Women's Literature from 1900 to 1960
The early decades of the twentieth century were filled with dramatic turmoil and change within United States and abroad, all of which impacted the nascent feminist movement. Two world wars, rapid industrialization, urbanization, and a depression placed enormous stress on traditional social structures and domestic relationships, from the workplace to the family. In fact, more women entered the professional workforce during the first two decades of the century than at any other time in history. Though American women were granted suffrage in 1920, these were difficult times for the feminist movement. The issue of suffrage had united many women around a common cause, but once women gained the right to vote, the movement suffered from conflict and lack of formal organization. The militant nature of many suffragists also caused the movement to lose momentum in mainstream society, and for many years feminists were viewed as an extremist minority.
Despite the success of the suffrage movement and the great influx of women into the workplace before and during World War II, a resurgence of traditional attitudes concerning the home and family would come to define the postwar period. As many feminists argue, the wars served to both empower and suppress women, whose newfound freedom and independence during the world wars was almost immediately ceded to a newly reestablished sense of patriarchy. Women who had supported the war effort through their labor returned home and were once again relegated to domestic duties and secondary status. Such restricted gender roles, exemplified by the conformity and traditionalism of the 1950s, continued to limit the opportunities and experiences of women until the rebirth of the feminist movement during the late 1960s and 1970s.
Amid such conflicts and evolving gender roles, the first half of the twentieth century witnessed a flourishing in the literary arts and the development of new media such as radio, film, and, by the late 1940s, television. American drama in particular reached a high point in the 1920s, with dramatists Eugene O'Neill, Elmer Rice, and Maxwell Anderson writing many of their best works during this decade. Meanwhile, poets such as Amy Lowell, H. D., and Sara Teasdale elaborated upon the prewar modernism pioneered by T. S. Eliot, W. B. Yeats, Wallace Stevens, and Ezra Pound. By the late 1950s, however, celebrated poets such as Sylvia Plath and Anne Sexton would lead a turn away from formal detachment toward a more emotion-laden subjectivity in confessionalism. During the first half of the twentieth century many male and female authors also turned to the novel to sketch and satirize the materialism and anomie of the modern condition. Important novelists of the period include Theodore Dreiser, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and Ernest Hemingway, along with well-known female novelists Edith Wharton, Katherine Anne Porter, and Gertrude Stein, whose experimentalism defied classification.
A growing number of women writers from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds also emerged during this time. Drawing upon their varied experiences as Asians, Africans, and Native Americans, many of these female writers addressed issues of gender and ethnic identity from new and compelling perspectives. Together, such women provided insight into the lives of women in general and the often denigrated minority populations of which they were a part. In particular, African-American writers came to prominence as part of the literary and artistic movement known as the Harlem Renaissance, which reached its peak during the 1920s and 1930s. This movement provided opportunities for many African-American women writers, including Zora Neale Hurston, Nella Larsen, and Jessie Redmon Fauset, to address issues of race and gender in their works. Such writers also gained appreciation for their declaration of cultural independence and their contribution to the development of an indigenous American language and literature.
While women writers and artists participated in the thriving arts and literary movements during these years, many of them struggled deeply as creators. The world wars had a profound effect on the generation of writers that witnessed them, particularly women who bore the brunt of the social and cultural changes that resulted from these conflicts. Caught between their own aspirations as writers and artists, but confronted with a reality that provided little in terms of equal opportunity or rights, many female authors felt frustrated during these years. In addition, female literary achievement was largely downplayed in academic institutions due to the negative backlash against the suffragists and, more broadly, because of a patronizing and dismissive view of female intellectuals among male cultural elites.
Contemporary critic Elaine Showalter has drawn attention to the conflict, repression, and even decline suffered by many women writers during the early twentieth century. According to Showalter and other scholars, the years following the end of World War I were difficult for female novelists and poets in particular, who were regarded as writers of little substance. Yearning to write about serious issues facing their times but pushed to the periphery, poets such as Teasdale, H. D., Lowell, and Edna St. Vincent Millay were unable to find suitable literary models in past female poets. Additionally, the notion of poetry as an art form that transcends personal and emotional experience, a view expounded by male poets such as Eliot and Pound, led many female poets to feel that their work was being marginalized. Faced with stiff reaction against the type of personal and lyrical poetry many of them wanted to write, Millay and others found it increasingly difficult to continue writing. Some female writers curtailed their creative work and turned their energies to political causes instead, using alternate means such as journalism and reporting to express their opinions. Some writers found ways to incorporate political activism in their fiction and established a model for women writers of the 1960s and beyond.
Twenty Years at Hull House (essays) 1910
Simone de Beauvoir
L'invitée [She Came to Stay] (novel) 1943
Le deuxième sexe. 2 vols. [The Second Sex] (nonfiction) 1949
Tous les hommes sont mortels [All Men Are Mortal] (novel) 1946
"To a Dark Girl" (poem) 1923
"Fantasy" (poem) 1927
"Roosters" (poem) 1946
The Blue Estuaries (poetry) 1923
Body of this Death (poetry) 1923
Sleeping Fury (poetry) 1937
The House in Paris (novel) 1935
"The Demon Lover" (short story) 1945
American Citizen Naturalized in Leadville, Colorado (poetry) 1944
"Winter Night" (poem) 1946
A Street in Bronzeville (poetry) 1945
Annie Allen (poetry) 1949
Pearl S. Buck
The Good Earth (novel) 1931
My Ántonia (novel) 1918...
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SOURCE: Lowell, Amy. "The Captured Goddess." In Sword Blades and Poppy Seed. New York: Macmillan, 1914.
In the following poem, the narrator evokes a figure of divinity and mystical experience through descriptions of flowers, colors, and stones, but then withdraws in shock as the goddess figure is bound by men and offered for sale in the marketplace.
"THE CAPTURED GODDESS"
Over the housetops
Above the rotating chimney-pots,
I have seen a shiver of amethyst,
And blue and cinnamon have flickered
At the far end of a dusty street.
Through sheeted rain
Has come a lustre of crimson,
And I have watched moonbeams
Hushed by a film of palest green.
It was her wings,
Who stepped over the clouds,
And laid her rainbow feathers
Aslant on the currents of the air.
I followed her for long,
With gazing eyes and stumbling feet.
I cared not where she led me,
My eyes were full of colours:
Saffrons, rubies, the yellows of beryls,
And the indigo-blue of quartz;
Flights of rose, layers...
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SOURCE: Teasdale, Sara. "If Death Is Kind." In Flame and Shadow. New York: Macmillan, 1920.
In the following poem, originally written in 1919, the speaker ruminates on the subject of death and the afterlife.
Perhaps if Death is kind, and there can be returning,
We will come back to earth some fragrant night,
And take these lanes to find the sea, and bending
Breathe the same honeysuckle, low and white.
We will come down at night to these resounding beaches
And the long gentle thunder of the sea,
Here for a single hour in the wide starlight
We shall be happy, for the dead are free.
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SOURCE: Bogan, Louise. “women.” The Blue Estuaries: Poems 1923-1968, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1968.
The following is a well-known poem by author Louise Bogan originally published in 1922.
Women have no wilderness in them,
They are provident instead,
Content in the tight hot cell of their hearts
To eat dusty bread.
They do not see cattle cropping red winter grass,
They do not hear
Snow water going down under culverts
Shallow and clear.
They wait, when they should turn to journeys,
They stiffen, when they should bend.
They use against themselves that benevolence
To which no man is friend.
They cannot think of so many crops to a field
Or of clean wood cleft by an axe.
Their love is an eager meaninglessness
Too tense, or too lax.
They hear in every whisper that speaks to them
A shout and a cry.
As like as not, when they take life over their
They should let it go by.
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SOURCE: Chona, Maria. "The Autobiography of a Papago Woman," edited by Ruth Underhill. Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association 46 (1936): 36-7.
Chona was born in Mesquite Root, a Papago village in the Spanish province of Upper Pimeria, now Arizona. Daughter to Con Quien, a village governor, Chona was a noted basketweaver and medicine woman, and possessed extensive knowledge of tribal affairs, customs, and traditions. The following excerpt is from chapter six in her autobiographical account of her life.
My father said to me: "Look, my girl. We are going to marry you, over at that house."
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SOURCE: Showalter, Elaine. "The Other Lost Generation." In Sister's Choice: Tradition and Change in American Women's Writing, pp. 104-26. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.
In the following essay, Showalter discusses the difficulties faced by women writers in the 1920s and 1930s, notably postwar hostility toward the women's movement, negative reactions against women in academia, and the secondary domestic and social roles relegated to women that marginalized female artists.
'I never was a member of a "lost generation,"' the poet Louise Bogan wrote to her friend Morton Zabel in the 1930s, trying to account for the problems she was facing in her career.1 Bogan meant that she had not belonged to the famous group of literary pilgrims who fled the United States in disillusionment after World War I, to cultivate their Muse in London or Montparnasse. Yet in another, and more important sense, Bogan and her female contemporaries were members of a generation lost to literary history and to each other. For—despite the presence of Edith Wharton, Gertrude Stein, Katherine Anne Porter, and other women—the post-war literary movement that we have come to call the Lost Generation was in fact a community of men. In the 1920s, according to the critic John Aldridge, 'the young men came to Paris. With their wives and children, cats and typewriters, they settled in...
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Larsen, Jeanne. "Lowell, Teasdale, Wylie, Millay, and Bogan." In The Columbia History of American Poetry, edited by Jay Parini, pp. 203-32. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
In the following excerpt, Larsen examines the careers of such early-twentieth century poets as Amy Lowell and Sara Teasdale, examining how their writings relate to those of other writers including Louise Bogan, Hilda Doolittle, Adelaide Crapsey, Genevieve Taggard, and others.
Passionate expression of emotion, revelation of personal sensibility, apparent delicacy overlaying sensuality and self-assertion, musicality created by diction and cadence, a vigorous grace of form: these qualities are characteristic of much work by a succession of American women poets. This tradition reached a peak in the second and third decades of the twentieth century, when such poets as Sara Teasdale (1884-1933), Elinor Wylie (1885-1928), and Edna St. Vincent Millay (1892-1950) enjoyed popular favor, flourishing careers, and critical praise.
The reasons for the broad appeal of their musical and moving poems are apparent on first reading. The fascinating complexities beneath polished surfaces are not. Through the 1940s American students continued to read poems by these women; some of their work maintained a quiet popularity in the years that followed. Yet by mid-century all three—like...
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Impact Of The World Wars
SOURCE: Lassner, Phyllis. "The Quiet Revolution: World War II and the English Domestic Novel." Mosaic 23, no. 3 (summer 1990): 86-100.
In the following essay, Lassner studies the impact of World War II on female British authors, contending that these writers used the conventions of the domestic novel as a filter for their experiences during the war through which they questioned both the domestic and political ideology of war and society.
In her 1982 poem entitled "Picture From the Blitz," Lois Clark commemorated the British women who suffered the loss of their homes while holding down the home front during World War II:
After all these years
I can still close my eyes and see
her sitting there,
in her big armchair,
grotesque under an open sky,
framed by the jagged lines of her broken house.
The English domestic novel similarly survived the Battle of Britain, but its import was equally altered forever by the image of a woman who may have nowhere to go when her home is destroyed. Such a change, however, was not merely the result of physical destruction and dislocation; it also had much to do with the way the war on the home front exposed the relationship between the patriarchal ideologies which informed such novels and the sexual politics which...
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SOURCE: Gilbert, Sandra M., and Susan Gubar. “Charred Skirts and Deathmask: World War II and the Blitz on Women.” In No Man’s Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century, pp. 211-65. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1994.
In the following essay, Gilbert and Gubar contend that while World War I provided a huge impetus to women writers, World War II, in contrast, was perceived by many as a revival of patriarchal values. Gilbert and Gubar examine the impact of both wars on women’s writing and social positions, arguing that women’s literary responses to World War II are poignant records of hopelessness in the face of confusion about sex roles and social expectations.
There is too much fathering going on just now and there is no doubt about it fathers are depressing. Everybody nowadays is a father, there is father Mussolini and father Hitler and father Roosevelt and father Stalin and father Lewis and father Blum and father Franco is just commencing now and there are ever so many more ready to be one.
The War she endured was different.
The place I am getting to, why are there these
The body of this woman,
Charred skirts and deathmask
Mourned by religious...
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Women And The Dramatic Tradition
Sutherland, Cynthia. "American Women Playwrights as Mediators of the 'Woman Problem.'" Modern Drama 21 (September 1978): 319-36.
In the following essay, Sutherland examines a withdrawal from more strident portrayals of feminist concerns in plays of the 1920s, including Zona Gale's Miss Lulu Bett.
Ibsen's Nora shut the door of her "doll's house" in 1879. Among the generation of American women born in the 1870's and 1880's, Zona Gale, Zoe Akins, and Susan Glaspell all won Pulitzer Prizes. Rachel Crothers, the successful dramatist who wrote more than three dozen plays, characterized her own work as "a sort of Comédie Humaine de la Femme." In an interview in 1931 she said: "With few exceptions, every one of my plays has been a social attitude toward women at the moment I wrote it…I[do not] go out stalking the footsteps of women's progress. It is something that comes to me subconsciously. I may say that I sense the trend even before I have hearsay or direct knowledge of it." During a period in which most American play-wrights confined their work to representations of the middle class, these women were distinctive because they created principal roles for female characters whose rhetoric thinly veiled a sense of uneasiness with what Eva Figes and others more recently have called "patriarchal attitudes."
Such capitulation to public opinion evident...
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SOURCE: Burke, Sally. "The Woman Question On-stage." In American Feminist Playwrights: A Critical History, pp. 29-64. New York: Twayne, 1996.
In the following essay, Burke provides an overview of drama written by women during the suffrage era and the early years of feminism, focusing on the works of such authors as Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Rachel Crothers, and Susan Glaspell.
The Woman Question was an umbrella phrase coined during the nineteenth century to cover a multitude of questions. For some, it signaled a desire for honest debate; for others, it functioned as a code phrase whose purpose was to answer the "Question" by proving woman's inferiority. The Woman Question carried ramifications in politics, the arts, religion, philosophy, economics, science, and the broader area of social relationships. Many and varied questions were raised. For instance, is woman man's property? Is she entitled to property in her own right? To higher education? May she control her sexuality through contraception? What effect does her employment have on the capitalist system and on the family? And of increasing importance, should women vote? How great a fear of women actually exercising power through the ballot does resistance to women suffrage illustrate?
Formal statements of the Question took shape in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. Margaret...
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SOURCE: Schroeder, Patricia R. “Remembering the Disremembered: Feminist Realists of the Harlem Renaissance.” In Realism and the American Dramatic Tradition, edited by William W. Demastes, pp. 91-106. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1996.
In the following essay, Schroeder discusses the work of African-American women playwrights during the Harlem Renaissance, pointing out that this was one of the first opportunities for such writers to present a realistic view of female African-American experience, focusing on such issues as gender roles in the African-American community, the impact of poverty, and reproductive freedom.
When Angelina Weld Grimké’s realist play Rachel was first produced by the NAACP’s Drama Committee in 1916, it became something of a cause célèbre in the African-American theatrical community. The program notes from the 1916 production, which proclaim the play as “the first attempt to use the stage for race propaganda”1 provoked what one recent critic has called a “cultural war … [fought] over accurate depictions of the African-American community.”2 Central to this conflict over representation, which affected both female and male theatre practitioners and became one of the defining motifs of the Harlem Renaissance,3 were the...
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Asian American Influences
SOURCE: Yu, Ning. "Fanny Fern and Sui Sin Far: The Beginning of an Asian American Voice." Women and Language 19, no. 2 (fall 1996): 44-47.
In the following essay, Yu compares the work of Sui Sin Far with Fanny Fern, noting that Fern provided a model upon which Sui Sin Far developed her literary voice and critique of racism, establishing a female literary tradition followed by subsequent Asian American artists such as Maxine Hong Kingston and Judy Syfer.
The lack of a role model, as Alice Walker points out, "is an occupational hazard for the artist, simply because models in art, in behavior, in growth of spirit and intellect—even if rejected—enrich and enlarge one's view of existence" (4). The first Chinese American fiction writer, Edith Maude Eaton, or Sui Sin Far, had to cope with this "hazard" when she started her literary career near the turn of the century. Born in 1865 to an English father and a Chinese mother, Edith Maude Eaton grew up in an era notorious for its "violent anti-Chinese sentiment and legally sanctioned discriminatory policies" (Falvey, backcover). Taking "tremendous pride" in her Chinese heritage (Ammons 107), Eaton early decided to "write wrongs in order to right them" (Ling 32), defying "the stereotype of the passive, impassive, fragile, inscrutable 'Oriental,'" and refusing to "take on the identity assigned her by racist whites"...
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Abramson, Doris. "Rachel Crothers: Broadway Feminist." Modern American Drama: The Female Canon (1990): 55-65.
Discussion of Crothers as a feminist playwright.
Bair, Deirdre. "Simone de Beauvoir: Politics, Language, and Feminist Identity." Yale French Studies, no. 72: 149-62.
Examines Beauvoir's views on political action in the context of her philosophy and views on feminist theory.
Barbeito, Patricia Felisa. "'Making Generations' in Jacobs, Larsen, and Hurston: A Genealogy of Black Women's Writing." American Literature 70, no. 2 (June 1998): 365-96.
Theorizes that the lineage of black women's writing places an immense significance on the procreative nature of the black female body, and that this image shapes the work of Harriet Jacobs, Nella Larsen, and Zora Neale Hurston in very distinct ways.
Calder, Jenni. "World War and Women—Advance and Retreat." In War and the Cultural Construction of Identities in Britain, edited by Barbara Korte and Ralf Schneider, pp. 163-82. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi, 1994.
Offers a brief history of women during the world wars, noting the ways in which each war redefined...
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