During these travels he fell in love with Argenie, the fair daughter of the King of Sicily, and asked his father's consent to marry her. His father was pleased at his choice and sent an embassy to Argenie's father. But, for some unknown reason, the King of Sicily rejected the suit. In...
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SOURCE: Matulka, Barbara. “The Main Source of Scudéry's Le Prince Déguisé: The Primaleon.” The Romanic Review XXV (January-March 1934): 1-14.
[In following essay, Matulka explores in detail the possible sources that inspired Scudéry's Le Prince déguisé and analyzes the themes of the play.]
The sources of Scudéry's popular Prince déguisé offer an intriguing problem for the genesis of the romanesque tragi-comedy at the time of Corneille's Cid.1 In a previous publication,2 I have pointed out that for his “belle intrigue” he had amalgamated motives from many sources: from Juan de Flores he took the law condemning the more guilty of two lovers, from the Orlando Furioso he adopted the final duel, from Sorel's Francion he borrowed comic scenes, and he did not disdain the commonplace literary motives disseminated in the literature of his day. Furthermore I showed,—and this is perhaps more important from the esthetic point of view,—that he elaborated a variation of the courtly Cid theme, which he might have known through various sources as, for instance, Feliciano de Silva's Florisel de Niquea of the Amadís series, where the theme of Love versus Hatred is already clearly developed.3 Scudéry's heroine, the Princess Argénie, passes through the same psychological crisis as...
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SOURCE: Schweitzer, Jerome W. “Almahide: Its Component Parts, Composition, and Style” and “Conclusion.” In George de Scudéry's Almahide: Authorship, Analysis, Sources and Structure, pp. 105-54. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1939.
[In the excerpt that follows, Schweitzer investigates a number of themes, devices, motifs, and techniques deployed in Almahide.]
With the exception of an analysis of the plots of the several histoires in Almahide, this study has thus far been concerned primarily with an examination of the novel as it is related to its predecessors, its authorship, its place in French literature, and its relationship to its sources. It has been pointed out that it includes elements of the historical novel and the novel of chivalry, and mention has been made that it is a social study of Seventeenth Century society with its echoes from the salons of the period, the painting of word portraits, the composition of maxims, discussions of many subjects, particularly of love, and that with the Astrée, it is a forerunner of Diderot's Salons. These points were necessarily introduced earlier in this work in order to show that Almahide was heir to most of the elements included in the romantic novel prior to 1660. It is now proposed to discuss these points in greater detail.
CUSTOMS AND MANNERS
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SOURCE: Schweitzer, Jerome W. “The Scudérys Revisited: Georges de Scudéry (1601-1667).” In Renaissance and Other Studies in Honor of William Leon Wiley, edited by George Bernard Daniel, Jr., pp. 203-14. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1968.
[In the essay below, Schweitzer surveys Scudéry's career and attempts to assess his place in literary history.]
Un grotesque? Un fantoche? Un matamore? Sans doute … Mais, dans son outrance même, un type bien latin. Moustache de chat, feutre emplumé, fou comme don Quichotte, fier comme Bragance et vantard comme Tartarin, ce bohème de lettres d'autrefois a des titres à notre indulgence. On l'oublie, on l'ignore, on ne le comprend plus. Après tout, c'est peut-être dommage. …1
May 14, 1967, marked the tercentenary of the death of Georges de Scudéry.2 As some critics have remarked and Rathéry and Boutron intimate,3 this so-called matamore des lettres had less merit than he thought but more than his adversaries attributed to him.
It is fitting, I think, that some notice be taken at this time of the life and works of this man who, despite all his foibles, his vanity, his conceit, his jealousy and pettiness at times, had in truth no little merit as a writer; he was a warm and faithful friend in the adversity of those who...
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SOURCE: Roberts, William. “New Light on the Authorship of Almahide.” French Studies 25, no. 2 (April 1971): 271-80.
[In the essay below, Roberts presents evidence that Scudéry, not his sister, wrote Almahide.]
Since its appearance in 1660-63, a long-term controversy has gone on concerning the true authorship of a rather rare eight-volume Moorish novel Almahide, ou l'esclave reine, printed by the well-known Parisian publisher Augustin Courbé. In spite of the title-page crediting its origin to ‘Mr de Scudery, Gouverneur de Nostre Dame de la Garde’, the privilege granted to ‘le Sieur de Scudéry’, and the dedicatory letters signed by him, libraries to this day continue to classify it under the name of his sister Madeleine.1 This practice stems probably from the authority of Nicéron, Graesse and especially Brunet who considered the attribution that had earlier been made to Georges ‘mal à propos’.2 Eugène Asse in La Grande Encyclopédie—vol. 29 (1900-01), 834—lists Almahide with all the Scudéry novels as Madeleine's work, excepting perhaps for ‘l'invention du sujet et de leurs nombreux incidents’. He does note the existence of contrary testimony by Chapelain. Lanson's Manuel bibliographique (1921) continues the traditional listing, as does Tchemerzine in 1933, cautioning the reader against being misled by the title-page...
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SOURCE: Showalter, English, Jr. “Techniques of Realism in Early Fiction: Serious Fiction.” In The Evolution of the French Novel, 1641-1782, pp. 124-93. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1972.
[In following excerpt, Showalter examines Scudéry's theories of the novel, as delineated in his preface to Ibrahim.]
Serious fiction is a great deal more nebulous a concept than the comic novel, which can be limited to a dozen or so major works. A serious novel is one in which an effort is made to reproduce reality, however it be defined. As I have pointed out, most comic novels contain examples of serious novels; furthermore, the comic novelist almost unwittingly has to reproduce reality as part of his burlesque of some serious form. I will omit these serious elements of comic fiction from the rest of the discussion, however, so as to avoid ambiguous cases, even though a mistake would only introduce some confusion, not undermine the argument. Most other fiction I take to be serious in intent. As I have already showed, novelists of this era had many different ideas about the nature of reality and the novel's proper relation to it. In principle, I am imposing no a priori standards of realism on the novels, as part of the definition of seriousness. Le Diable boiteux is a serious novel, despite its fantastic frame, and so are many less known allegories, romances, and tales. I have looked...
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Levi, Anthony. “Georges de Scudéry, 1601-1667.” In Guide to French Literature: Beginnings to 1789, pp. 821-27. Detroit: St. James Press, 1994.
Provides an overview of Scudéry's life and works.
Boyce, Benjamin. Introduction to Prefaces to Fiction, pp. i-x. Augustan Reprint Society Publication Number 32. Los Angeles: William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, University of California, 1952.
Surveys Scudéry's role in codifying early theories of the novel by examining the preface to Ibrahim and a conversation included in Clélie. The volume reprints the preface to Ibrahim.
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