Gaafer Muhammad al-Nimeiri (Magill’s Guide to Military History)
Article abstract: Military significance: Nimeiri seized control of Sudan, but after his regime was overthrown, the country was left in economic bankruptcy and in a state of civil war.
Gaafer Muhammad al-Nimeiri was a graduate of Sudan Military College. During General Ibrahim Abboud’s military dictatorship, Nimeiri served in the south (1959-1963). At the time of Nimeiri’s coup (May 25, 1969), he was commander of the Gebeit Training School (1967-1969). Nimeiri and his fellow army officers, who planned the coup, were members of the Sudanese Free Officers Movement. The movement, made up of young army officers, initially aimed at improving government efficiency. After a failed attempt to topple Abboud in 1959, the Free Officers sought a revolutionary transformation of the Sudanese economy, society, and politics.
From 1970 onward, Nimeiri attempted to do just that. He confiscated, sequestered, or nationalized privately owned businesses and banks, established more aggressive tax collection measures, instituted land reform, and attempted to phase out native administration. In foreign affairs, the regime’s policy was nonalignment, though its early links with communist countries implied the contrary.
The abortive communist coup of 1971, however, produced a swing to the right both in economics and politics. Legislation was passed (1971, 1974, 1976, 1980) to attract and protect foreign investment. Economic policies...
(The entire section is 356 words.)
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