Remington, Frederic 1861-1909
(Full name Frederic Sackrider Remington) American artist, essayist, sculptor, novelist, and short story writer.
Remington is considered the premiere artist of the turn-ofthe-century American West. His works include thousands of esteemed paintings and drawings of Western life, as well as twenty-five bronze sculptures, including his best-known piece The Bronco-Buster. As a writer, Remington is noted for the essays he wrote to accompany his illustrations, his short story collections, and his principal novel John Ermine of the Yellowstone. In his works, both visual and narrative, Remington attempted to capture the ideals of the Old West and decried their rapid passing in the late nineteenth century. More successful as a visual artist than a writer, Remington began to explore the techniques of the European Impressionists late in life, and is considered one of the progenitors of Impressionism in North America.
Remington was born in Canton, New York on 4 October 1861. Though he would later adopt the Western United States as the subject of his art and writing, he maintained close ties to the Northeast throughout his life. Remington enrolled at the Yale University School of Fine Arts in 1878. After his father's death in 1880 he refused to return to Yale. Instead, in August of the following year, he traveled west to Montana where he recorded what he saw in sketches and prose. Remington sold his first illustration to Harper's Weekly in early 1882, and over the next several years published his drawings of Western scenes and short articles in various periodicals, including Century and Outing. In 1885 he took up sculpture while continuing with his literary and other artistic pursuits. Remington enrolled at the Art Student League of New York in 1886 and attended briefly. Meanwhile, his paintings, sculptures, and drawings had earned him great distinction as a popular artist. He illustrated Theodore Roosevelt's Ranch Life and the Hunting Trail along with several other works by well-known authors, including Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's Song of Hiawatha and Francis Parkman's Oregon Trail. Remington's later work as an illustrator and war correspondent took him across America, to Cuba during the Spanish-American War, and to Europe and Asia. He published his first novel, John Ermine of the Yellowstone, in 1902. His second novel, The Way of an Indian, appeared in serialized form, but the work failed to achieve the same popular success as John Ermine. For the next three years Remington focused on painting. He died on December 26, 1909 at his home near Ridgefield, Connecticut.
In addition to his documentary-style paintings, illustrations, and bronze sculptures of scenes from the American West at the turn of the twentieth century, Remington produced a series of articles, short fiction, and novels that complement these works. His first collection of essays, illustrations, and stories, Pony Tracks records his early travels, notably his visits to northern Mexico and the desert Southwest. Remington's second collection, Crooked Trails, offers his assessments of compelling figures of the Old West, among them Texan Big-Foot Wallace, a professional hunter and Indian fighter. The eponymous hero of Remington's short story collection Sundown Leflare is a half-Indian and half-white drifter who remains alienated from both Native American and white culture. In these five dialect stories set on the high plains, Remington dramatizes his principal theme: the steady passing of the old Western way of life. Remington's novel John Ermine of the Yellowstone plays out a related theme: John Ermine, a white man raised by Crow Indians, falls in love with Katherine Searleses, a beautiful Easterner. The Way of an Indian, Remington's final work of fiction, recounts the story of White Otter, an alienated Cheyenne warrior who becomes tribal chief after surviving a series of violent encounters with white men and hostile Indians.
Overall, Remington's paintings and sculpture are more highly esteemed by critics than are his literary works. While his novel John Ermine of the Yellowstone was popular at the time of its first publication and went through several printings, it is now considered to be of minor consequence. Contemporary critics of his writing have tended to view Remington as a skilled local colorist, who faithfully evoked the rapidly passing age of the American West in his fiction and journalistic essays. His detractors, however, have observed that Remington's works are frequently marred by sentimentality, and even racism. Remington is also thought to have had a sizable influence on his friend, the writer Owen Wister, whose finest cowboy novel The Virginian was published only shortly before John Ermine. The Remington-Wister correspondence has also proven of interest to critics of the works of these two men who were instrumental in creating and promoting the myth of the Old West.
Pony Tracks (essays, illustrations, and short stories) 1895
Crooked Trails (essays, illustrations, and short stories) 1898
Sundown Leflare (short stories) 1899
John Ermine of the Yellowstone (novel) 1902
The Way of an Indian (novel) 1906
My Dear Wister: The Frederic Remington-Owen Wister Letters [edited by Ben Merchant Vorpahl] (letters) 1972
The Collected Writings of Frederic Remington [edited by Peggy and Harold Samuels] (essays, short stories, and novels) 1979
SOURCE: "A Summary Introduction to Frederick Remington," in Prefaces, Little, Brown and Company, 1961, pp. 175-86.
[In the following essay, originally published in 1961, Dobie describes Remington's life and praises his writing and the power of his visual art.]
Frederic Remington worked for only about twenty-five years. During the half-century that has raced by since he died just past his forty-eighth birthday—still in the Horse Age—his fame as depictor of the Old West has not perceptibly diminished. Yet no adequate life of him has been published. The one considerable piece of writing on his life and work worthy of respect by people entitled to an opinion is the chapter "Remington in Kansas" (pages 194-211, plus a wealth of notes, pages 355-363) in Artists and Illustrators of the Old West, 1850-1900, by the late Robert Taft, of the University of Kansas, published by Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1953. The present essay owes far more to this noble work of vast knowledge, all ordered and evaluated, and of quiet power than to all other sources.
Frederic Remington, Artist of the Old West, by Harold McCracken, 1947, contains a useful bibliography of Remington's writings, books illustrated by him, appearances in periodicals, and his bronzes.
Remington's own writings—all illustrated—are the best sources for facts and understanding about him, but many of them in magazines antedating his death—including the autobiographical sketch in Collier's Weekly (New York, March 18, 1905)—are available in only a few libraries.
The most knowledgeable person alive on Remington is probably Miss Helen L. Card, proprietor of the Latendorf Bookshop (containing more art than books), 714 Madison Avenue, New York. She does not publish enough, but her two pamphlets, privately printed at Woonsocket, Rhode Island, 1946, on A Collector's Remington (I. "Notes on Him; Books Illustrated by Him; and Books Which Gossip About Him." II. "The Story of His Bronzes, with a Complete Descriptive List") contain as much concentrated protein as wheat germ.
Frederic Sackrider Remington was born of parents strong of body and character in Canton, New York, October 1, 1861. His father owned and edited the local newspaper but left it to fight for the Union. Frederic, an only child, early learned to swim, fish, and play Indian in the woods. He hung around the Canton fire station in order to associate with the horses. He drew them and other forms of life on margins of schoolbooks and in albums. From high school he was sent to a military academy, against which he rebelled, at the same time filling a sketchbook with pictures of cavalrymen battling horseback Indians. At home on vacation, he improvised a studio in an uncle's barn. His models were horses—not only carriage horses but several Western ponies belonging to town people.
In the fall of 1878 he went to Yale University, playing football and studying in the Yale Art School. The one other member of his art class was Poultney Bigelow, who became editor of Outing magazine and, in 1886, discovered in some pictures offered him "the real thing, the unspoiled, native genius dealing with Mexican ponies, cowboys, cactus, lariats, and sombreros." The artist turned out to be Remington of Yale.
In 1880, Remington's father died and Frederic inherited a few thousand dollars. He refused to return to Yale but seems not to have known what he wanted until he made a trip to Montana in August of 1881. In 1882, Harper's Weekly (February 25). published a picture entitled "Cowboys of Arizona: Roused by a Scout." According to the credit line it was "drawn by W. A. Rogers from a sketch by Frederic Remington."
Young Frederic had been corresponding with a Yale friend named Robert Camp (B.A., 1882) of Milwaukee who had gone to Butler County, Kansas, where he was trying his hand at sheep raising. By the end of 1882 he owned a section of land and 900 sheep. In March, 1883, Remington joined him and bought a quarter section (160 acres) not far from Camp's for $3,400. It had a three-room frame house, a well, a corral, and two barns on it. Shortly thereafter he bought an adjoining quarter section for $1,250. He bought horses before he bought sheep. The one he rode was a dun mare from Texas that would not have been ridden by any self-respecting range man in Texas—solely because she was a mare: such was the etiquette of the times. But she suited Remington and he named her Terra Cotta. He hired a hand named Bill, who by his talk was an authority on horses. They built a sheep shed. Remington then bought several hundred sheep, which Bill left him to herd until he hired a neighboring boy and thus bought his own freedom. He was still chief cook and bottle washer on his own ranch.
At that time sheep were as respectable as mules or cattle. As Robert Taft shows, up to 1885 no conflict in Kansas existed between sheepmen and cowmen. Remington did not become an artist of sheep, though he made a drawing of his own flock. Inside one of his barns he carved on the wooden wall the picture of a cowboy roping a steer. He was depicting the conventional rather than what he saw. His post office was Peabody, Kansas. Under date of May 11, 1883, he wrote a "legal friend" in Canton, New York: "Papers came all right—are the cheese—man just shot down the street—must go." Robert Taft made full examination of files of Peabody newspapers, interviewed many people, including Robert Camp, Remington's ranching compadre, but found no evidence whatsoever of "man just shot down the street." To tell the truth, Remington carried on the shooting most of his life.
Of his practice in drawing during his Kansas sojourn, Robert Taft wrote:
He spent considerable time with his sketch book. He sketched his ranch, his sheep, his neighbors and their activities. He went to Plum Grove and sketched the preacher who visited the schoolhouse on Sundays and the sketch was then passed around the audience. A neighbor bought a trotting horse and Remington drew the horse. Bob Camp's cook was greatly pleased when Remington drew for him on rough wrapping paper a sketch of a cow defending her calf from the attack of a wolf. Many evenings a crowd would gather at the Remington ranch and Remington would sketch the individuals as they "chinned" with one another or as they boxed, for boxing was a favorite sport of the young ranchers. Few cared to put on the gloves with Remington.
In the spring of 1884 he rode horseback to Dodge City, then the "cowboy capital of the world," and other points in the cow country. Back with his sheep, he learned that Terra Cotta could not outdodge a jackrabbit. Then he learned that a mare "looking old and decrepit," owned by a stranger looking still older and more decrepit, could outrun two horses that his friends and his hired man Bill had spent days and nights extolling. He lost Terra Cotta on a bet. He wrote and illustrated the jackrabbit and horse races for Outing magazine (New York, May, 1887), under title of "Coursing Rabbits on the Plains."
On Christmas Eve at a schoolhouse party, Remington and his gay friends got so prankish that they were ejected. In a justice of the peace court he paid the costs for his bunch. He did not like dipping sheep, or helping with lambing, or shearing, or any other drudgery. The market for wool was away down before his first clip sold. In May, 1884, after sheep-ranching for two months over a year, he sold out to become a professional artist. Robert Taft points out that his brief ranching experience was essentially contemporaneous with similarly brief ranching experiences of Theodore Roosevelt, Owen Wister, and...
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SOURCE: "When West Was Wister," in The New Republic, Vol. 167, No. 8, September 2, 1972, pp. 28-33.
[In the following review of My Dear Wister: The Frederic Remington-Owen Wister Letters, Seelye examines the relationship between these two artists and illuminates their views of the American West.]
When Huck Finn declared that he was going to light out for the Territory, he was speaking of the area beyond Arkansas and Missouri, the present states of Oklahoma and Kansas, as it existed in the 1840s. He was expressing the wanderlust of all Americans, for whom the westering urge had held, like the trade winds, for more than two centuries, but he was expressing in...
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SOURCE: "Frederick Remington: The Artist as Local Colorist," in South Dakota Review, Vol. 12, No. 4, Winter, 1974-75, pp. 76-88.
[In the following essay, Erisman considers Remington's written works, seeing them primarily as examples of local color fiction that occasionally supersede this designation. ]
Frederic Remington (1861-1909), American painter and sculptor, needs no introduction; Frederic Remington, American author, is virtually unknown. No one having the sketchiest acquaintance with the American West can fail to recognize either a Remington bronze or a Remington oil. "The Bronco Buster," for example, or "Coming Through the Rye," with its four carousing cowboys,...
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SOURCE: "How the Western Ends: Fenimore Cooper to Frederic Remington," in Western American Literature, Vol. XVII, No. 2, Summer, 1982, pp. 117-35.
[In the following essay, Bold analyzes Remington's Sundown Leflare, John Ermine of the Yellowstone, and The Way of an Indian as they build upon the narrative tradition of James Fenimore Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales.]
Come back—do the 4 volume novel about a South Western Natty Bumpo [sic]—Believe me, I know.
Remington to Wister, Dec. 18991
When Frederic Remington gave that advice to his defecting...
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