Fanny Fern 1811-1872
Pseudonym of Sara Payson Willis Parton. American journalist, novelist, essayist, and short story writer.
Writing under the pseudonym “Fanny Fern,” Willis Parton was both the first woman newspaper columnist as well as the most highly-paid newspaper writer of her time. Among a minority of women writers in the mid-nineteenth century who disturbed both male and female readers with “unfeminine” and “vulgar” writing, Fern in her weekly columns addressed such issues as women's economic independence, children's rights, birth control, prostitution, and venereal disease—all topics considered unseemly for a woman to be discussing publicly. But it was the release of her first novel, the anonymous and largely autobiographical Ruth Hall (1855), that gained for Willis Parton widespread attention. Soon after its publication, a fellow journalist, so angered by his fictional portrayal in the novel, publicly revealed Willis Parton's identity, leading many readers to criticize her candid disclosure of her family's misbehavior—however egregious it may have been. The resourceful and independent title character also drew scathing commentary from critics, many of whom insisted that the heroine exhibited behavior that was grossly unfeminine. Modern critics, however, tend to view Willis Parton as being ahead of her time both in terms of what she considered important societal concerns and her commentary on them.
Willis was born in Portland, Maine, the fifth of nine children, and moved with her family to Boston at an early age. Her father, Nathaniel Willis, was the editor of two Boston newspapers, while her brother, Nathaniel Parker Willis, eventually became a noted journalist and poet within the New York publishing industry. Willis attended several female seminaries before finally graduating in 1829 from Catharine Beecher's Female Seminary in Hartford, Connecticut, where the young Willis was noted for her spirited writings and mischievous behavior. In 1837 she married Charles H. Eldredge, a bank cashier, and they had three children, all girls. When Eldredge died in 1846 from typhoid fever, he left his wife and two daughters (the eldest had died in 1845) penniless. Willis appealed to her father and father-in-law for assistance, and though they each gave her a small allowance, they advised her that remarriage would be her best means of support. Willis acquiesced to her families' demands and married Samuel Farrington in 1849, a widower with two children. The marriage ultimately failed; taking the children with her, Willis left him in 1851 (a shocking move for a woman) and Farrington obtained a divorce in 1853. Willis's family was scandalized and refused to continue to support her.
Willis then tried the traditional course for women—taking up sewing and teaching to earn money—but was unsuccessful at both of these. In desperation, she tried writing. In the summer of 1851 the Boston Olive Branch published one of her essays and paid her fifty cents. Willis then sent some samples of her writing to her brother in New York, but he sent them back with scathing criticism, deeming her work inappropriate and indecent. She persevered without his assistance, and was able to make ends meet by writing for various Boston newspapers under the pseudonym Fanny Fern. She became so popular that her columns were pirated by other newspapers nationwide, and in 1853, a New York publisher released Fern Leaves from Fanny's Portfolio, a collection of her columns and short stories, which was wildly successful. Two more popular collections soon followed, and Fern decided to move to New York after earning ten thousand dollars in royalties.
After the publication of Ruth Hall, Fern was hired by Robert Bonner of the best-selling New York Ledger as a weekly columnist. By 1855, Fern was the highest paid columnist in the country, earning an unprecedented one hundred dollars for each installment of a serial novel titled “Fanny Ford,” which eventually appeared as part of a collection entitled Fresh Leaves (1857). She published another novel, Rose Clark (1856), as well as other collections of stories, and continued to write popular weekly columns for Bonner. One of her columns included a review of her friend Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass, in which she took the unpopular stance among critics of praising the book. In 1856, she married editor and writer James Parton, eleven years her junior. Parton was familiar with Fern's publications and supported every aspect of her writing and work; he signed a prenuptial agreement specifying that all Fern's property belonged to her. Fern died in 1872 from cancer, missing only one column—the week before her death—in seventeen years of journalism.
In most of her work, Fern wrote as a social critic, exposing what she saw as societal wrongs and sometimes proposing ways to right these wrongs. She was deeply concerned with injustice as it affected women, both at home and in the marketplace, which is why she never ceased urging women to secure financial independence from men. While Fern's female contemporaries were writing what was called “sentimental,” “delicate” literature, deemed appropriate for women writers, Fern was wrestling in her weekly columns with such topics as equal pay and more employment opportunities for women (her brief stint in the sewing industry made her sympathetic to the plight of underpaid seamstresses), divorce, children's education reform, and the sexual double standard. In her best-selling, largely autobiographical novel Ruth Hall (which was originally intended to be anonymous), Fern made private matters public by exposing her own life's trials (in her family's mistreatment of her) and documenting her ultimate success despite their abandonment. This was shocking reading for that time period—genteel women were not supposed to be maligning their families in public and celebrating their personal victories. And, unlike other novels of its generation, Ruth Hall does not end with the heroine's marriage and the end of her career. Ruth is an assertive, independent businesswoman in a male-dominated environment, but she is also a devoted mother—it was for her children's benefit that she began writing in the first place. Fern's second novel, Rose Clark (which also sold well), contains autobiographical elements as well, but this book centers on the difficulties of her second marriage. After Rose Clark, Fern stopped writing long fiction; Joyce W. Warren, a respected Fern scholar, speculates that the “rules” for women novelists of the 1850s were too constricting for Fern, leading her to focus instead on the essay form, which allowed her the opportunity to express herself much more openly and freely. In all of her writings, Fern also decried hypocrisy, pretension, and conformity and urged individualism for both men and women.
Until recently, Fern has been lumped together with other women writers of the mid-nineteenth century, perhaps in part due to the “sentimental” pieces contained in some of her collections of essays and short stories. One critic has commented that these were likely included in her early collections so that her work might be published at all. When Ruth Hall first appeared, Fern, who was praised by the British press, was generally castigated by the American review media, who cited the baseness of the novel and the fact that Fern had “demeaned herself” with its publication. She did, however, have her American supporters. Nathaniel Hawthorne, for example, found her writing refreshingly different from the writing of her female contemporaries, noting that when, like Fern, women writers “throw off the constraints of decency … then their books are sure to possess character and value. …” Elizabeth Cady Stanton praised the novel for its debunking of the myth that women can always depend on men for economic, legal, and social protection. Modern critics have reexamined the importance of Fern's life and writing. Ann Douglas Wood, for example, argues that Fern “challenged the preconceived ideas about why women should write and what kind of literature they could write.” Commenting on the fact that the public and emotional expression of anger was perceived as a direct threat to traditional nineteenth-century gender roles, Linda Grasso notes that Ruth Hall was at the center of a heated debate over whether a woman could reveal her ill-will toward men in a public forum and yet still retain a respectable position in society. Joyce W. Warren, who has written extensively on Fern, writes that Fern's “ideas and writing style were far in advance of her day.” Warren finds that Fern advocated individualism, independence, and rights for women when the American individualist was thought to be exclusively male and the “American Dream” solely his. Focusing on the dualistic nature of Ruth Hall, Susan K. Harris, too, considers Fern to have been a forward thinker. According to Harris, Fern mixed sentimentalism with cynicism in the novel, thereby consciously manipulating the conventions of sentimental literature in order to cast doubt on prevailing nineteenth-century notions of womanhood, equality, and economic independence. Another critic, Nicole Tonkovich, also points out, though, that Fern viewed the process of writing as closely related to a woman's domestic role. According to Tonkovich: “Although writing and domesticity mutually efface each other, they are for Fern inseparable. Women writers cannot be separated from their maternal function; that maternal function … differentiates their practice of literacy from men's.”
*Fern Leaves from Fanny's Portfolio (short stories and essays) 1853
Little Ferns for Fanny's Little Friends (juvenile short stories and essays) 1854
Fern Leaves from Fanny's Portfolio, Second Series (short stories and essays) 1854
Shadows and Sunbeams: Being a Second Series of Fern Leaves from Fanny’s Portfolio (short stories and essays) 1854
Ruth Hall: A Domestic Tale of the Present (novel) 1855
Rose Clark (novel) 1856
†Fresh Leaves (novella and short stories) 1857
The Play-Day Book: New Stories for Little Folks (juvenile short stories and essays) 1857
The New Story Book for Children (juvenile short stories and essays) 1868
Folly As It Flies; Hit at by Fanny Fern (short stories and essays) 1868
Ginger-Snaps (short stories and essays) 1870
Caper-Sauce: A Volume of Chit-Chat about Men, Women, and Things (short stories and essays) 1872
Ruth Hall and Other Writings (novel and essays) 1986
*Many of the selections included in this volume were originally published in various periodicals, including the Boston True Flag and Olive Branch and the New York Musical World and Times.
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SOURCE: “The ‘Scribbling Women’ and Fanny Fern: Why Women Wrote,” in American Quarterly, Vol. XXIII, No. 1, Spring, 1971, pp. 3-24.
[In the following essay, Wood discusses women's writing in mid-nineteenth-century America, with particular emphasis on Fanny Fern's Ruth Hall and how the novel deviated from what was considered “appropriate” writing for women.]
In January 1855, Nathaniel Hawthorne penned a protest which was to be often quoted in later years, against the “d———d mob of scribbling women” who were, in his opinion, both capturing and corrupting the literary market. In a subsequent letter to the same correspondent, his publisher William Ticknor, he made an exception to the indictment he had leveled against his feminine rivals in favor of “Fanny Fern” who had just published a novel entitled Ruth Hall. His comments, which explain not only why he admired her, but why he disliked many of her scribbling sisters, are worth quoting in full:
I have been reading Ruth Hall, and I must say I enjoyed it a good deal. … The woman [Fanny Fern] writes as if the Devil was in her; and that is the only condition under which a woman ever writes anything worth reading. Generally women write like emasculated men, and are only to be distinguished from male authors by greater feebleness and folly; but when they throw off the restraints...
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SOURCE: “Inscribing and Defining: The Many Voices of Fanny Fern's Ruth Hall,” in Nineteenth-Century American Women's Novels: Interpretative Strategies, Cambridge University Press, 1990, pp. 111-27.
[In the following essay, Harris argues that Fanny Fern had a deliberate strategy in mind while writing Ruth Hall:according to Harris, Fern subverted the constructs of sentimental literature in order to express her own ideas about women's independence and to challenge the very notion of the “ideal” nineteenth-century woman.]
Fanny Fern's (Sara Payson Willis) 1855 novel Ruth Hall1 is the story of a woman who, losing her economic security on her husband's death, and finding herself sole support of two small children, becomes a highly successful popular writer. The book has autobiographical elements: Willis did lose her first child and first husband and was thrown out on the world to fend for herself. Like her heroine, she too went through a period of trial before she found her vocation as a writer.2Ruth Hall records some of her actual experiences; more importantly, it records how she felt about them. There’s a wicked mood in the portrayal of some of her fictional characters that suggests she was reaping revenge on those who had wronged her. Certainly her contemporaries understood that: The novel was soundly condemned in some quarters because it furiously...
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SOURCE: “Text and Context in Fanny Fern's Ruth Hall: From Widowhood to Independence,” in Joinings and Disjoinings: The Significance of Marital Status in Literature, edited by JoAnna Stephens Mink and Janet Doubler Ward, Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1991, pp. 67-76.
[In the following essay, Warren explores how Fern's own experience as a vulnerable and powerless widow served as the basis for her novel Ruth Hall and caused her to urge all women—married and unmarried—to secure economic independence for themselves.]
When Fanny Fern's novel Ruth Hall was published in 1855, it created a sensation. In this largely autobiographical novel, Sara Willis Parton (1811-1872), writing under the pseudonym of Fanny Fern, satirized her male relatives (her father, her father-in-law, her brother, and her brother-in-law), who had provided neither compassion nor adequate financial assistance when she was left a widow. Although her novel was published under her pseudonym, one of the Boston editors who did not like his own satirical portrait in the novel revealed her identity, and the novel became a roman a clef. Fern was condemned by the critics for her “unfeminine” and “unfilial” writing. As the reviewer for the New York Times commented, if the novel had been written by a man, it would be “a natural and excusable book,” but, asked the reviewer, how could a...
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SOURCE: “‘Fanny Ford’ and Rose Clark,” in Fanny Fern: An Independent Woman, Rutgers University Press, 1992, pp. 195-210.
[In the following essay, Warren evaluates two of Fern's works—her serialized novella “Fanny Ford” and her second novel, Rose Clark. Warren argues that one of the most significant aspects of the novella is its social criticism—Fern confronted such issues as the need for educational reform, the plight of women workers, the necessity of improved child-rearing methods, and the unjust conditions in a patriarchal society. According to Warren, the most valuable aspects of Rose Clark are the insights it affords into Fern's second marriage; its satire; and its theme, style, and structure.]
We are tired … of the piled-up horrors with which some novelists bait for readers. Anybody can introduce a ghost or a bloody head; it takes genius, and that of the very highest order, to make what are called “common-place” events and persons interesting.
[New York Ledger (NYL)], April 20, 1861
In addition to Ruth Hall Fanny Fern wrote two other works of long fiction, “Fanny Ford,” the hundred-dollar-a-column novella that was serialized in the Ledger in the summer of 1855, and Rose Clark, a novel...
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SOURCE: “Sentiment and Satire: Fern Leaves,” in Fanny Fern, Twayne Publishers, 1993, pp. 23-39.
[In the following essay, Walker provides an overview of the prevailing themes and topics of Fanny Fern's newspaper columns, including those reprinted in Fern Leaves and Shadows and Sunbeams (the title of the reprinted version of Fern Leaves, Second Series).]
THE RISE OF THE COLUMNIST
The twentieth-century newspaper, with its clear distinction between the objective reporting of news and the opinions expressed on editorial pages, is the product of a long evolution in which columns such as those of Fanny Fern played an important role in the mid-nineteenth century. Although the editorial pages and the choice of which stories to give prominence may still cause newspapers to be regarded as “liberal” or “conservative,” their political biases are quite muted when compared to the overt partisanship of America's earliest newspapers. Nathaniel Willis's creation of the Eastern Argus as a paper that would espouse Whig views in opposition to the Federalist stance of the Portland Gazette in the early nineteenth century was typical of the period. In the absence of other media that could inform and influence the electorate, newspapers were often clearly identified with specific political interests. In addition to serving political ends,...
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SOURCE: “Anger in the House: Fanny Fern's Ruth Hall and the Redrawing of Emotional Boundaries in Mid-Nineteenth-Century America,” in Studies in the American Renaissance, edited by Joel Myerson, University Press of Virginia, 1995, pp. 251-61.
[In the following essay, Grasso argues that Fern's Ruth Hall was part of a larger mid-nineteenth-century debate over the public expression of anger by women, and whether this type of public expression could be considered appropriate “female” behavior and whether it posed a threat to existing gender roles.]
[I]n view of this entire disfranchisement of one-half the people of this country, their social and religious degradation—in view of the unjust laws above mentioned, and because women do feel themselves aggrieved, oppressed, and fraudulently deprived of their most sacred rights, we insist that they have immediate admission to all the rights and privileges which belong to them as citizens of the United States.
Declaration of Sentiments (1848)1
[A] few months since a man escaped from bondage and found a temporary shelter almost beneath the shadow of Bunker Hill. Had that man stood upon the deck of an Austrian ship … he would have found protection. Had he been wrecked upon an island or colony of Great Britain, the waves of the tempest-lashed...
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SOURCE: “Against Novels: Fanny Fern's Newspaper Fictions and the Reform of Print Culture,” in American Periodicals, Vol. 6, 1996, pp. 61-91.
[In the following essay, Pettengill examines newspaper and novel writing in the mid-nineteenth century and shows how Fern's work in these two genres at times blurred the distinction between them.]
I. INTRODUCTION: REFLECTIONS ON GENRE AND HIERARCHY
To The Reader
I present you with my first continuous story. I do not dignify it by the name of “A novel.” I am aware that it is entirely at variance with all set rules for novel writing. There is no intricate plot; there are no startling developments; no hair-breadth escapes. I have compressed into one volume what I might have expanded into two or three. I have avoided long introductions and descriptions, and have entered unceremoniously, and unannounced, into people's houses, without stopping to ring the bell …
—Fanny Fern, Preface to Ruth Hall
My assumption is that an author in making a generic choice involves himself in an ideological choice, and that the critic in reconsidering the generic choices, he attributes to a text involves himself in certain ideological, social, and literary commitments.
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SOURCE: “Fatherless Daughters: Sarah Hale and Fanny Fern,” in Domesticity with a Difference: The Nonfiction of Catharine Beecher, Sarah J. Hale, Fanny Fern, and Margaret Fuller, University Press of Mississippi, 1997, pp. 26-46.
[In the following excerpt, Tonkovich explores the influence of Fanny Fern's home life, education, and the community on her literary efforts. Tonkovich also argues that Fern never considered writing and domesticity as mutually exclusive.]
… Grata Sara(h) Payson Willis Eldredge Farrington Parton (who also used the pseudonyms “Tabitha,” “Olivia,” and “Fanny Fern”) is a figure whose multiplicity of names marks the difficulty of positing a stable (auto)biographical subject.1 A writer who capitalized on the ambiguity of her identity, Fern demonstrates how the relation of writing women to home, school, and community changed as formal education for women became more generally available. As fifth child and third daughter in her family, Sara Willis was distanced from her father's scrutiny and patronage; moreover, from a very early age she boarded away from her family in schools headed by several of New England's most illustrious pioneer educators of women. These schools, in turn, mediated her connection with a wide community of readers and writers and facilitated her abilities at self-fashioning in various genres—including autobiography, fiction, personal...
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Adams, Florence Bannard. Fanny Fern; or A Pair of Flaming Shoes. West Trenton, N.J.: n.p., 1966, 30 p.
Focusing on Fanny Fern's journalistic writing, particularly for the New York Ledger, discusses how her family and domestic life influenced her stance on a variety of contemporary events and issues.
Eckert, Robert P., Jr. “Friendly, Fragrant, Fanny Ferns.” The Colophon: A Quarterly for Collectors and Lovers of Books, No. 18 (1934).
A short but thorough biography of Fanny Fern, focusing for the most part on her personal life (as opposed to her literary career) and personality.
Greenwood, Grace. “Fanny Fern—Mrs. Parton.” In Eminent Women of the Age: Being Narratives of the Lives and Deeds of the Most Prominent Women of the Present Generation, by James Parton, et al., 1869. Reprint, New York: Arno Press, Inc., 1974, pp. 66-84.
A short, anecdotal biography of Fern. The essay, published during her lifetime, was written by a fellow woman writer.
Warren, Joyce W. “Fanny Fern, 1811-1872.” Legacy 2, No. 2 (Fall 1985): 54-60.
Provides a brief biography of Fern and explores why her literary accomplishments were remarkable for a mid-nineteenth-century woman.
———. Introduction to Ruth Hall and Other...
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