Gaston Bachelard 1884-1962
French philosopher and literary critic.
The following entry provides criticism on Bachelard's career from 1961 through 1991.
Bachelard is widely regarded as a major figure in twentieth-century scientific thought and literary criticism. Although relatively obscure outside of his native France, his essays on science, imagination, space, and reverie are a significant contribution to the fields of philosophy and literature. Moreover, some scholars consider him to be one of the greatest psychoanalysts since Sigmund Freud.
Bachelard was born on June 27, 1884, in Bar-sur-Aube, France. After leaving school, he worked as a postal clerk for nine years. Studying part-time, he earned a degree in mathematics. He served in the French military during World War I then taught natural sciences in Bar-sur-Aube. In 1927 he received his Ph.D. in philosophy at the University of Paris. Two years later he became a professor of philosophy at Dijon, then at the Sorbonne in 1941. He published his well-known philosophical study, La Psychanalyse du feu (The Psychoanalysis of Fire) in 1938, garnering serious critical attention. He won the Grand Prix for literature in 1961 for his contribution to literature and philosophy. On October 16, 1962, Bachelard died in Paris.
A professor of the natural sciences and philosophy, Bachelard focused on the history and philosophy of science early in his career. He was an important figure in the “criticism of science” school, which theorized that the pursuit of scientific knowledge is more than simply observing and analyzing reality because our concept of reality is constantly changing. From there, he began to focus on the creative force of imagination as the key to reality. In La Philosophe du non (1940; The Philosophy of No), he contended that the philosophy of science is polarized between the extremes of rationalism and empiricism. Rather than reject either of these, he attempted to formulate a scientific philosophy that takes both extremes into account. He began to incorporate his scientific philosophy into the study of literature. In La Poétique de l'espace (1957; The Poetics of Space), he offered a phenomenology of poetic image as inner and outer space. Moreover, he considered the image in terms of the “reverberations” it inspired within him. In such works as La Poétique de la rêverie (1960; The Poetics of Reverie) he theorized that since reality is fashioned by imagination, the state of day dreaming, or reverie, is the highest state of mind. He also differentiated between formal and material imagination. In his best known work, The Psychoanalysis of Fire, Bachelard introduced his theory that the four elements—earth, water, fire, and air—embody the creative temperament as well as the basic forms of life. He went on to explore the meanings of these symbols throughout time in world literature. In other works of literary criticism, he traced the use of imagery in the works of such authors as Edgar Allan Poe, Friedrich Nietzsche, Charles Baudelaire, and Lautréamont.
Bachelard is little known outside of his native France. Some scholars have asserted that his contribution to the philosophy of science and literary criticism are so diverse that it is almost impossible to fully evaluate them. The progression of his thought from the philosophy of science to literary criticism has been another area of interest for scholars; The Psychoanalysis of Fire is regarded as a transitional essay and is his best-known study. Commentators note that his theories were greatly influenced by the French philosopher Henri Bergson, and Bachelard's impact on French philosophy and literary criticism has been an area of critical discussion. He earned a reputation as a prolific, influential philosopher and psychoanalyst; his works have been called erudite, complex, and paradoxical. Commentators have also investigated affinities between his philosophies and English with German Romanticism, Symbolism, Surrealism, and Existentialism. Often viewed as one of the most significant philosophers of science and literary criticism of the twentieth century, Bachelard's work on reverie, imagination, and psychoanalysis is often contrasted with that of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung.
Etude sur l'evolution d'un probleme de physique: La Propagation thermique dans les solides (essay) 1927
Essai sur la connaissance approchée (essay) 1928
L'Intuition de l'instant (essay) 1932
Le Pluralisme coherent de la chimie moderne (essay) 1932
Les Intuitions atomistiques (essay) 1933
Le Nouvel esprit scientifique (essay) 1934
La Dialectique de la durée [The Dialectic of Duration] (essay) 1936
L'Experience de l'espace dans la physique contemporaine (essay) 1937
La Formation de l'esprit scientifique: Contribution à une psychoanalyse de la connaissance objective (essay) 1938
La Psychanalyse du feu [The Psychoanalysis of Fire] (essay) 1938
Lautréamont (essay) 1940
La Philosophe du non: Essai d'une philosophie du nouvel esprit scientifique [The Philosophy of No: A Philosophy of the New Scientific Mind] (essay) 1940
L'Eau et les rêves: Essai sur l'imagination de la matière [Water and Dreams: An Essay on the Imagination of Matter] (essay) 1942
L'Air et les songes: Essai sur l'imagination du mouvement [Air and Dreams: An Essay on the Imagination of Movement] (essay) 1943
La Terre et les rêveries de la volonté (essay) 1948
La Rationalisme appliqué (essay) 1949
L'Activité rationaliste de la physique contemporaine (essay) 1951
Le Matérialisme rationnel (essay) 1953
La Poétique de l'espace [The Poetics of Space] (essay) 1957
La Terre et les rêveries du repos (essay) 1958
La Poétique de la rêverie [The Poetics of Reverie: Childhood, Language, and the Cosmos] (essay) 1960
La Flamme d'une chandelle [The Flame of a Candle] (essay) 1961
Le Droit de rêver [The Right to Dream] (essay) 1970
Ètudes (essay) 1970
On Poetic Imagination and Reverie (essays) 1971
L'Engagement rationaliste (essay) 1972
SOURCE: Christofides, C. G. “Gaston Bachelard's Phenomenology of the Imagination.” Romanic Review 52, no. 1 (February 1961): 36-47.
[In the following essay, Christofides attempts to define Bachelard's esthetic, calling it “a fruitful theoretical statement that has affinities with Symbolist, Surrealist and Existentialist work evoking insights which are partly contingent on the theories of contemporary psychology.”]
Gaston Bachelard's lifelong fecund and original investigations into the realm of the imaginary and the stuff of dreams reached a triumphal apogee in 1957 with the publication of a volume on the “poetics of space.”1 In a year that watched with exhilarating awe the penetration of space by a humanly-made satellite this was no science-fiction gimmick. It was the natural culmination of a work which for the last two decades had been leading the Sorbonne's philosopher of science not so much away from science as into the mystery of the creative act, the imagination which brings life to the material cause and the nature of oneiric experience.
None but the French academic and journalistic critics and a few literary linguists2 have paid any attention to this philosopher's main body of work, some of them dismissing it as revival of alchemy and magic. In the United States, references to his work can be found in four major articles, two of them by Professor Robert Champigny, himself a Sorbonne product.3 And in general, recognition is vaguely given to Bachelard for being the “philosopher of Surrealism,” and for having fathered the phenomenological critics Georges Poulet and Jean-Pierre Richard.4 It is the purpose of this article to seek an esthetic in the scientific and non-scientific writings of Gaston Bachelard. This esthetic is a fruitful theoretical statement that has affinities with Symbolist, Surrealist and Existentialist work, evoking insights which are partly contingent on the theories of contemporary psychology.
For Bachelard, science produces the Cartesian distinction between reason and imagination; he sees here the cleavage that his predecessor at the University of Paris, Léon Brunschvicg, saw between science and perception. Scientific experimentation, which shattered the world of air, earth, fire and water by no longer considering them basic elements of nature, demonstrated the erroneous methods of pre-science. Bachelard's speculations are born of the consideration that what science has destroyed is not error but poetic expansion. It is of little importance that a pre-scientific treatise on fire may tell nothing about fire's natural structure. What is important is revelation about the unconscious of its author, since the elements have never ceased to be fundamental symbols of the imagination. In primitive times, says Bachelard, art, song, caress must have been associated with utilitarian activity in an unbreakable fashion: man is a hand, a language.5 Poetry can rewed what science has put asunder. To avoid dehumanization, the philosopher must seek understanding in the realms of both science and poetry by seeing clearly the relationships between the two activities. After all, argues Bachelard, science does not yield absolute reality, since scientific reality is always open to revision. In its quest of the reasonable, science must constantly admit that which is not amenable to reason. If science were an absolute, it would become contended at a given point of achievement, instead of perpetually negating, in order to be able to affirm. Reality, then, can be seized only in the oscillation between the intuitive and the geometric spirit. Verification is never total; its fragments and generalizations continuously pose new problems, and scientific method must of necessity follow a dual path.6 At the stage of evolution where contemporary science finds itself, the scientist is faced with the renascent need of living and reliving the instant of objectivity, of being ceaselessly at the emerging state of desubjectivation which gives the supreme joy of moving from extroversion to introversion, within a spirit liberated psychoanalytically from the twin slaveries of subject and object.7
But, there is one source in man that is a constant, an absolute, one source that is literally creative (poetic): the source of dreams, images, illusions. “Nous avons la puissance de réveiller des sources,”8 says Bachelard in an admirable sentence. “L'humanité imageante est au delà de la nature naturante.”9 With Otto Rank, Bachelard would agree that it is not sufficient to see the importance of the irrational element in human life and point it out in rational terms, but that on the contrary it is necessary not only to live with it but to live it actually.10
The dream is no longer the Bergsonian “détente et chute d'un élan,” for oneiric imagination is a “faculté de surhumanité,” without which man is not really man.11 If in Bergson's philosophy to dream is to lose the sense of reality, in Bachelard's philosophy to lack the power of the unreal is to be neurotic.12 “L'imagination invente plus que des choses et des drames, elle invente de la vie nouvelle; elle invente de l'esprit nouveau; elle ouvre des yeux qui ont des types nouveaux de vision.”13 The spirit must be vision and poetry for reason to be revision and analysis. Dream is not smoke but fire.14 The cogito is an oneiric one. I dream, therefore I am. Dream (not reason or faith) will break the eternal silence of these infinite spaces. The method is that of the alchemist, for whom “tout intérieur est un ventre, un ventre qu'il faut ouvrir. … Avant l'expérience, pour l'inconscient qui rêve, il n'y a pas d'intérieur placide, tranquille, froid. Tout ce qui est caché germine.”15 In La Psychanalyse du feu, Bachelard wrote that he was setting out to show how dreaming ceaselessly treats primitive themes, works as a demiurgic soul—against logic and science.16 At a staggering, frightening pace, twentieth-century scientism took less than twenty years to trap Bachelard's vision experimentally. In the University of Chicago's Sleep Laboratory, Professor Nathaniel Kleitman and his associates, by means of an electro-encephalograph and small disk electrodes attached near the eyes and scalp of their subject, have succeeded in registering on moving graph paper the live, pulsating dream, before it has been transformed into memory.17 Science, which, in Sir James Jeans' words, can give very few indications as to the way in which consciousness apprehends the work of art,18 is gradually moving toward the substantiation of this aspect of Bachelard's conceptions. In Physics and Philosophy (1958), Nobel Prize-winning atomic scientist Werner Heisenberg succinctly and eloquently describes the new horizons revealed by Einsteinian science: “The philosophic thesis that all knowledge is ultimately founded in experience has in the end led to a postulate concerning the logical clarification of any statement about nature. Such a postulate may have seemed justified in the period of classical physics, but since quantum theory we have learned that it cannot be fulfilled” (p. 85).
Contemporary literary criticism, never to be outdone by contemporary scientism, accepts, in principle, the validity of Bachelard's probings. For René Wellek and Austin Warren, among the important literary motifs are the supernatural and the non-naturalist or irrational.19 Dorothy Sayers reprimands critics who, to the claim that archetypes bring forth unknown things, base their objection on the ground that these things are not to be found in their personal experience.20 The correctness of speaking of art as dream is admitted by De Witt Parker, because there is “creativeness” in dream.21 T. E. Hulme and Ezra Pound conceived the image as an analogy offered to the senses, expressing vision—the precise moment when a thing outward and objective transforms itself into a thing inward and subjective. T. S. Eliot's “heap of broken images,” in the Waste Land, is the objectification of a spiritual situation. Yeats' “unpurged images” in “Byzantium” must be purged to summon the work of art into being. “Most images today,” writes William York Tindall, “whether in poem or novel, are allowed to stand alone, teasing our understanding by nondiscursive relationship with what surrounds them.”22 This is the temperate, tolerant view, not distant from Professor Helmut Hatzfeld's: “The mark of genius is evident when the oneiric and the realistic style fuse by an interior necessity without any surrealist experimentation involved.”23
Margaret Gilman, in her imposing testament, The Idea of Poetry in France,24 has shown that before the middle of the nineteenth century Hugo is almost alone in insisting that the artist's act is to create and to resuscitate, and in defining imagination as the faculty that simultaneously makes images and explores the infinite.25 She might have added Baudelaire's “visionary” Balzac, who wrote in Séraphîta: “… comprends-tu que l'âme seule, élevée à sa toute puissance, résiste à peine, dans le rêve, aux dévorantes communications de l'Esprit?”26 Miss Gilman shows that the dichotomy between matter and form, feeling and reason, was the prevalent artistic attitude in France before Baudelaire. This attitude distrusted imagination, considered it an embellishing rather than an inspirational faculty. Finally, Baudelaire came to ally suggestion with imagination and to enthrone the claims of dream and contemplation, with the creation of correspondences between the horizontal and the transcendental, the inner and the outer worlds. (Imagination, wrote Baudelaire, is the most scientific of all faculties because it alone understands universal analogy.) Imagination and vision were fused with form to create the modernist esthetic.27 Miss Gilman quotes “a modern critic” (Bachelard): “Imagination is not the faculty of forming images of reality: it is the faculty of forming images which go beyond reality, which turn reality into song. It is a superhuman quality.”28 This is a formulation reminiscent of Malraux's moving, lyrical sentence on the last page of Les Voix du silence: “… mais il est beau que l'animal qui sait qu'il doit mourir, arrache à l'ironie des nébuleuses le chant des constellations, et qu'il le lance au hasard des siècles, auxquels il imposera des paroles inconnues.”
Two strange bedfellows,29 Thierry Maulnier and Henri Peyre, present the positivist rebuttal to activities of the order of Bachelard's investigations. Maulnier, not insensitively, points out that the content of poetry is verbal, not mental, and that its role is not in the vain undertaking of reproducing images formed in the consciousness of the poet, but rather in assembling and ordering words so as to endow them with an inexhaustible power of incantation.30 Needless to state this is neither revelatory nor original, if one remembers that when these lines were published, the Abbé Bremond had been dead for six years. Henri Peyre's abolition of the dominant esthetic of his times, if no more clarifying, is as damning as it is puzzling: “The sacrosanct phrases of modern pedants, ‘levels of meaning,’ ‘formal patterns,’ ‘symbols’ and, worst of all, ‘myth,’ which have marred much German and American fiction seem to have left not only critics but, more fortunately, novelists in France untainted.”31 Exit Bachelard. More important, out go Camus and scenes from the novels of Malraux, Mauriac and Bernanos. Indeed, Bachelard's most lasting achievement may well be his sincere effort to understand and explain what modern artistic sensibility has wrought: Nerval's organic, life-infusing function of dream, the dream which in Aurélia he called a second life; Baudelaire's “many other” images in “Le Cygne”; Verlaine's “beaux yeux derrière des voiles”; Rimbaud's chaotic reconstruction of a primitive world; Mallarmé's cigar smoke rings that abolish each other, leaving behind them but ashes; Valéry's “être” and “nonêtre”; René Clair's “unreal” cinematographic attempts; Cézanne's, Picasso's and Braque's decomposition and recomposition of their universe, not to reproduce what is visible but to render visible; Apollinaire, Cocteau, Giraudoux, Fargue, Eluard, Supervielle.32
In six books devoted to “material imagination,” two to earth,33 one to fire, air, water and space, Bachelard gradually abandons pre-scientific literature for imaginative literature, especially poetry. He traces poetic imagery to some of its unconscious archetypes, to show the tangibility of both dream and matter, and to advance the theory that the gap between mind and environment is bridged whether the image-making faculties take on an active or a passive direction—reveries of will or reveries of repose—but that the image perceived and the image created are two different psychic moments. Bachelard asks that to understand his work, traditional considerations of imagery as the effect of perception be forgotten. Imagination, then, becomes itself creator, no longer linking fragments of perceived reality, but preceding thought, not exhausted at the moment of the birth of the image (whose creation is the release of psychic tensions). Surrealism, or imagination in action, seeks the new image by virtue of a thrust of renewal. The awakened dream takes its flight in the face of the elements: the resistance of matter increases the reactive capacity of the subject's imaginary forces and excites the...
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SOURCE: Ehrmann, Jacques. “Introduction to Gaston Bachelard.” MLN 81, no. 5 (December 1966): 572-78.
[In the following essay, Ehrmann traces the different phases of Bachelard's career.]
Before dealing with Bachelard, the literary critic, it seems relevant to recall that he was formerly a philosopher of sciences. He had already spent an important part of his career writing books and essays on scientific topics when, in 1938, he undertook his first “literary” work. This change, which appears so radical and of which there are very few examples in our modern times of intense specialization, concerns only the object of his inquiry (literature instead of science),...
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SOURCE: Grimsley, Ronald. “Two Philosophical Views of the Literary Imagination: Sartre and Bachelard.” Comparative Literature Studies 8, no. 1 (March 1971): 42-57.
[In the following essay, Grimsley compares the role of the imagination in the philosophy of Jean Paul Sartre and Bachelard.]
Whereas any attempt to clarify the relationship between philosophy and literature has to reckon with the fundamental and obvious difference between literary creation and reflective analysis, the bearing of philosophy on literary criticism seems at first sight easier to understand and justify. On the one hand, the writer derives his initial inspiration from within his own...
(The entire section is 6476 words.)
SOURCE: Forsyth, Neil. “Gaston Bachelard's Theory of the Poetic Imagination: Psychoanalysis to Phenomenology.” In The Quest for Imagination: Essays in Twentieth-Century Aesthetic Criticism, edited by O. B. Hardison, Jr., pp. 225-53. Cleveland, Ohio: The Press of Case Western Reserve University, 1971.
[In the following essay, Forsyth provides an overview of Bachelard's critical approach to the concept of imagination, asserting that his development progressed “from the objectivity of psychoanalysis to the subjectivity of phenomenology.”]
When Gaston Bachelard died in 1962, he was probably best known to students of the philosophy of science for his work in the...
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SOURCE: Kaplan, Edward K. “Gaston Bachelard's Philosophy of Imagination: An Introduction.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 33, no. 1 (September 1972): 1-24.
[In the following essay, Kaplan surveys the major points of Bachelard's writings on imagination.]
The academic career of Gaston Bachelard (1884-1962) was devoted to epistemology and the history and philosophy of science.1 A militant rationalist and materialist concerning science, Bachelard also indulged his rich imagination in a series of studies on imagination, from The Psychoanalysis of Fire (1938) to The Poetics of Reverie (1960).2 These essays examine the images...
(The entire section is 10727 words.)
SOURCE: Smith, Roch. “Gaston Bachelard and the Power of Poetic Being.” French Literature Series 4 (1977): 234-38.
[In the following essay, Smith examines the relationship between Bachelard's works on science and on the imagination.]
A major feature of Gaston Bachelard's epistemological work is his observation that modern science, in its search for knowledge, goes beyond immediate reality. In Le Nouvel Esprit scientifique, for instance, he points out that “L'observation scientifique … transcende l'immédiat; elle reconstruit le réel après avoir reconstruit ses schémas.”1 Through mathematics, science creates a world that shakes our faith in...
(The entire section is 1305 words.)
SOURCE: Smith, Roch C. “Gaston Bachelard and Critical Discourse: The Philosopher of Science as Reader.” Stanford French Review 5, no. 2 (fall 1981): 217-28.
[In the following essay, Smith provides an assessment of Bachelard's contribution to critical discourse.]
Usually original, often provocative, Bachelard's quarter century of work on the literary imagination has itself caught the imagination of numerous critics and imitators who would apply his approach to other texts. This is particularly true of his works on the imagination of elements, or simply the “Elements,” as I shall call them here.1 Some of the early adaptations of Bachelard's...
(The entire section is 5130 words.)
SOURCE: McAllester, Mary. “Bachelard Twenty Years On: An Assessment.” Revue de Litterature Comparee 58, no. 2 (April 1984): 165-76.
[In the following essay, McAllester evaluates Bachelard's legacy as critic and philosopher.]
Bachelard died in October 1962, leaving us a rich and singular legacy: some ninety publications in all, and twenty-three books—twelve on the philosophy of modern science, two on time and consciousness, nine on poetic imagination—published between 1928 and 1961, and a tenth book on poetry left unfinished when he died. What has become of this legacy in the last twenty years? Many have expressed their debt to Bachelard's books on poetic...
(The entire section is 5044 words.)
SOURCE: Slattery, Dennis Patrick. “Imagining the Stuff of the World: Reflections on Gaston Bachelard and Ivan Illich.” New Orleans Review 12, no. 3 (fall 1985): 81-7.
[In the following essay, Slattery finds parallels between the philosophy of the imagination in Bachelard's Water and Dreams and Ivan Illich's H2O and the Waters of Forgetfulness.]
Have we forgotten the elements of the world, those aspects of the world's body that connect us to things on a level more intimate and important than that of simple possession? And culturally, have we moderns become suspicious of, if not overtly distrusting of, the imagination and its place within the ecology of...
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SOURCE: Higonnet, Margaret R. “Bachelard and the Romantic Imagination.” Cahiers Roumains d'Etudes Litteraires 1 (1987): 92-109.
[In the following essay, Higonnet notes the contradictions in Bachelard's ideas about imagination and investigates the influence of Romantic theories on his work.]
The coherence of Gaston Bachelard's ideas about imagination, has long eluded students of his work. Because of his shifts in critical approach, a debate has arisen over what system, if any, governs his meditations on poetic imagery.
The problem requires a comparative approach, since Bachelard's work is rooted in the poetics and poetry of English and German...
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SOURCE: Kaplan, Edward K. “The Writing Cure: Gaston Bachelard on Baudelaire's Ambivalent Harmonies.” Symposium 41, no. 4 (winter 1987-1988): 278-91.
[In the following essay, Kaplan maintains that “Bachelard's special focus on images of ambivalence in Charles Baudelaire's poetry, and their aesthetic resolution of existentially insurmountable contradictions, points to the energetic center of both philosopher and poet.”]
Gaston Bachelard's brief, incisive, suggestive, and sometimes incomplete analyses of Baudelaire illuminate the philosopher's preoccupation with writing as a cure for death anxiety and essential solitude. As both theoretician and literary...
(The entire section is 6079 words.)
SOURCE: Bidney, Martin. “‘A Dream’ as Key to a Reverie Pattern in Matthew Arnold: Interactions of Water and Fire.” Victorian Poetry 26, nos. 1-2 (summer 1988): 45-60.
[In the following essay, Bidney applies a Bachelardian “elemental” approach to fire and water images in Matthew Arnold's poetry.]
Gaston Bachelard, in his work on the phenomenology of reverie, focuses attention on the power of the primal elements—earth, water, air and fire—to shape and animate recurrent patterns of epiphanic experience in the visions of major poetic seers.1 Patterns of Arnoldian reverie have of course attracted the interest of many critics, and have been...
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SOURCE: Culler, Jonathan. “Bachelard's Images.” In Framing the Sign: Criticism and Its Institutions, pp. 96-106. Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988.
[In the following essay, Culler judges Bachelard's overall contribution to science and literary criticism, contending that “the diversity of his accomplishments makes Bachelard difficult to assess and contributes to the neglect of his ideas.”]
At the time of his death in 1962, Gaston Bachelard was France's leading historian and philosopher of science as well as one of its most original and influential literary critics; but to pupils and colleagues he was a moral and philosophic example, a patriarch,...
(The entire section is 4399 words.)
SOURCE: Nakell, Martin. “The Last Image.” New Orleans Review 15, no. 3 (fall 1988): 49-59.
[In the following essay, Nakell uses Bachelard's psychoanalytic criticism to interpret the image and its origins, and investigates his concept of reverie.]
Well they'd made up their minds to be everywhere because why not. Everywhere was theirs because they thought so. They with two leaves they whom the birds despise. In the middle of stones they made up their minds. They started to cut.
Well they cut everything because why not. Everything was theirs because they thought so. It fell into its shadows and they took both away. Some to have some for...
(The entire section is 7158 words.)
SOURCE: Johnson, Don. “The Appalachian Homeplace as Oneiric House.” In The Poetics of Appalachian Space, edited by Parks Lanier, Jr., pp. 40-9. Knoxville, Tenn.: The University of Tennessee Press, 1991.
[In the following essay, Johnson applies Bachelard's theories of “felicitous” space to the Appalachian experience, focusing on the work of Jim Wayne Miller's The Mountains Have Come Closer.]
The exploration of “felicitous space” undertaken by Gaston Bachelard in The Poetics of Space becomes especially poignant when applied to the Appalachian experience. In Appalachia the oneiric house is frequently a rotting cabin in a remote “holler” that loggers...
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