The following entry discusses the literature depicting life on the Pampas in Argentina and Uruguay from the 19th and early 20th century.
Often considered the national literature of Argentina, “gaucho literature” is the name given to a broad category of written works—from traditional ballads to novels, plays and poetry—that illustrate the gaucho tradition of the Pampas. Possibly derived etymologically from the native Quichara or Aimará tribal word huajcho, meaning “orphan” or “poor person,” the gauchos were a politically repressed, then eventually romanticized, culture of people coming from a wide-ranging mix of mestizo, indian, black, Jewish, immigrant, and white backgrounds. Over time, these mostly free-ranging horsemen, who eventually were forced to make their livings working on the vast ranches of the Pampas, established a folkloric tradition that would serve to inspire myriad works of literature in the region.
In Argentina today, the gaucho is synonymous with an image shared with that of the American cowboy, and in many ways their cultural roots are similar. As members of an independent class of people that made a living working with the countless herds of cattle, the rugged gaucho has achieved mythical proportions in the urbanized atmosphere of modern-day Argentina as wild adventurers possessed with a sage-like earthy wisdom. But their true origins are much more complicated and wrapped in the history of the Argentine interior. A racial fusion of newly arrived settlers and native peoples were the genesis of the gaucho, who strove to survive on the harsh, dry landscape of the Pampas—an expansive plain extending for 1600 miles from the Paraná River in Uruguay south to the south-central region of Argentina. The early gauchos lived in clustered villages throughout the region, herded cattle and were among the defenders in the repulsion of the English invasion of 1806-1807, and the rebellion against Spanish rule in 1809-1816. Upon the independence of Argentina in 1816, a new effort was made to colonize the interior, which in turn helped to give rise to the ranches that sprang up over the landscape over the following half century. It was this collision of cultures that gave the gaucho literary movement its true impetus starting as early as the 1850's.
In 1845 Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, a future president of the Argentine Republic, released his consequential prose work on politics and social work in Argentina, Facundo, o Civilización i barbarie or, in English, Life in the Argentine Republic in the Days of the Tyrants. In Facundo, he condemned the gauchos as dangerous bandits and urged urban dwellers to settle the pampas en masse so as to reduce gaucho control of the region, neglecting their contributions to Argentina's independence. The book, widely circulated and influential in the densely populated coastal cities, pressed a dark stereotype upon the gaucho in the impressionable eyes of many Argentines who had no knowledge of the Pampas outside of Sarmiento's censures. As a direct result of Sarmiento's efforts, barbed wire fences, farmers and huge ranches began to obstruct the open ranges that the gauchos had become accustomed to, forcing many to alter their lifestyles and find work on the ranches. More troubling however were the increasing oppressive dictums and conditions the gaucho found himself forced to endure—such as conscription (forced military service), latifundism (the land/estate entitlement of the powerful), corrupt and antagonistic local officials, as well as a difficulty in acquiring passports to move about the country.
Prior to these dramatic changes to their lifestyle, gaucho literature existed solely in two nascent forms: the narrative folkloric ballads sung by travelling payadores and the pulp novels written by non-gauchos that were popular in the cities. But with the release of José Hernández's epic El gaucho Martín Fierro (1872; The Gaucho Martín Fierro), the gaucho literary movement found its voice. A fusion of the pulp novel and the traditional folk narrative of the gaucho, it was almost immediately a hit with the masses and served as more than just a true introduction to these Argentine free-riders. A verse narrative that recounts the plights and adventures of its title hero, it was followed by La vuelta Martín Fierro (1879; The Return of Martin Fierro). Strongly sympathetic to the gaucho, Hernández—like many of the authors who would follow his lead—was not a gaucho himself, although he had spent decades in the region and was fiercely admiring of their culture. As a political argument sympathetic to the plight of the victimized gaucho, Martín Fierro was more than merely an expression of his respect of their traditions, it was a daring rebuke against the continuing repression of the gaucho way at a time when such statements were critically unpopular. It created a groundswell for a movement of like-minded authors that were able to finally give the gaucho a voice in the country's affairs. However since few gauchos were educated themselves, the literary coalition consisted of outside authors empathetic to the rough but worldly lifestyle espoused by the gaucho. Even with the assistance of Hernández and other writers of the period such as Eduardo Gutiérrez, Estanislao del Campo, and Antonio Lussich, the gaucho found himself struggling in the face of a new threat: the increasing modernization and industrialization of Argentina. Railroads now criss-crossed the nation connecting even the most remote outposts and rendering the gaucho lifestyle more and more irrelevant with the passing years. Fewer people followed the old traditions and true gauchos began to disappear from the Pampas. Gaucho literature also saw its popularity dim as less writers adopted the form, though intermittent works were still published during this quieter period. However, a new reality in Argentina was setting in that would help to give rise to a second wave of gaucho-themed literature: immigration.
Partially due to Sarmiento's desire to populate the interior of the nation and also to the World War that would eventually lay waste to Europe, the period between 1880 and 1914 saw a wave of immigration bringing 2.5 million new people to the country from foreign nations. Contrary to Sarmiento's hopes, however, few arrivals ventured past the already crowded coastal region. Such a dramatic population shift began to leave native-born Argentineans resentful of the new residents and the ethnic shift they brought to the face of their nation. From this budding animosity sprung an interest in all things la criollo, which referred to Argentina's native cultural traditions. These nationalistic desires gave rise to a resurgence of interest in the gaucho at the beginning of the twentieth century, a tide of interest whose origins were more nostalgic than political in nature. This wave too had a centerpiece—much in the way Martín Fierro had epitomized the movement fifty years earlier—in Ricardo Güiraldes' Don Segundo Sombra (1926).
Güiraldes typified the type of personality behind the new gaucho literature, which again found the vast majority of the canon being written not by the actual gauchos themselves but by men who greatly respected their lifestyle. Born to a wealthy family, Güiraldes spent much of his youth on his family's estancieros among the rough men who worked them, including one man in particular upon whom he fashioned the title hero of Sombra. Perhaps the most-treasured work in Argentine literature, Don Segundo Sombra remains relevant due to the care Güiraldes took in presenting an accurate depiction of the traditions of the gaucho as well as striving to recreate their unique vernacular. Developed around the central plot of a young orphaned man taken under the wing of a grizzled veteran gaucho, it espoused a return to simpler values where a primal respect for the land was the centerpiece for a contented existence. Güiraldes' work helped cement the stereotypical image of the gaucho that had been building upon itself for the past century and a half.
Commonly shown strumming his guitar around a campfire, the gaucho was represented as a craggy man of undemonstrative wisdom who strove to live an independent existence of productive effort. Highly moral, they were portrayed as men of mysterious backgrounds who traded stories of traditional flavor at the end of long days of manual labor. Often relentlessly persecuted, their lives were tangled webs of misfortune and intrigue but high adventure. Wildly varying in quality from the dime-store novel to the masterworks of men like Güiraldes, Alberto Gerchunoff, Benito Lynch, and Leopoldo Lugones, the writing style often consisted of simple metaphors drawn in broad strokes, but always full of great admiration. Given that the majority of these men came from the wealthy landowner elite, the works are surprisingly accurate in their details of the regional flavor and colloquial mannerisms of their subjects. Masculine men of firm loyalty to one another, they are almost uniformly presented as figures of heroic stature, despite the relatively mundane nature of their desires.
An amalgam of myth literature and native folklore, the gaucho genre remains heavily masculine; written by men about men. Borne of the lyrical songs of the gaucho, they were met with as much approval by the subjects themselves as the general populace. The Argentine people treasure the legacy of their nation, a legacy immortalized in part by the gaucho and the literature about them that endures. As a canonical style, the gaucho literature movement was at its peak from about 1850-1930, though many novels, movies, and poetry continue to document their cultural traditions. In recent years, a revival of sorts has occurred in many parts of South America from Brazil south through Uruguay into Argentina, where the tradition of the gaucho is honored in festivals and many people seek to return to the old ways out of a fondness for the past. But whatever the future of the gaucho, the literature inspired by them remains a cultural touchstone. As critic S. Griswold Morley wrote, “in the United States of North America, the cowboy is relegated to the rubbish corners of literature; in Uruguay and Argentina, authors of the first rank are proud to interpret him.”
Paulino Lucero (poetry) 1839-51
Santos Vega (poem) 1851
Estanislao del Campo
Fausto (poem) 1870
Gobierno Gaucho (poem) 1870
Yekl (short stories) 1896
Eduardo Acevedo Díaz
Soledad (novel) 1894
Los Gauchos Judíos (novel) 1910
Don Segundo Sombra (novel) 1926
Juan Moreira (novel and play) 1880
El gaucho Martín Fierro [The Gaucho Martín Fierro] (epic poem) 1872
La vuelta Martín Fierro [The Return of Martin Fierro] (epic poem) 1879
Diálogos Patrióticos (poetry) 1820
Calandria (play) 1898
La Guerra Gaucha (novel) 1905
Odas Seculares (poetry) 1910
Los Tres Gauchos Orientales (novel) 1872
Los Caranchos de la Florida (novel) 1916
Raquela (novel) 1918
El Romance de un Gaucho (novel) 1930
Justino Zavala Muñiz
La Crónica de Muñiz (novel) 1921
Crónica de un Crimen (novel) 1926
Crónica de la Reja (novel)...
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Criticism: Major Works
SOURCE: Spell, Jefferson Rea. “Ricardo Güiraldes: Stylistic Depictor of the Gaucho.” In Contemporary Spanish-American Fiction, pp. 191-204. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1944.
[In the following essay, Spell examines Ricardo Güiraldes's Don Segundo Sombra, a book he believes to have achieved its popular acclaim through its accurate depictions of gaucho life and vernacular.]
The most distinctive of all Spanish-American literature—the literature linked most directly with the country and the people—is the so-called “gaucho” literature of the River Plate region. Pioneers of this type of literature were three long narrative poems—Ascasubi's Santos Vega, 1851, Estanislao del Campo's Fausto, 1866, and José Hernández's Martín Fierro, 1872—all of singular merit. Worthy writers of prose inspired by the gaucho did not appear until the turn of the century. Of these, two deserve mention: Roberto Payró, an Argentine, celebrated for his novelette El Casamiento de Laucha, 1906, and a volume of sketches, Historias de Pago Chico (Stories of Pago Chico), 1908; and Carlos Reyles, a Uruguayan, who, although he knew Europe thoroughly, owes his distinction to his realistic as well as naturalistic depiction of the rural life of his country in such novels as Beba, 1894, El Terruño (The Home Place), 1916, and...
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SOURCE: Holmes, Henry Alfred. “Introduction to Martín Fierro: The Argentine Gaucho Epic by José Hernández.” In Martín Fierro: The Argentine Gaucho Epic by José Hernández, translated with an introduction by Henry Alfred Holmes, pp. XVIII-XXXVI. New York: Hispanic Institute in the United States, 1948.
[In the following introduction to his translation of Hernández's Martín Fierro, Holmes summarizes the narrative poem and concludes that Hernández attempted to link the gaucho to three different states: the lands, the heavens and his fellow man.]
His origin is as striking as everything else about him. In the sixteenth century the Spanish colonizers of the Buenos Aires litoral headed westward and southward over vast plains whose only inhabitants were scattered Indians. The white man's sword and steed slaughtered such red men as did not run away. His passion made concubines of their wives and daughters. To such primitive mates were born lusty sons and daughters, who, mating in their turn and generally avoiding the life of the cities, stocked the Argentine pampa with its mestizo cowboys, scouts, Indian fighters, and their wives. Intermarriage with whites coming from the seaboard settlements made the predominating elements in this racial fusion Spanish.
Continual conflict with the Indians sallying forth from their distant abode to...
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SOURCE: Previtali, Giovanni. “Works of Ricardo Güiraldes.” In Ricardo Güiraldes and Don Segundo Sombra: Life and Works, pp. 143-57. New York: Hispanic Institute in the United States, 1963.
[In the following essay, Previtali explains Güiraldes's motivations and aims in writing Don Segundo Sombra as being from a need to capture and romanticize the disappearing gaucho culture.]
Two tales are introduced into the novel as separate narrative units. They are told by don Segundo. The first, which appears in Chapter XII, is the story of Dolores and the son of the Devil. Dolores, a young paisano, fell in love with a beautiful girl, Consuelo, while spying on her as she bathed in the Paraná River. Suddenly a large, red flamingo swooped down, changed her into a midget, and flew off with her. Running away in a daze, Dolores stumbled upon a good witch who took pity on him. She told him that the flamingo was really the dwarf son of the devil Añang, explaining that he had taken the form of a bird to ravish young maidens. She advised him how to rescue Consuelo by breaking the spell with certain holy charms and Indian magic. Carrying out the good witch's instructions, Dolores proceeded to an island where he found an enchanted palace in which the dwarf had imprisoned his victims. When the flamingo alighted and changed into the form of the dwarf, Dolores caught him...
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SOURCE: Slatta, Richard W. “Man to Myth: Literary and Symbolic Images.” In Gauchos and the Vanishing Frontier, pp. 180-92. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983.
[In the following essay, Slatta demonstrates how Hernández's Martín Fierro and similar works sought to humanize the gaucho tradition in the eyes of the general public after having been tainted by the writings of Domingo Faustino Sarmiento.]
Gauchos disappeared as a recognizable social group in the last third of the nineteenth century, but literary and symbolic evocations persisted into the twentieth. Sarmiento had shaped the negative attitudes of many Argentines toward the gaucho with his compelling dichotomy of civilization versus barbarism. Hernández poetically and convincingly refuted Sarmiento's interpretation with Martín Fierro. The gaucho's disappearance, a necessity to Sarmiento and an avoidable tragedy to Hernández, set the stage for his mythical return in the works of twentieth-century nationalists and traditionalists. Seldom appreciated in life, the gaucho became the embodiment of Argentine character as the nation's thinkers and leaders reconstructed the past to suit twentieth-century political needs. Vanquished by the juggernaut of oppression and modernization, the gaucho persevered to gain a central place in Argentine thought and letters.
Journalist, educator, historian, political...
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SOURCE: Kandiyoti, Dalia. “Comparative Diasporas: The Local and the Mobile in Abraham Cahan and Alberto Gerchunoff.” Modern Fiction Studies 44, no. 1 (spring 1998): 77-79, 95-122.
[In the following essay, Kandiyoti compares two works of Jewish immigration fiction: Abraham Cahan's Yekl and Alberto Gerchunoff's Los Gauchos Judios, and with the section on Gerchunoff, she considers how regional politics and nationalism influenced his writing.]
Recently proliferating theories and politics of migration and diaspora have focused on issues of assimilation, nativism, and nationalism without sufficient consideration of one important concept: the discourse of place as a generative source of culture, and, significantly, the role of place in the experience of displacement and immigrant identity.1 This is a curious gap in critical thinking, especially since the current border crises and immigration panics are about constant redefinitions of place, territory, and frontiers. Even the postmodernist stress on theories of “the local” and the politics of location has produced relatively little thought about the intersections of territory, immigration, and narrative. The nature of places (of origin or dispersal) is crucial to studies of displacement and transition, for the migrant and the conquered have to negotiate new ways of being in concrete spaces with specific attributes. The...
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SOURCE: Kirkpatrick, Gwen. “Cultural Identity, Tradition, and the Legacy of Don Segundo Sombra.” In Ricardo Güiraldes: Don Segundo Sombra, pp. 477-90. Paris, France: Colección Archivos, 1988.
[In the following essay, Kirkpatrick relates the importance of Ricardo Güiraldes's Don Segundo Sombra to Argentine literature and the initial climate into which it was published.]
Regret, nostalgia, dreams of history and of literature—these are the topics Jorge Luis Borges evoked in his remembrance of Don Segundo Sombra, twenty-six years after its publication in 1926. Borges, so skeptical of nationalistic exaltations of “Americanism” or criollismo in literature, made an exception for Güiraldes's novel of the Argentine pampa: “Don Segundo Sombra presupposes and crowns an earlier cult, a literary mythology of the gaucho; … men of history, a hazy dream, and the vivid dream of literature, all give the work its moving resonance. Güiraldes's great gift, not accessible to other cultivators of criollo nostalgia, is to be able to value and understand that deep past.”1
When Borges wrote these words, he did so as one who had seen the creation of a national mythology for Don Segundo Sombra. It had been celebrated as a national epic, consecrated as a classic of Argentine education, and translated into many languages. Its coming-of-age...
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SOURCE: Aizenberg, Edna. “Introduction” In Partricide on the Pampas? A New Study and Translation of Alberto Gerchunoff's ‘Los Gauchos Judios’, pp. 11-32. Madrid, Spain: Vervuert Iberoamericana, 2000.
[In the following introduction to her detailed examination of Los Gauchos Judios, Aizenberg provides a historical perspective to the events surrounding the period from which this book arose, as well as a critical appraisal into its textual components.]
I pick up The Jewish Gauchos once again. I reread the book, nostalgically reliving each of its pages. I see my father's comments written in the margins, and my comments under his. So many decades come alive, so many memories, so many echoes shaking me to the core … As I close the beloved book, I am moved to tears by this testimony to our youth and to the magic of the new land.
What is the meaning of [Gerchunoff's] bucolic Argentina in the face of … the violent Argentina of the Buenos Aires pogroms?
This book inspires strong passions. At first read, it seems an unlikely candidate for such outbursts of emotion. The Jewish Gauchos is a collection of twenty-three stories about turn-of-the-century Jewish immigrants to the Argentine pampa authored...
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SOURCE: Bach, Caleb. “Poet of Shadows on the Pampa.” Américas 54, no. 5 (September-October 2002): 14-21.
[In the following essay, Bach explores the biography of Don Segundo Sombra by examining its author, Ricardo Güiraldes, and its inspiration, Segundo Ramirez.]
No one could forget his courtesy; it was the unsought, first form of his kindness, the lasting measure of a soul clear as the day. Nor can I forget his bizarre serenity, the fine, strong face, the lights of glory and of death. His hand questioning the guitar as in the pure dream of a mirror (You are reality and I its reflection). I see you conversing with us in Quintana. You are there, magic and dead. Yours now, Ricardo, is the open field of yesterday, the dawn of the stallions.
That is how Jorge Luis Borges paid homage to his friend, the writer Ricardo Güiraldes, in Elogio de la sombra (1969). Some forty years earlier, Güiraldes had died of cancer at the age of forty-one, about a year after the publication of the novel that would make him famous, Don Segundo Sombra.
Güiraldes and Borges had collaborated in founding the second version of the literary journal Proa, or prow (which had its office in Borges's home at Calle Quintana 222, hence the reference above), and Güiraldes had worked closely with other literati—Macedonio Fernández,...
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Criticism: Overviews And General Studies
SOURCE: Torres-Ríoseco, Arturo. “Gaucho Literature.” In The Epic of Latin American Literature, pp. 133-67. New York: Oxford University Press, 1942.
[In the following excerpt from a longer work on Latin American writing, Torres-Ríoseco traces the evolution of Gaucho literature from its folkloric origins to its later incarnations in the novels of the 1920's.]
THE GAUCHO: ORIGINS OF FOLK LITERATURE
Spanish America's literary history, like her history in general, may be viewed as a continuous struggle for independence. That is to say, for ‘literary Americanism.’ This concept does not imply any chauvinistic notions of originality at all costs; it does not suggest that to treat of new topics, Spanish American writers must necessarily abandon the achievements of literary technique and tradition. Rather, it describes the growing effort of a New World to express that which is closest to its soil and truest to its racial temperament. This literary independence has not been achieved either quickly or completely; even today it remains partly a goal. Yet there has been a steady movement towards this end—a development in which folk literature, like that of the gaucho, has played a significant role.
Generally speaking, the trend towards literary Americanism has roughly kept pace with Spanish America's politico-social evolution. The process received its first...
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SOURCE: Morley, S. Griswold. “Cowboy and Gaucho Fiction.” In The Western: A Collection of Critical Essays, pp. 111-25. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1979.
[In the following essay, originally published in 1946, Morley compares the histories and traditions of American cowboy-oriented fiction versus that of Argentinian and Uruguayan gaucho narrative, while describing the traits of a classic gaucho novel.]
The cowpuncher is not an exclusive product of the United States of America. Wherever cattle thrive on a large scale there must be men to manage them. Here, what with long grass country, short grass country, Rocky Mountain plateau, part of the deserts, and a slice of the Pacific Coast, there are some 800,000 square miles over which beef critters, as well as buffalo and antelope, have roamed.
Turn now to the south of us, to the Hispanic countries of the Western Hemisphere. Large scale cattle raising is conditioned necessarily by the geography of the land. Extensive plains must exist, and a suitable climate. Going from north to south, the following nations possess a cattle industry of importance: Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, southern Brazil, Uruguay and the Argentine. Each has its type of cowboy. In Mexico he is called a vaquero; in Colombia and Venezuela, a llanero (plainsman); and in the regions along the River Plate, a gaucho. The name gaucho...
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SOURCE: Foster, David William. “Rural Culture Revisited.” In The Argentine Generation of 1880: Ideology and Cultural Texts, pp. 151-77. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1990.
[In the following essay, Foster distinguishes between the stereotypes of rural life and the attempted romanticization they inspired versus the realities of that lifestyle by individually examining several prominent works from the period.]
The basis of Argentine wealth during the period of immense prosperity from 1880 to the Great Depression is to be found in the rural, agricultural sector. The conquest of the desert, the construction of a vast railway system, and a concerted immigration effort are all elements of the program related to this economic base. Yet prosperity meant the possibility of living in splendor in Buenos Aires, and, as for Andrés in Cambaceres's Sin rumbo, the metropolis rather than the farm or ranch came to represent status and well-being. The consequence in Argentine culture is the strong interest from this period forward in urban themes and the displacement by the city of issues related to the countryside, where the immigrants were originally intended to settle, all of which is symptomatic of the inevitability of the urban dominance.
Yet what happened in Buenos Aires affected rural society, if only to overlook, underestimate, and denigrate it. Political priorities set in...
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SOURCE: Katra, William. “The Poetic Tradition of the Gaucho.” In Cowboy Poets and Cowboy Poetry, edited by David Stanley and Elaine Thatcher, pp. 299-314. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2000.
[In the following essay, Katra charts the gaucho style from its beginnings in the original gaucho poetic tradition to its evolution into eventual Gauchesque (imitation gaucho) form.]
No continent has a monopoly on cowboys and their art, for wherever a local beef industry has arisen to satisfy consumer demand a rural society and its poetic expression of life among horses and cattle will thrive. That is particularly true of the region of the Río de la Plata—the river separating Argentina and Uruguay. The area is endowed with some of the world's richest pasturelands and still preserves vast expanses of pampas, or open ranges, for its preponderant cattle industry. Accordingly, the region boasts a centuries-old tradition of gauchos (South American cowboys), gaucho verses, and an extensive repertoire of accompanying dances and music.1
Indeed, the gaucho poetry of the Río de la Plata region presents a case perhaps without precedent in the history of the West. Since the late nineteenth century, the poetic expression of a marginal group of sometimes illiterate ranch hands and range riders has been elevated to the status of a national literature. Poetry and song about horses,...
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Lichtblau, Myron I. “The Gaucho Novel.” In The Argentine Novel in the Nineteenth Century, pp. 121-35. New York: Hispanic Institute in the United States, 1959.
Provides a critical review of four gaucho novels from 1868.
Tinker, Edward Larocque. “The Gaucho in Verse, The Gaucho on Stage and The Gaucho in Prose.” In The Horsemen of the Americas and the Literature They Inspired, Introduction by Thomas F. McGann, pp. 31-70. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1967.
Gives an analysis of the most prominent works of gaucho poetry, drama, and novels respectively.
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