Monteiro, George. Fernando Pessoa and Nineteenth-Century Anglo-American Literature. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2000. The critic searches for the poet’s literary influences rooted in the English language. His European models and precursors included John Keats, Lord Byron, and Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Edgar Allen Poe was the most influential of his American models, along with Nathaniel Hawthorne and Walt Whitman. The critic traces elements of influence in Pessoa’s work as he identifies the poet’s own legacy of influence.
Sadlier, Darlene J. An Introduction to Fernando Pessoa: Modernism and the Paradoxes of Authorship. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1998. This study focuses on the diminished value of authorship in twentieth century literature and the modernist pursuit of source. This vision is consistent with Pessoa’s personae as his heteronyms relate their literary creation to source. This study also explores links between Pessoa’s heteronomous writings and his literary predecessors. The critic seeks to broaden an understanding of European modernism by demonstrating that Pessoa’s authorship was a mimetic textual performance.
Sousa, Ronald W. The Rediscoverers: Major Writers in the Portuguese Literature of National Regeneration. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1981. Addresses Pessoa in the context of Portuguese literature and the modern age. Bibliography.
Zenith, Richard. Fernando Pessoa and Co. New York: Grove Press, 1998. This excellent translation of Pessoa’s work is manifested through his various personae, enabling the reader to comprehend the corpus of poetry in an organized presentation. The poet’s heteronyms served to distance his art from his person. Alberto Caeiro, Ricardo Reis, and Álvaro de Campos attribute stylistic variations and personalities to impersonal entities. Zenith demonstrates that even the poetry that Pessoa wrote under his own name was not personal. The poet identified “Pessoa” as an “orthonym” made up of sub-personalities. Zenith captures the complexity of this evolutionary process in his English translations.