Understanding “First Snow in Alsace” begins by appreciating it as a war poem. The physical reminders of the war are few but vivid: shellbursts, fear-gutted homes, “soldiers dead a little while.” Wilbur seeks to illuminate the horror of war by focusing on a brief respite from those horrors, the simple peacefulness of an evening snowfall. He describes the snow with a puzzling abstraction as “absolute snow.” This phrase suggests the blanketing ubiquitousness of snow, the way it covers everything, even erases borders. It is as if the snow heals or covers over a wounded landscape.
Such symbolic readings imply a judging observer, and Wilbur’s poem, which begins as an unpopulated natural scene, is peopled in interesting ways. The sudden “You think” of stanza five announces a move from physical description to human imagination. The dead soldiers introduced next are not literally within the range of the poet’s description; they are annexed by an act of thought, by the unifying force of the snow which falls on the dead and the living alike. Against this eerie image of the eyes of the recently dead, comes a sudden peopling of the scene with “Persons and persons in disguise.” While their disguise may suggest military camouflage, the context implies that it is the snow itself that transforms them within an altered landscape. That landscape and the fresh, white air stimulate the “shared surprise.”
Now among the living, the reader...
(The entire section is 477 words.)