Burney, Fanny (Feminism in Literature)
Burney's best known novel Evelina; or, A Young Lady's Entrance into the World (1778), is an early comedy of manners that depicts the coming-of-age of a young woman subject to the whims of irresponsible men and the restrictions of English society. With Evelina and three later books, Burney greatly influenced the early development of the novel, incorporating domestic and feminine concerns, and set a successful precedent for aspiring women authors, making way for the novel to become a genre both by and for women.
Burney was born June 13, 1752 in London to Esther Sleepe and Charles Burney. Her mother died when Burney was ten, and she became attached to her father, a prominent musician and England's first musicologist. Although Burney was a shy child and received little formal education, she met a number of artists and intellectuals through her father. She read extensively and, while her father preferred that she devote herself to activities other than writing, she secretly began to compose poems, plays, and fiction. In 1767, however, apparently in response to her father's disapproval of her writing, Burney destroyed all her manuscripts. Among these early manuscripts was the novel "The History of Caroline Evelyn." When Burney began to write again several years later, the novel formed the basis of the first part of Evelina. To Burney's surprise, the success of Evelina delighted her father; Dr. Burney had read and enjoyed Evelina, which had been published anonymously, without knowing that his daughter was the author. He introduced his daughter to such prominent literary figures as Samuel Johnson and Edmund Burke, who warmly welcomed her into London's literary circles and encouraged her to continue writing. However, because Dr. Burney privately pronounced her next work, a drama entitled "The Witlings," a failure, it was never published or produced. Several critics now contend that her father objected to this parody of bluestocking society for its controversial subject. Despite Burney's popularity as an author, her family continued to be concerned about her unmarried status and future financial security. When she was offered a position as second keeper of the robes to Queen Charlotte in 1786, she accepted the prestigious post at her father's urging. However, Burney's estrangement from the society that inspired her novels made her miserable. She recorded her experience in journals and letters, published posthumously in the Diary and Letters of Madame d'Arblay (1842-46), that are today considered a telling account of the rigors and restrictions of life at court. Several tragedies that she composed during this period also bear witness to Burney's increasing unhappiness and frustration. Eventually, she became ill and Dr. Burney obtained her release from royal service. She left court in 1791, receiving a pension of one hundred pounds a year. Soon after, Burney married Alexandre d'Arblay, a penniless French exile. In 1794 she gave birth to a son, Alexander. Burney resumed her novel-writing career in 1796 with Camilla; or, A Picture of Youth, a satirical examination of the social restrictions of marriage. The work yielded sufficient funds to build the d'Arblays a new home, Camilla Cottage. Burney's days at Camilla Cottage were productive; there she wrote several unpublished comedies before traveling to France with her family in 1802. Though they intended to visit briefly, they were forced to stay until 1812 because of the outbreak of war between France and England. In 1811, Burney underwent a mastectomy—performed before the invention of anesthesia—hiding her ordeal even from her husband, who was away on business. Upon the couple's return to England, Burney wrote her last novel, The Wanderer; or, Female Difficulties (1814). In 1815, during Napoleon's Hundred Days, d'Arblay aided the forces against Napoleon while Burney fled to Brussels for the duration of the conflict; they returned to England later that year and settled in Bath. After d'Arblay's death in 1818, Burney moved back to London, where she began to revise her journals to add her experiences in exile during wartime. She died at the age of eighty-eight.
Burney published Evelina anonymously, aided by her brother Charles, who disguised himself when submitting the manuscript. An epistolary novel with a focus on female identity, the book met with immediate acclaim. In Evelina, Burney created a heroine who is considered one of the most vibrant and realistic in English literature, and the novel is the primary source of Burney's modern reputation. Burney next wrote Cecilia; or, Memoirs of an Heiress (1782), in which she continued to explore the social mores of her era with wit and satire. It was also her first use of third-person narrative, which she employed in both her subsequent novels. While not as great a success as Evelina, Cecilia was generally well received. Critics favorably compared it with the works of Samuel Richardson, Henry Fielding, and Laurence Sterne but argued that it lacked the spontaneity of Evelina, a flaw also detected in Camilla and The Wanderer. Though most commentators fault Camilla as a sensational work written purely for financial reasons, it was extremely popular. The Wanderer, criticized as dated and awkwardly constructed, was the most poorly received of her novels. The novel's depiction of a nineteenth-century woman struggling to earn her own living, however, has prompted some commentary in recent years, particularly from a feminist standpoint. During the final years of her life, Burney edited her father's memoirs and correspondence, Memoirs of Dr. Burney, Arranged from His Own Manuscripts, from Family Papers, and from Personal Recollections (1832). Though she claimed to have carefully edited sections to avoid including any slanderous materials, detractors have charged that Burney chose to incorporate material that illuminates her own life rather than her father's. Her Diary and Letters, published by her niece after Burney's death, generated a great deal of public interest and she was remembered more as a diarist than as a novelist well into the twentieth century.
Many critics have described Burney as occupying a crucial middle position between early novelists, such as Fielding and Richardson, and later novelists, including Jane Austen, who perfected the novel of manners that Burney had innovated. She was also in the vanguard of respectable women authors: whereas the earlier aristocratic writer Mary Wortley Montagu attempted to keep most of her writings private, Burney pursued publishing as a career and consequently encountered opposition from those who believed a woman should not write, even as she enjoyed a considerable degree of celebrity and respect. The challenge of self-expression has been a continuing theme in scholarship on Burney, as both the author and her heroines struggle to establish and legitimize their own authority. Scholars have noted the theme of violence and fear in Burney's novels as a symbol or symptom of the male-dominated culture in which she lived and about which she wrote. Kristina Straub's study of Burney's "feminine strategy" as an authoress contends that even when Burney's novels were generally accepted and acclaimed, Burney herself found it difficult to negotiate her entry into the public sphere. Likewise, Samuel Choi argues that Evelina bears the marks of its author's anxiety about approaching a traditionally male form of writing. Other feminist analyses of Burney focus on the figure of the father. Scholars have often read in Evelina the quest for paternal validation, and Kay Rogers (see Further Reading) proposes that the critique of patriarchy in Cecilia is muted by Burney's worshipful attitude toward her father. Susan Greenfield finds greater ambivalence in Burney's father figures, and proposes that Evelina attempts to establish the mother as the source of creativity and authority.
Evelina; or, A Young Lady's Entrance into the World (novel) 1778
Cecilia; or, Memoirs of an Heiress (novel) 1782
Camilla; or, A Picture of Youth (novel) 1796
Edwy and Elgiva (drama) 1796
The Wanderer; or, Female Difficulties (novel) 1814
Memoirs of Dr. Burney, Arranged from His Own Manuscripts, from Family Papers, and from Personal Recollections [editor] (memoirs) 1832
Diary and Letters of Madame d'Arblay. 7 vols. (diary and letters) 1842-46
The Early Diary of Frances Burney, 1768-1778. 2 vols. (diary) 1889
The Journals and Letters of Fanny Burney (Madame D'Arblay). 12 vols. (diary and letters) 1972-84
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SOURCE: Burney, Fanny. "Diary entry for August 3, 1778." In The Diary and Letters of Madame D'Arblay. Vol. 1, edited by Charlotte Barrett with notes by Austin Dobson, pp. 50-53. London: Macmillan, 1904.
In the following excerpt from her diary dated August 3, 1778, Burney recounts in detail the revelation of her authorship of Evelina and the attention she received, including praise from Samuel Johnson.
Susan has sent me a little note which has really been less pleasant to me, because it has alarmed me for my future concealment. It is from Mrs. Williams, an exceeding pretty poetess, who has the misfortune to be blind, but who has, to make some amends, the honour of residing in the house of Dr. Johnson: for though he lives almost wholly at Streatham, he always keeps his apartments in town, and this lady acts as mistress of his house.
"Mrs. Williams sends compliments to Dr. Burney, and begs he will intercede with Miss Burney to do her the favour to lend her the reading of Evelina."
[I was quite confounded at this request, which proves that Mrs. Thrale has told Dr. Johnson of my secret, and that he has told Mrs. Williams, and that she has told the person whoever it be, whom she got to write the note.
I instantly scrawled a...
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SOURCE: Burney, Fanny. "The Witlings." In The Witlings; and, The Woman-Hater, edited by Peter Sabor and Geoffrey Sill, pp. 43-172. Peterborough, Canada: Broadview Press, 2002.
In the following excerpt written between 1778 and 1780 from the unpublished play "The Witlings," Burney lampoons the figure of the Bluestocking in Lady Smatter, who was thought to be modeled on Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Burney mocks the pretensions of a female author who craves publicity, although Montagu herself avoided taking public credit for her work, considering it inappropriate for a woman of her station, much as Burney herself dreaded being identified as the author of Evelina.
Scene, a Drawing Room at Lady Smatter's
LADY SMATTER. Yes, yes, this song is certainly Mr. Dabler's, I am not to be deceived in his style. What say you, my dear Miss Stanley, don't you think I have found him out.
CECILIA. Indeed I am too little acquainted with his Poems to be able to judge.
LADY SMATTER. Your indifference surprises me! for my part, I am never at rest till I have discovered the authors of every thing that comes out; and, indeed, I commonly hit upon them in a moment. I declare I sometimes wonder at myself, when I think how lucky I am in my guesses.
CECILIA. Your Ladyship devotes so much Time to these...
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SOURCE: Burney, Fanny. "A Letter from Frances Burney to Dr. Charles Burney, c. 13 August 1779." In The Witlings; and, The Woman-Hater, edited by Peter Sabor and Geoffrey Sill, pp. 303-04. Peterborough, Canada: Broadview Press, 2002.
In the following letter dated c. August 13, 1779, Burney addresses her father about her disappointment in burying her comedy "The Witlings" after her efforts at playwriting had been so much encouraged by Mrs. Thrale and others of their circle.
The fatal knell then, is knolled! and down among the Dead Men sink the poor Witlings,—for-ever and for-ever and for-ever!—
I give a sigh whether I will or not to their memory, for, however worthless, they were mes Enfans, and one must do one's Nature, as Mr. Crisp will tell you of the Dog.
You, my dearest Sir, who enjoyed, I really think, even more than myself the astonishing success of my first attempt, would, I believe, even more than myself, be hurt at the failure of my second;—and I am sure I speak from the bottom of a very honest Heart when I most solemnly declare that upon your Account any disgrace would mortify and afflict me more than upon my own,—for what ever appears with your knowledge, will be naturally supposed to have met with your approbation, and perhaps with your...
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SOURCE: Straub, Kristina. "The Receptive Reader and Other Necessary Fictions." In Divided Fictions: Fanny Burney and Feminine Strategy, pp. 152-81. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1987.
In the following excerpt, Straub examines Burney's self-awareness as an author as her career developed, particularly after the success of Evelina.
Evelina's fictional situation reflects Burney's own dilemma as a woman who sought solutions to female difficulties among conventional, patriarchal answers. Writing gave her aesthetic and imaginative choices among the options for women in patriarchal society that were not matched by her social and personal powers.1 Burney could, in other words, easily endow her fictional heroine with the secure, emotionally based power over males that she, herself, could only gain with considerable difficulty, if at all, in life. Fiction is, then, as dangerous, in setting up false expectations, to Fanny Burney as Lord Orville is to Evelina; as Villars says, the age did not encourage women to trust to appearances, particularly when perception is brightened by hopeful illusions about the disinterested generosity of male power. Such illusions are the stuff of novels that end happily for their heroines. Burney seems aware of this danger to personal sanity and safety, and she projects it into her heroine's Cinderella story. The dangers...
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SUSAN C. GREENFIELD (ESSAY DATE JULY 1991)
SOURCE: Greenfield, Susan C. "'Oh Dear Resemblance of Thy Murdered Mother': Female Authorship in Evelina." Eighteenth-Century Fiction 3, no. 4 (July 1991): 301-20.
In the following essay, Greenfield counters the common interpretation of Evelina as a quest for the validation of the father, instead arguing that Evelina—and Burney—in fact establish their legitimacy through the authority of the mother.
Frances Burney's first published novel, Evelina (1778),1 is a story about an orphan girl's quest for identity and her development as a writer. The novel traces the heroine's search for a parental author who can name her and establish her position in the world; at the same time, since the text is epistolary and most of the letters are written by Evelina, the heroine herself is an author. In this essay I examine Evelina's representation of authorship in each sense of the term and argue that identity and literary power are depicted as matrilineal gifts. I also suggest that the book's femalecentred family romance parallels both Burney's personal myth about her own writing and her culture's narrative about the origins of the novel as a genre.
Such claims may seem puzzling because, on the surface, Evelina focuses on the heroine's longing...
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Grau, Joseph A. Fanny Burney: An Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland Publishing, 1981, 210 p.
Provides a detailed primary and secondary bibliography.
Dobson, Austin. Fanny Burney. London: Macmillan, 1903, 216 p.
Presents an important early biography, the standard until Joyce Hemlow's 1958 study.
Doody, Margaret Anne. Frances Burney: The Life in the Works. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1988, 441 p.
Offers an updated biography of Burney by an important scholar in the history of the novel; takes a psychoanalytic approach and emphasizes Burney's relationship with her family.
Hemlow, Joyce. The History of Fanny Burney. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1958, 528 p.
Provides a biography by a foremost Burney scholar.
Agress, Lynne. "Wives and Servants: Proper Conduct for One's Proper Place." In The Feminine Irony: Women on Women in Early-Nineteenth-Century English Literature, pp. 114-45. Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University, 1978.
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