Friedrich Hebbel 1813-1863
(Full name Christian Friedrich Hebbel) German playwright and poet.
The following entry presents criticism on Hebbel's life and works from 1927 through 1987.
Hebbel is considered an important transitional figure in European drama. Scholars maintain that his works reflect both the Romantic idealism of Johann Wolfgang Goethe and Friedrich Schiller and the psychological realism of Carl Hauptmann and Henrik Ibsen. Hebbel viewed the dramatic process as a conflict between the individual searching for identity and meaning and the seemingly intransigent world-historical Idea propounded by philosopher G. W. F. Hegel, who believed that an omnipresent, unstoppable moral force determines the course of history.
Hebbel was born in the small town of Wesselburen in the Holstein district of what is now Germany. His father was an impoverished mason who died when Hebbel was fourteen, leaving him and his brother to be raised by their mother, who was employed as a domestic. In order to continue his education, Hebbel worked as an errand boy and clerk for the local magistrate, studying during his free time. In 1932 he sent some poetry and short stories to the popular novelist Amalie Schoppe, who published several of the pieces in two Hamburg periodicals she edited. Schoppe invited Hebbel to Hamburg to prepare for admission to the university; however, he failed to pass the necessary entrance examinations. He left Hamburg in 1836 to attend jurisprudence lectures at the University of Heidelberg, and eventually traveled to Munich where he worked as a reporter. Unable to support himself, however, Hebbel returned to Hamburg early in 1839, accepting a position as a correspondent for the Telegraph für Deutschland. Later that year he began writing his first drama, Judith: Eine Tragödie in fünf Acten (Judith: A Tragedy in Five Acts) which was completed in January 1840 and first produced in 1841. A stipend from the king of Denmark allowed Hebbel to complete his second drama, Genoveva: Tragödie in fünf Acten (1843). In 1863 Hebbel won the first Schiller Prize in German literature for his trilogy, Die Nibelungen: Ein deutsches Trauerspiel in drei Abtheilungen (1862; The Nibelungs: A Tragedy in Three Acts). He died after contracting pneumonia that same year.
Nearly all of Hebbel's plays are tragedies, the notable exceptions being the comedies Der Diamant: Eine Komödie in fünf Acten (1847) and Der Rubin: Ein Märchen-Lustspiel in drei Acten (1851), which critics have described as black comedies. His best-known works are distinguished by the presence of a remarkable individual who struggles against the world-historical Idea. To heighten the drama of this struggle and highlight the problems that have historically fostered such encounters, Hebbel set his plays during turning points of world history. For example, Judith relates the attempted extermination of Jews by the Assyrians; Herodes und Mariamne: Eine Tragödie in fünf Acten (1850; Herod and Mariamne), events immediately preceding the birth of Jesus; Agnes Bernauer: Ein deutsches Trauerspiel in fünf Aufzügen (1852; Agnes Bernauer: A German Tragedy in Five Acts), the beginnings of the breakdown of fifteenth-century feudalism; and The Nibelungs, the twilight of German paganism. In another drama, Maria Magdalen: Ein bürgerliches Trauerspiel in drei Acten, nebst einem Vorwort (1844; Maria Magdalena), Hebbel emphasizes more personal aspects of tragedy, using non-historical characters to depict the universality of an individual's plight. Critics have also noted the important role that women play in Hebbel's work. With the exception of his autobiographical drama Michel Angelo: Ein Drama in zwei Akten (1851) and his unfinished Demetrius: Eine Tragödie (1864), women are central to the dramatic conflict in each of his tragedies.
Although reception of his work was initially lukewarm, Hebbel eventually became recognized as a leading dramatist in his time. His plays were staged throughout Europe, and he was invited to conduct performances at the courts of both Weimar and Munich. Critical interest in Hebbel dissipated shortly after his death; however, a state-sponsored Hebbel resurgence was initiated during the German National Socialist movement. While such attention restored the dramatist to the forefront of German literature, the misguided “Nazification” of Hebbel's work stigmatized him in the post-war world. However, new interpretations of his dramas have emerged and newer productions have been staged. Judith, Maria Magdalena, and Gyges und sein Ring: Eine Tragödie in fünf Acten (1856; Gyges and His Ring) have remained fixtures in the repertoire of many German theatres.
Judith: Eine Tragödie in fünf Acten [Judith: A Tragedy in Five Acts] 1841
Genoveva: Tragödie in fünf Acten 1843
Maria Magdalen: Ein bürgerliches Trauerspiel in drei Acten, nebst einem Vorwort [Maria Magdalena] (essay and drama) 1844
Der Diamant: Eine Komödie in fünf Acten 1847
Ein Trauerspiel in Sizilien: Tragicomödie in einem Act, nebst einem Sendschreiben an H. T. Rötscher (drama and letter) 1847
Herodes und Mariamne: Eine Tragödie in fünf Acten [Herod and Mariamne] 1850
Der Rubin: Ein Märchen-Lustspiel in drei Acten 1851
Michel Angelo: Ein Drama in zwei Akten 1851
Agnes Bernauer: Ein deutsches Trauerspiel in fünf Aufzügen [Agnes Bernauer: A German Tragedy in Five Acts] 1852
Gyges und sein Ring: Eine Tragödie in fünf Acten [Gyges and His Ring] 1856
Die Nibelungen: Ein deutsches Trauerspiel in drei Abtheilungen [The Nibelungs: A Tragedy in Three Acts] 2 vols. 1862
Demetrius: Eine Tragödie (unfinished drama) 1864
Gedichte (poetry) 1842
Neue Gedichte (poetry) 1848
Erzählungen und Novellen (novellas) 1855
Mutter und Kind: Ein Gedicht in sieben Gesängen (poetry) 1859
Sämtliche Werke 12 vols. (dramas, essays, poetry, letters, and novellas) 1865-67
Tagebücher 2 vols. (diaries) 1885-87
Sämtliche Werke: Historisch-Kritische Ausgabe 24 vols. (dramas, essays, diaries, poetry, letters, and novellas) 1901-07
Friedrich Hebbel: Sämtliche Werke nebst Tagebüchern und einer Auswahl der Briefe 6 vols. (dramas, essays, diaries, poetry, letters, and novellas) 1911-25
Werke 5 vols. (dramas, essays, diaries, poetry, letters, and novellas) 1963-67
Criticism: General Commentary
SOURCE: Purdie, Edna. “Dramatic Technique” and “Conception of Tragedy.” In Friedrich Hebbel: A Study of His Life and Work, pp. 235-69. London: Oxford University Press, 1932.
[In the following essay, Purdie discusses Hebbel's dramatic theory and technique.]
Any detailed analysis of Hebbel's plays must in great measure demonstrate the poet's sense of dramatic effect and his mastery of dramatic means. Moreover, it is impossible to draw a rigid line of demarcation between dramatic technique and the substance of a drama, since the very substance is to some extent the outcome of the form. But Hebbel's actual methods are...
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SOURCE: Isaacs, Edith J. R. “Concerning the Author of Herod and Mariamne.” Theatre Arts Monthly (December 1938): 886-90.
[In the following essay, Isaacs considers the appeal of Hebbel's drama.]
Twenty-five years ago every important theatre in Germany included some of Friedrich Hebbel's tragedies in its repertory, with Herod and Mariamne a prime favorite wherever there was an actress beautiful, majestic and magnetic enough to master the leading part. There were fine roles for actors in Hebbel's plays, but as material for the art of the actress such characters as Mariamne, Agnes Bernauer, Judith, and the noble Rhodope in Gyges and His Ring were...
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SOURCE: Graham, Paul G. “The Principle of Necessity in Hebbel's Theory of Tragedy.” Germanic Review 15, no. 4 (December 1940): 258-62.
[In the following essay, Graham regards the principle of necessity as an integral aspect of Hebbel's dramatic theory.]
In Hebel's theory of tragedy no single aspect is of greater fundamental significance than the principle of necessity. Hebbel scholars such as Scheunert, Walzel, Schnyder, Frenkel, Seidmann, Purdie, and Rees refer to the importance of the principle of necessity without giving a clear and satisfying account of it. Hebbel employs the terms “notwending” and “Notwendigkeit” for at least three kinds of necessity....
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SOURCE: Purdie, Edna. “Hebbel: Some Aspects of Research and Criticism in the Decade, 1953-1963.” Euphorion (1966): 110-24.
[In the following essay, Purdie surveys the major trends in the critical analysis of Hebbel's work from 1953-1963.]
In any survey, however incomplete, of scholarly work concerning Hebbel during the decade preceding the centenary of 1963, at least two trends can be discerned. On the one hand, a new impulse to investigation of his relations with predecessors and contemporaries, greatly stimulated by Wolfgang Liepe's researches into further sources of Hebbel's thought and imagery, and powerfully supported by publications sponsored by the...
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SOURCE: Salter, Von Günter E. “Friedrich Hebbel's Conception of God.” Hebbel-Jahrbuch 1969 (1969): 122-43.
[In the following essay, Salter elucidates Hebbel's conception of God as evinced in his work.]
The main difficulty in developing an understanding of Friedrich Hebbel's conception of God is not a lack of pertinent remarks by the poet, but it rather lies in the apparent inconsistency and contradiction of the many aphorisms and thoughts relative to the subject matter which abound in his diary and letters. A rather cursory examination of these writings would tend to lend credence to the verdict of some critics who in searching for a philosophical system expounded...
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SOURCE: Löb, Ladislaus. “Hebbel.” In From Lessing to Hauptmann: Studies in German Drama, pp. 239-87. London: University Tutorial Press, 1974.
[In the following essay, Löb provides a thematic and stylistic overview of Hebbel's dramatic theory and his major dramatic works.]
LIFE AND SIGNIFICANCE
Among Germany's outstanding dramatists Hebbel is one of the most debatable claimants to greatness. At their worst his plays abound in hysterical atmospheres, extravagant characters, hair-splitting arguments and contrived situations. At their best they rise to powerful tragic conflicts reflecting the perplexities of an unusual individual living at a...
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SOURCE: Tunstall, George C. “Hebbel and Georg Kaiser: Reflections of Judith in Die Bürger von Calais.” Colloquia Germanica 14, no. 2 (1981): 130-41.
[In the following essay, Tunstall determines Hebbel's influence on the playwright Georg Kaiser.]
Der Weg zu meiner That geht durch die Sünde! …
Ist nicht meine That so viel werth, als sie mich kostet?
Although the critical literature on the Expressionist playwright Georg Kaiser contains occasional mention of the possibility that he was influenced by...
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SOURCE: Wells, G. A. “Ethical Absolutism, Hebbel and Judith.” New German Studies 12, no. 2 (summer 1984): 95-106.
[In the following essay, Wells discusses ethical issues in Judith.]
What is meant by saying that moral rules are either absolute or relative? An illustration will help. Suppose that a man has sought refuge in my house knowing that the police are seeking to arrest him on a capital charge. Suppose further that I know he is innocent, yet that circumstantial evidence is likely to lead to his conviction and execution if he is arrested. If a policeman then calls, and asks me whether I know where the man is, my reply may depend on the relative weighting...
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Criticism: Maria Magdalen (Maria Magdalena)
SOURCE: Högel, Rolf K. “‘Ort: Eine Mittlere Stadt’: The Setting of Hebbel's Maria Magdalene.” MLN 87, no. 5 (October 1972): 763-68.
[In the following essay, Högel discusses the ambiguity of the setting of Maria Magdalena.]
Below the list of the dramatis personae of his Maria Magdalene (1844) Hebbel briefly states the setting of this bourgeois tragedy: “eine mittlere Stadt.” The geographical location of this town is not indicated.
In relating these facts to the text of the drama itself two questions may occur to the attentive reader and spectator as well as to the stage director engaged in performing this play: (1) Does...
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SOURCE: McInnes, Edward. “Maria Magdalena and the Bürgerliches Trauerspiel.” Orbis Litterarum 28 (1973): 46-67.
[In the following essay, McInnes examines the place of Maria Magdalena within the development of German drama.]
Despite the sustained critical attention which Hebbel's Maria Magdalena has received over the years, its place in the development of German drama remains strangely ill-defined. Literary histories have certainly not been slow to claim that the play marks a turning-point in the growth of domestic tragedy, and several attempts have been made to define its specific historical position.1 Yet such assessments have seldom...
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Criticism: Herodes Und Mariamne (Herod And Mariamne)
SOURCE: Abraham, Claude. “Tristan and Hebbel: Mariane and Mariamne.” South Atlantic Bulletin 33, no. 3 (May 1968): 1-4.
[In the following essay, Abraham finds parallels between Hebbel's Herod and Mariamne and Tristan L'Hermite's La Mariane.]
The story of Herod and Mariamne has been dramatized again and again. Marcus Landau counted some thirty versions,1 and Maurice Valency added, “without any difficulty, thirteen others.”2 Yet, only two versions—one by a Frenchman of the Baroque period, the other by a German realist—have survived. While these plays seem to have little but the topic in common, it is our purpose here to show that...
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Criticism: Michel Angelo
SOURCE: Harris, Brian. “The Michelangelo Dramas of Friedrich Hebbel and Hugo Ball: From Historicism toward Expressionism.” In From the Bard to Broadway: The University of Florida Department of Classics Comparative Drama Conference Papers, Vol. VII, edited by Karelisa V. Hartigan, pp. 96-106. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1987.
[In the following essay, Harris asserts that Ball wrote his tragicomic Michelangelo's Nose in “direct critical response” to Hebbel's Michel Angelo and “to the nineteenth-century traditions from which it emerges.”]
Hugo Ball (1886-1927) had left student life at the university in Munich in 1910 to pursue a...
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Criticism: Agnes Bernauer
SOURCE: Hewett-Thayer, Harvey W. “Ludwig Tieck and Hebbel's Tragedy of Beauty.” Germanic Review 2I (1927): 16-25.
[In the following essay, Hewett-Thayer investigates the origins of Hebbel's play Agnes Bernauer, contending that it can be traced back to Ludwig Tieck's novel Vittoria Accorombona.]
The genesis of Hebbel's Agnes Bernauer and his treatment of its underlying themes have been the subject of considerable discussion. Hebbel began his Agnes in late September 1851 and finished it in the last days of December. In her essay on “The Sources of Hebbel's Agnes Bernauer,”1 Agnes Löwenstein suggests that Hebbel may have...
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Criticism: Gyges Und Sein Ring (Gyges And His Ring)
SOURCE: Hodge, James L. “Rhodope: By Any Other Name.” MLN 79, no. 4 (October 1964): 435-39.
[In the following essay, Hodge provides an interpretation of Gyges and His Ring based on the name of the protagonist of the drama, Rhodope.]
The question, “What's in a name?” may offer a new insight into the heroine of Friedrich Hebbel's drama, Gyges und sein Ring. Numerous interpretations of Rhodope—psychological, symbolic and other—have been advanced. Rhodope has been analyzed individually and as an integral part of the drama. She has been said to express the central message of the drama: the modesty of woman. She has been described as passionless and...
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Criticism: Die Nibelungen (The Nibelungs)
SOURCE: Boswell, Von Patricia. “The Hunt as a Literary Image in Hebbel's Die Nibelungen.” Hebbel-Jahrbuch 1977 (1977): 163-94.
[In the following essay, Boswell finds Hebbel's linguistic abilities unsuitable for adapting the medieval epic The Nibelungs, focusing on the hunting scene as evidence of her theory.]
So viel ist gewiß, ich habe nie so viel Arbeit auf ein Werk verwendet, wie auf dieß: ich kann noch nicht fertig werden … ich bin ängstlich, wie je in meinem Leben, und prüfe jeden Vers genauer, wie der Geldwechsler einen Ducaten.1
These words, written by Hebbel to his publisher as...
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