Feminism in Literature Essay - Women in the Early to Mid-20th Century (1900-1960)

Women in the Early to Mid-20th Century (1900-1960)

Introduction

The dawn of the twentieth century witnessed changes in almost every aspect of the day-today lives of women, from the domestic sphere to the public. The women's movement, with its emphasis on advocacy of equal rights, newly formed women's organizations, and the rise of a new generation of female artists, photographers, and professionals, transformed the traditional patriarchal social structure across the globe. Followed closely by the advent of World War I, these social shifts, which had been set in motion at the beginning of the century, developed further as women were propelled into the workforce, exposing them to previously male-dominated professional and political situations. By the midpoint of the twentieth century, women's activities and concerns had been recognized as a significant element of the literary, scientific, and cultural landscape of several countries, marking a revolutionary change in the social and domestic roles of women.

The end of the nineteenth century saw tremendous growth in the suffrage movement in England and the United States, with women struggling to attain political equality. The suffragists—who were often militant in their expressions of protest—presented a sometimes stark contrast to the feminine ideal of the era, which portrayed women as delicate, demure, and silent, confined to a domestic world that cocooned them from the harsh realities of the world. Despite many challenges English and American women eventually won the right to vote, in part due to the changed perception of women's abilities following World War I. As men were called to war, companies that had previously limited employment in better-paying jobs to white males found themselves opening their doors to white women and women and men of color. Racial and gender tensions escalated during this time, and many jobs were in fact permanently redefined as "women's work," including teaching, nursing, secretarial work, and telephone operations. As well as functioning in the workforce, women actively participated in the political and cultural life of England and the United States. The early decades of the twentieth century, often referred to as the Progressive Era, saw the emergence of a new image of women in society which had undergone a marked transformation from the demure, frail, female stereotype of the late Victorian Era. The women of the Progressive Era, according to Sarah Jane Deutsch, were portrayed as "women with short hair and short skirts … kicking up their legs and kicking off a century of social restrictions." Progressive women smoked, danced in public, held jobs, and generally did most things that nineteenth-century women were barred from doing. However, Deutsch asserts that this image of the 1920s "flapper" was restricted to certain portions of the population, namely white, young, and middle-class communities. Women elsewhere, particularly women from other ethnic backgrounds, such as African-Americans, Asian-Americans, and Hispanics, lived much differently, struggling in their new roles as mothers and professionals. The number of women who worked outside the home in the 1920s rose almost 50 percent throughout the decade. While women still constituted a small number of the professional population, they were slowly increasing their participation in more significant occupations, including law, social work, engineering, and medicine.

The presence of a large class of young working women after World War I was reflected in what had become a major cultural force—the film industry. Nevertheless, films of the era continued to reinforce outdated stereotypes about women's place in society. While early cinematic storylines often featured poor women finding success and contentment through marriage to rich men, the films of the 1920s depicted young, feisty working women who, like their predecessors, could attain true happiness only by marrying their bosses. Such plotlines helped many to cope with the growing fear that the domestic and family structure of society was being eroded by the emergence of the new, independent woman. Rarely did depictions of women in mass media, including film, radio, and theater, convey the true circumstances of working women. Instead, audiences were presented with images of flappers or visions of glorified motherhood and marriage.

Women in the early twentieth century were perhaps most active and influential as writers and artists. The advent of the new century did witness a change in the style and content of women's writing, as well as an increase in the depiction of feminine images and themes in literature. Male authors such as D. H. Lawrence and W. D. Howells explored issues pertaining to sexuality and the newly redefined sexual politics between men and women. Women authors such as Dorothy Richardson, May Sinclair, and Katherine Mansfield focused on topics pertinent to women, bringing attention to the myriad difficulties they faced redefining their identities in a changing world. Other major women writers of the period included Gertrude Stein, Virginia Woolf, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, and Edith Wharton. In the arena of art, the early twentieth century provided growing opportunities for women to exhibit their work. In 1914, for example, the National Academy of Design first allowed women to attend anatomy lectures, thus providing them with a chance to study draftsmanship and develop drawing skills in a formal setting. Such artists as Emerson Baum and photographers like Alfred Steiglitz helped promote exhibitions of women's art, including the works of Imogen Cunningham and Georgia O'Keefe. Many female artists—among them Dorothea Lange and Claire Leighton—used their talents to highlight the social realities of their times, and some of the most powerful images of this period, including stirring portrayals of coal miners and farmers, were produced by these women.

By the mid-twentieth century, women throughout the Western world had completely redefined their roles in almost every social, political, and cultural sphere. While the fight for equal rights and recognition for women would continue into the 1950s and beyond, the first major steps towards such changes began at the advent of the twentieth century, with women writers, photographers, artists, activists, and workers blazing a new trail for generations of women to follow.

Representative Works

Jane Addams

Democracy and Social Ethics (nonfiction) 1902

Twenty Years at...

(The entire section is 335 words.)

Primary Sources

Charlotte Perkins Gilman (Essay Date 1898)

SOURCE: Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "Chapter XIV." In Women and Economics: A Study of the Economic...

(The entire section is 1347 words.)

Rebecca West (Essay Date 26 November 1912)

SOURCE: West, Rebecca. "The Woman as Workmate: Her Claim to Equal Rates of Pay for Equal Quality of Work."...

(The entire section is 1577 words.)

Emma Goldman (Essay Date C. 1913)

SOURCE: Goldman, Emma. "Victims of Morality." In Red Emma Speaks, Alix Kates Shulman, pp. 126-32. New...

(The entire section is 1513 words.)

Crystal Eastman (Essay Date 1918)

SOURCE: Eastman, Crystal. "Birth Control in the Feminist Program." In Crystal Eastman on Women and...

(The entire section is 1747 words.)

Elise Johnson Mcdougald (Essay Date 1 March 1925)

SOURCE: McDougald, Elise Johnson. "The Double Task: The Struggle of Negro Women for Sex and Race...

(The entire section is 2230 words.)

Overviews

SOURCE: Deutsch, Sarah Jane. “From Ballots to Breadlines: 1920-1940.” In No Small Courage: A History...

(The entire section is 27099 words.)

Social And Economic Conditions

William H. Chafe (Essay Date 1990)

SOURCE: Chafe, William H. "World War II as a Pivotal Experience for American Women." In Women and War:...

(The entire section is 5499 words.)

Ellen Chesler (Essay Date 1992)

SOURCE: Chesler, Ellen. “Organizing for Birth Control.” In Woman of Valor: Margaret Sanger and the...

(The entire section is 10482 words.)

Women And The Arts

Elaine Showalter (Essay Date 1977)

SOURCE: Showalter, Elaine. "The Female Aesthetic." In A Literature of Their Own: British Women Novelists...

(The entire section is 7384 words.)

Sandra M. Gilbert And Susan Gubar (Essay Date 1988)

SOURCE: Gilbert, Sandra M., and Susan Gubar. “The Battle of the Sexes: The Men’s Case.” In No...

(The entire section is 7282 words.)

Whitney Chadwick (Essay Date 1990)

SOURCE: Chadwick, Whitney. "The Independents." In Women, Art, and Society, pp. 265-96. London: Thames...

(The entire section is 7673 words.)

Nan Enstad (Essay Date 1999)

SOURCE: Enstad, Nan. "Movie-Struck Girls: Motion Pictures and Consumer Subjectivities." In Ladies of...

(The entire section is 18717 words.)

Martin W. Sandler (Essay Date 2002)

SOURCE: Sandler, Martin W. "For the Printed Page." In Against the Odds: Women Pioneers in the First...

(The entire section is 5665 words.)

Further Reading

Criticism

Ammons, Elizabeth. "Men of Color, Women, and Uppity Art at the Turn of the Century."...

(The entire section is 790 words.)