Fitzgerald, F. Scott (Literary Masters)
F. Scott Fitzgerald
See also, The Great Gatsby Criticism and "Babylon Revisited" Criticism.
1853: Edward Fitzgerald, father of F. Scott Fitzgerald, is born near Rockville, Maryland.
1858: Anthony D. Sayre, father of Zelda Sayre, is born in Tuskegee, Alabama.
1860: Mary (Mollie) McQuillan, mother of F. Scott Fitzgerald, is born in St. Paul, Minnesota.
Minnie Buckner Machen, mother of Zelda Sayre, is born in Eddyville, Kentucky.
June 1884: Anthony Sayre and Minnie Machen are married near Eddyville, Kentucky.
12 February 1890: Edward Fitzgerald and Mollie McQuillan are married in Washington, D.C.
24 September 1896: Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald is born at 481 Laurel Avenue, St. Paul.
April 1898: Edward Fitzgerald’s St. Paul furniture factory fails, and he takes a salesman’s job with Procter & Gamble in New York State. He and his family live alternately in Buffalo and Syracuse until July 1908.
24 July 1900: Zelda Sayre is born at South Street, Montgomery, Alabama.
21 July 1901: Annabel Fitzgerald, F. Scott Fitzgerald’s sister, is born.
1907: Sayre family moves to 6 Pleasant Avenue, Montgomery, where Zelda lives until her marriage.
March 1908: Edward Fitzgerald loses his Procter & Gamble job.
July 1908: Fitzgerald family returns to St. Paul.
September 1908: F. Scott Fitzgerald becomes student at St. Paul Academy.
1909: Judge Anthony Sayre is appointed associate justice of the Alabama Supreme Court.
October 1909: “The Mystery of the Raymond Mortgage,” a short story that is Fitzgerald’s first appearance in print, is published in The St. Paul Academy Now and Then.
August 1911: Fitzgerald’s first play, The Girl from Lazy J, is produced by the Elizabethan Dramatic Club in St. Paul.
September 1911: Fitzgerald becomes student at Newman School, Hackensack, New Jersey.
August 1912: Fitzgerald’s second play, The Captured Shadow, is produced by the Elizabethan Dramatic Club in St. Paul.
November 1912: Fitzgerald meets Father Sigourney Fay and Anglo-Irish writer Shane Leslie.
August 1913: Fitzgerald’s third play, Coward, is produced by the Elizabethan Dramatic Club in St. Paul.
September 1913: Fitzgerald enters Princeton University as a member of the Class of 1917; meets Edmund Wilson (Class of 1916), who will become a distinguished literary critic, and John Peale Bishop (Class of 1917), who will become a respected poet.
September 1914: Fitzgerald’s fourth play, Assorted Spirits; is produced by the Elizabethan Dramatic Club in St. Paul.
December 1914: Fitzgerald’s first Princeton Triangle Club show, Fie! Fie! Fi-Fi!, for which he wrote book and lyrics, is produced.
4 January 1915: In St. Paul, Fitzgerald meets Ginevra King, a Lake Forest, Illinois, debutante, with whom he becomes romantically involved.
April 1915: Fitzgerald’s play Shadow Laurels is his first publication in The Nassau Literary Magazine.
June 1915: Fitzgerald’s “The Ordeal,” later rewritten as “Benediction,” is his first short story to be published in The Nassau Literary Magazine.
28 November 1915: Fitzgerald drops out of Princeton for remainder of his junior year.
December 1915: The Evil Eye, Fitzgerald’s second Princeton Triangle Club show, for which he wrote lyrics, is produced.
September 1916: Fitzgerald returns to Princeton as member of Class of 1918.
December 1916: Safety First, Fitzgerald’s third Princeton Triangle Club show, for which he wrote lyrics, is produced.
26 October 1917: Fitzgerald receives commission as second lieutenant in U.S. infantry.
20 November 1917: Fitzgerald reports to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas; starts work on “The Romantic Egotist,” a novel.
End of February 1918: On leave from army, Fitzgerald goes to Princeton, where he finishes first draft of “The Romantic Egotist” sends novel to Shane Leslie, who in May submits it to Charles Scribner’s Sons.
15 March 1918: Fitzgerald is stationed at Camp Zachary Taylor in Louisville, Kentucky.
April 1918: Fitzgerald is stationed at Camp Gordon, Georgia.
May 1918: Zelda Sayre graduates from Sidney Lanier High School, Montgomery, Alabama.
June 1918: Fitzgerald arrives at Camp Sheridan near Montgomery.
July 1918: Fitzgerald meets Zelda Sayre at a country-club dance in Montgomery.
August 1918: “The Romantic Egotist” is rejected by Scribners, which also declines revised typescript in October.
26 October 1918: Fitzgerald’s regiment reports to Camp Mills, Long Island.
November 1918: Armistice is signed, and war ends before Fitzgerald’s regiment can be sent overseas.
Late November 1918: Fitzgerald’s unit returns to Camp Sheridan.
February 1919: Fitzgerald is discharged from army. Informally engaged to Zelda Sayre, he goes to New York, works for the Barron Collier advertising agency, and tries unsuccessfully to break into the magazine market.
Spring 1919: Fitzgerald visits Montgomery in April, May, and June in efforts to convince Zelda Sayre to marry him.
June 1919: Zelda Sayre breaks engagement.
July 1919: Fitzgerald quits advertising, goes on binge, and returns to St. Paul where he rewrites “The Romantic Egotist” while living with parents at 599 Summit Avenue.
September 1919: “Babes in the Woods,” Fitzgerald’s first story to be sold to a magazine, is published in The Smart Set.
16 September 1919: Maxwell Perkins of Scribners accepts Fitzgerald’s rewritten novel, now titled This Side of Paradise.
November 1919: Fitzgerald becomes a client of Harold Ober at the Reynolds literary agency. The agency sells “Head and Shoulders” to The Saturday Evening Post for $400; the story, Fitzgerald’s first appearance in the magazine, is published 21 February 1920.
November 1919–February 1920: “The Debutante” (November 1919), “Porcelain and Pink” (January 1920), “Benediction” (February 1920), and “Dalyrimple Goes Wrong” (February 1920) are published by The Smart Set.
Mid January 1920: Fitzgerald visits Zelda Sayre in Montgomery; their engagement is resumed.
March–May 1920: The Saturday Evening Post publishes “Myra Meets His Family” (20 March), “The Camel’s Back” (24 April), “Bernice Bobs Her Hair” (1 May), “The Ice Palace” (22 May), and “The Offshore Pirate” (29 May).
26 March 1920: This Side of Paradise is published.
3 April 1920: Fitzgerald and Zelda Sayre marry at the rectory of St. Patrick’s Cathedral in New York.
May 1920: The Fitzgeralds rent a house at Westport, Connecticut, where Fitzgerald works on The Beautiful and Damned.
July 1920: “May Day,” Fitzgerald’s naturalistic novelette, is published in The Smart Set.
10 September 1920: Flappers and Philosophers, Fitzgerald’s first collection of short stories, is published.
October 1920: The Fitzgeralds rent an apartment on Fifty-ninth Street in New York City.
3 May 1921: First trip to Europe: the Fitzgeralds visit England, France, and Italy. They return to America in late July and move to St. Paul.
September 1921–March 1922: Metropolitan Magazine serializes The Beautiful and Damned.
26 October 1921: The Fitzgeralds’ daughter, Scottie, is born.
4 March 1922: The Beautiful and Damned is published in book form.
2 April 1922: “Friend Husband’s Latest,” a tongue-in-cheek review of The Beautiful and Damned that is Zelda Fitzgerald’s first commercial publication, appears in The New York Tribune.
June 1922: Fitzgerald’s satirical novelette “The Diamond as Big as the Ritz” is published in The Smart Set.
22 September 1922: Tales of the Jazz Age, Fitzgerald’s second collection of short stories, is published.
Mid October 1922: The Fitzgeralds rent a house at Great Neck, Long Island, and begin their friendship with Ring Lardner.
December 1922: “Winter Dreams,” one of the Gatsby cluster stories, is published in Metropolitan Magazine.
27 April 1923: The Vegetable, Fitzgerald’s satirical play, is published.
19 November 1923: The Vegetable fails at tryout in Atlantic City, New Jersey.
5 April 1924: Fitzgerald’s humorous essay “How to Live on $36,000 a Year” is published in The Saturday Evening Post.
May 1924: Second trip to Europe: the Fitzgeralds visit Paris, then leave for the Riviera.
June 1924: The Fitzgeralds take up residence at Villa Marie, Valescure; “Absolution,” a Gatsby cluster story, is published in The American Mercury.
Summer 1924: The Fitzgeralds meet American expatriates Gerald and Sara Murphy at Cap d’Antibes.
July 1924: Zelda Fitzgerald becomes involved with French naval aviator Edouard Jozan. “‘The Sensible Thing,’” another Gatsby cluster story, is published in Liberty.
Summer-Fall 1924: Fitzgerald completes and revises first draft of The Great Gatsby.
ca. 10 October 1924: Fitzgerald writes to Perkins about a promising young American writer, “Ernest Hemmingway,” whose work has been published in Paris.
Late October 1924: The Fitzgeralds live in Rome, where Fitzgerald revises The Great Gatsby galleys.
February 1925: The Fitzgeralds stay in Capri.
10 April 1925: The Great Gatsby is published.
Late April 1925: The Fitzgeralds return to Paris.
May 1925: Fitzgerald meets Ernest Hemingway at the Dingo bar, Montparnasse.
Summer 1925: Fitzgerald starts planning the Francis Melarky version of the novel that will evolve into Tender Is the Night.
August 1925: The Fitzgeralds spend a month at Cap d’Antibes, then go back to Paris.
January–February 1926: The novelette “The Rich Boy,” a post-Gatsby cluster story, is published in two issues of The Red Book Magazine.
2 February 1926: Owen Davis’s play version of The Great Gatsby opens on Broadway; it has a successful run of 113 performances and is the basis for the 1926 silent movie.
26 February 1926: All the Sad Young Men, Fitzgerald’s third collection of short stories, is published.
Early March 1926: The Fitzgeralds rent a villa at Juan-les-Pins on the Riviera.
May 1926: “How to Waste Material: A Note on My Generation,” an essay-review of Hemingway’s In Our Time (1925), is published in The Bookman.
December 1926: The Fitzgeralds return to America.
January–February 1927: The Fitzgeralds spend two months in Hollywood where Fitzgerald works on “Lipstick” (unproduced) for United Artists; they meet actress Lois Moran.
March 1927: The Fitzgeralds move to Wilmington, Delaware, where they rent “Ellerslie.” Zelda Fitzgerald starts ballet lessons.
April 1928: Third trip to Europe: the Fitzgeralds spend the summer and early fall in Paris.
28 April 1928: “The Scandal Detectives,” the first of the eight-story Basil Duke Lee series, is published in The Saturday Evening Post.
Summer 1928: Zelda Fitzgerald intensifies ballet training as she works with Paris ballet teacher Lubov Egorova.
7 October 1928: The Fitzgeralds return to America and Ellerslie.
March 1929: Fourth trip to Europe: the Fitzgeralds live in Paris until June, spend the summer in Cannes, and return to Paris in October.
2 March 1929: “The Last of the Belles” is published in The Saturday Evening Post.
July 1929: Zelda Fitzgerald’s “The Original Follies Girl” is published under byline “Zelda and F. Scott Fitzgerald” in College Humor; it is the first in a series of stories she writes for the magazine.
5 April 1930: “First Blood,” the first of Fitzgerald’s five-story Josephine Perry series, is published in The Saturday Evening Post.
23 April–11 May 1930: Suffering her first emotional breakdown, Zelda is hospitalized at Malmaison Clinic outside Paris; she discharges herself.
22 May 1930: Zelda Fitzgerald is hospitalized at Val-Mont Clinic in Glion, Switzerland.
5 June 1930: Zelda Fitzgerald becomes a patient at Prangins Clinic at Nyon, Switzerland.
Summer and Fall 1930: Fitzgerald commutes between Paris and Switzerland; in the fall he moves to Lausanne.
11 October 1930: “One Trip Abroad,” the story of an American couple who deteriorate in Europe, is published in The Saturday Evening Post.
26 January 1931: Edward Fitzgerald dies. Fitzgerald travels alone to America for his father’s interment.
February 1931: Fitzgerald returns to Europe and commutes between Paris and Switzerland.
21 February 1931: “Babylon Revisited,” one of Fitzgerald’s greatest stories, is published in The Saturday Evening Post.
15 August 1931: “Emotional Bankruptcy,” an important Josephine Perry story, is published in The Saturday Evening Post.
15 September 1931: Zelda Fitzgerald is released from Prangins. Shortly thereafter the Fitzgeralds return permanently to America and rent a house in Montgomery.
November 1931: Fitzgerald’s retrospective essay “Echoes of the Jazz Age” is published in Scribner’s Magazine.
November–December 1931: Second Hollywood trip: Fitzgerald travels alone to Hollywood to work on Red-Headed Woman for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. His script is not used.
Early 1932: Fitzgerald plans the Dick Diver version of Tender Is the Night.
January 1932: The Fitzgeralds travel to St. Petersburg, Florida, where Zelda Fitzgerald suffers a second emotional collapse.
12 February 1932: Zelda Fitzgerald becomes a patient at Phipps Psychiatric Clinic, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore.
March 1932: While at the Phipps Clinic, Zelda Fitzgerald completes the first draft of her novel, Save Me the Waltz.
20 May 1932: Fitzgerald rents “La Paix” at Towson, Maryland, outside Baltimore, where he writes most of Tender Is the Night.
26 June 1932: Zelda Fitzgerald is discharged from Phipps and moves to “La Paix,” where she lives with her family.
October 1932: “Crazy Sunday,” a story about Hollywood, is published in The American Mercury.
7 October 1932: Save Me the Waltz is published.
26 June–1 July 1933: Scandalabra, Zelda Fitzgerald’s play, is produced by Vagabond Junior Players in Baltimore.
11 October 1933: “Ring,” Fitzgerald’s memorial tribute to his friend Ring Lardner, is published in The New Republic.
December 1933: Fitzgerald rents a house in Baltimore.
January–April 1934: Tender Is the Night is serialized in four issues of Scribner’s Magazine.
12 February 1934: Zelda Fitzgerald suffers her third breakdown and returns to the Phipps Clinic where she remains until she is transferred to Craig House, Beacon, New York, in March 1934.
29 March–30 April 1934: Zelda Fitzgerald’s art is exhibited in New York at Cary Ross’s gallery and at Algonquin Hotel.
12 April 1934: Tender Is the Night is published.
19 May 1934: Zelda Fitzgerald is transferred to Sheppard-Pratt Hospital in Towson, Maryland.
20 March 1935: Taps at Reveille, Fitzgerald’s fourth and final story collection, is published.
Summer 1935: Fitzgerald lives at the Grove Park Inn, Asheville, North Carolina.
September 1935: Fitzgerald rents an apartment in Baltimore.
November–December 1935: Fitzgerald lives in Hendersonville, North Carolina, where he begins writing the essays later collected in The Crack-Up (1945); he returns to Baltimore at the end of December.
February–April 1936: The Crack-Up essays—“The Crack-Up” (February), “Pasting It Together” (March), and “Handle with Care” (April)—are published in Esquire.
8 April 1936: Zelda Fitzgerald is transferred to Highland Hospital in Asheville, North Carolina.
July 1936: Fitzgerald stays at the Grove Park Inn in Asheville.
August 1936: Hemingway’s “The Snows of Kilimanjaro”—with its reference to “poor Scott Fitzgerald”—is published in Esquire, which includes in the same issue Fitzgerald’s “Afternoon of an Author.”
September 1936: Mollie McQuillan Fitzgerald dies in Washington, D.C. Scottie Fitzgerald enrolls at the Ethel Walker School in Connecticut.
January 1937: Fitzgerald moves to Tryon, North Carolina.
6 March 1937: “Trouble,”’ Fitzgerald’s last story in The Saturday Evening Post, is published.
July 1937: Third Hollywood trip: Fitzgerald receives a six-month contract with M-G-M at $1,000 a week; he lives at the Garden of Allah, a hotel on Sunset Boulevard.
14 July 1937: Fitzgerald meets Sheilah Graham, with whom he becomes romantically involved.
July 1937–February 1938: Fitzgerald works on Three Comrades script; for this movie he earns his only screen credit, which he shares with E. E. Paramore.
October 1937: “Early Success,” one of Fitzgerald’s retrospective essays, is published in American Cavalcade.
December 1937: Fitzgerald’s M-G-M contract is renewed for one year at $1,250 a week.
February 1938–January 1939: Fitzgerald works on M-G-M scripts for “Infidelity,” Marie Antoinette, The Women, and Madame Curie. He receives no screen credits because his scripts are not used.
April 1938: Fitzgerald moves to a bungalow at Malibu Beach.
September 1938: Scottie Fitzgerald enters Vassar College.
November 1938: Fitzgerald moves to Encino, California.
December 1938: Fitzgerald’s M-G-M contract is not renewed.
January 1939: Fitzgerald works briefly on David O. Selznick’s Gone With the Wind.
10–12 February 1939: Fitzgerald and screenwriter Budd Schulberg go to Dartmouth College to work on a script for Winter Carnival; both are fired for drunkenness.
March 1939–October 1940: Fitzgerald takes freelance jobs at Twentieth Century-Fox, Universal, Goldwyn, and Paramount studios. His scripts are not produced.
Summer 1939: Fitzgerald plans a novel about Hollywood, The Love of the Last Tycoon: A Western.
July 1939: Fitzgerald breaks with his longtime agent, Harold Ober, when Ober refuses to resume his earlier practice of advancing money on unwritten or unsold stories.
September 1939: Fitzgerald unsuccessfully attempts to sell Collier’s serial rights to his novel in progress.
December 1939: “The Lost Decade,” a story about a man who has been drunk for ten years, is published in Esquire.
January 1940: “Pat Hobby’s Christmas Wish,” the first of a seventeen-story series about a Hollywood hack writer, is published in Esquire.
March—August 1940: Fitzgerald works on “Cosmopolitan,” a screenplay based on his 1931 story “Babylon Revisited,” for Lester Cowan. The screenplay is not produced.
Mid April 1940: Zelda Fitzgerald is discharged from Highland Hospital. For the rest of her life, she lives with her mother in Montgomery, though she occasionally returns to Highland Hospital.
May 1940: Fitzgerald moves to an apartment in Hollywood.
21 December 1940: Fitzgerald has a heart attack and dies at Sheilah Graham’s apartment, 1443 North Hayworth Avenue, Hollywood.
27 December 1940: Fitzgerald is buried in Rockville Union Cemetery, Rockville, Maryland.
27 October 1941: The Last Tycoon (with The Great Gatsby and stories), edited by Edmund Wilson, is published by Scribners.
12 August 1945: The Crack-Up, edited by Wilson, is published by New Directions.
September 1945: The Portable F. Scott Fitzgerald, selected by Dorothy Parker and with an introduction by John O’Hara, is published by Viking.
November 1947: Zelda Fitzgerald returns to Highland Hospital.
10 March 1948: Zelda Fitzgerald dies in a fire at Highland Hospital.
17 March 1948: Zelda Fitzgerald is buried with Scott Fitzgerald at Rockville Union Cemetery.
18 November 1950: Scottie Fitzgerald Lanahan donates the Fitzgerald Papers to Princeton University.
7 November 1975: F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald are reinterred in the Fitzgerald family plot at St. Mary’s Church, Rockville, Maryland.
18 June 1986: Scottie Fitzgerald Lanahan Smith dies; she is buried with her parents at St. Mary’s Church, Rockville.
Chronology adapted from Matthew J. Bruccoli’s Some Sort of Epic Grandeur, revised edition (New York: Carroll & Graf, 1993) and from Mary Jo Tate’s F. Scott Fitzgerald A to Z (New York: Facts on File, 1998).
About F. Scott Fitzgerald
- CHILDHOOD AND EDUCATION
- MILITARY SERVICE, ZELDA SAYRE, AND EARLY SUCCESS
- THE EXPATRIATE EXPERIENCE AND THE GREAT GATSBY
- THE CRASH, TENDER IS THE NIGHT, “THE CRACK-UP”
- HOLLYWOOD, THE LOVE OF THE LAST TYCOON, ENDINGS
Born: 24 September 1896 in St. Paul, Minnesota
Died: 21 December 1940 in Hollywood, California
Married: Zelda Sayre, 3 April 1920
Education: Attended Princeton University
Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (he was a second cousin, three times removed, of the author of “The Star-Spangled Banner”) was born in St. Paul, Minnesota, on 24 September 1896. His father, Edward Fitzgerald, a Marylander with sympathies for the Old South, was an unsuccessful businessman. His mother, Mary (Mollie) McQuillan Fitzgerald, was the mildly eccentric daughter of a wealthy St. Paul wholesale grocer. The family was Irish American and Roman Catholic. In a 1933 letter to writer John O’Hara, Fitzgerald reported: “I am half black Irish and half old American stock with the usual exaggerated ancestral pretensions. The black Irish half of the family had the...
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Fitzgerald at Work
EARLY SUCCESS: Reflecting upon his career in his 1937 essay “Early Success,” Fitzgerald declared, “Premature success gives one an almost mystical conception of destiny as opposed to will power—at its worst the Napoleonic delusion. The man who arrives young believes that he exercises his will because his star is shining. The man who only asserts him-self at thirty has a balanced idea of what will power and fate have each contributed, the one who gets there at forty is liable to put the emphasis on will alone.”1 In many ways Fitzgerald’s early career seemed the product of destiny, of fate. He had served his literary apprenticeship at the St. Paul Academy, the Newman School, and Princeton. During a three-month period in 1917–1918, he had diligently used weekends and leave time from military service to write “The Romantic Egotist,” the 120,000-word novel that he later rewrote as This Side of Paradise. Nonetheless, Fitzgerald’s early success had a fairy-tale quality. He was twenty-three years old when, in the spring of 1920,...
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- SOCIAL AND POLITICAL BACKGROUNDS OF THE 1920s AND 1930s
- CULTURE AND SOCIETY IN THE 1920s
- CULTURE AND SOCIETY IN THE 1930s
An era is not just a time span; it is a period characterized by major events and the responses to them—political, social, and cultural. An era is defined by the way people felt about what was happening to them and around them.
F. Scott Fitzgerald is now automatically identified with the 1920s. He is regarded as an exemplary figure for that decade, embodying and expressing its charm, ebullience, waste, genius, dissipation, and confidence. Yet Fitzgerald was a professional writer from 1920 through 1940; connecting him exclusively with the 1920s distorts the shape and significance of his life and career. The dominant American historical influences during his lifetime were World War 1 (The Great War, 1914–1918 in Europe) and the Great Depression of the 1930s. In between there was the Boom, the Roaring Twenties, and the Jazz Age—named by Fitzgerald. His own history reflected the history of his time: his success and fame in the 1920s, his crack-up and relative obscurity in the 1930s.
PREWAR TO 1920: Born in 1896,...
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- WORKS BY F. SCOTT FITZGERALD1
- WORKS BY ZELDA FITZGERALD2
- PLOT SUMMARIES
- CONTEMPORARY RECEPTION
- ART IMITATING LIFE
- FITZGERALD AND THE MOVIES
- MOVIE-WRITING ASSIGNMENTS
- ADAPTATIONS OF FITZGERALD’S WORK
Arranged chronologically, this list omits most limited editions and keepsakes.
Fie! Fie! Fi-Fi! Cincinnati, New York & London: The John Church Co., 1914. Musical comedy; plot and seventeen song lyrics by Fitzgerald.
The Evil Eye. Cincinnati, New York & London: The John Church Co., 1915. Musical comedy; seventeen song lyrics by Fitzgerald.
Safety First. Cincinnati, New York & London: The John Church Co., 1916. Musical comedy; twenty-one song lyrics by Fitzgerald.
This Side of Paradise. New York: Scribners, 1920; London: Collins, 1921. Novel.
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Fitzgerald on Fitzgerald and on Writing
- From the Ledger for September 1918–August 1919
- From a letter to Maxwell Perkins, 18 September 1919
- From “The Author’s Apology,” 1920
- From “Contemporary Writers and Their Work, a Series of Autobiographical Letters—F. Scott Fitzgerald,” 1920
- From a letter to Maxwell Perkins, mid July 1922
- From a letter to Maxwell Perkins, ca. 10 April 1924
- From a letter to Maxwell Perkins, ca. 24 April 1925
- From a letter to H. L. Mencken, 4 May 1925
- From a letter to Maxwell Perkins, ca. 22 May 1925
- From a letter to Maxwell Perkins, ca. 27 December 1920
- From a letter to Harold Ober, received 13 May 1930
- From a letter to Maxwell Perkins, ca. 30 April 1932
- From a letter to Maxwell Perkins, 19 January 1933
- From “One Hundred False Starts,” 1933
- From the Ledger for September 1933-September 1934
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Fitzgerald as Studied
- INFLUENCES AND READING
- CONTEMPORARY BEST-SELLERS AND AWARD-WINNERS
- SOCIAL REALISM
- THE MATERIAL OF AMERICAN FICTION
- FITZGERALD AND HEMINGWAY
- FITZGERALD AND WOLFE
- HIS CONTEMPORARIES ON FITZGERALD
- LATER WRITERS ON FITZGERALD
The influence of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s writing on other authors is misunderstood. Fitzgerald wrote like nobody else. Nobody else wrote like Fitzgerald. Many writers have acknowledged their admiration of his style, but no writer has successfully imitated him. Imitations of Fitzgerald turn into parodies because his tone and his emotional investment in his material are lacking in imitators. In 1949 John O’Hara—Fitzgerald’s staunchest admirer among major writers—informed John Steinbeck that “Fitzgerald was a better just plain writer than all of us put together. Just words writing.”1
Critics—including those who knew Fitzgerald, such as Edmund Wilson—were...
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- In a June 1925 letter to Maxwell Perkins, Fitzgerald called “Winter Dreams” “A sort of 1st draft of the Gatsby idea.” Focusing on characterization and theme, discuss the accuracy of Fitzgerald’s appraisal.
- Fitzgerald often treated the “New Woman” who emerged in the 1920s. Define this term. Choose three of his female characters—two from short stories and one from a novel—and discuss how each embodies characteristics of the “New Woman.”
- Discuss the causes and possible solutions for the “crack-up” that Fitzgerald describes in the three Crack-Up essays: “The Crack-Up,” “Pasting It Together,” and “Handle with Care.”
- Fitzgerald fell in love with and married a southern girl, Zelda Sayre. Using three of his short stories—“The Ice Palace,” “The Jelly Bean,” and “The Last of the Belles”—define his vision of the South and of the young women it produced.
- Analyze Nicole Diver’s stream-of-consciousness account (in Book II, chapter 10 of Tender Is the Night) of her relationship with Dick Diver. Show how it defines and foreshadows the stages of Diver’s disintegration.
- Unlike many writers who tend to handle the subject with condescension, Fitzgerald seriously treats the concerns of young people. Choose three of the following stories—“Bernice Bobs Her Hair,” “The Offshore Pirate,” “The Jelly...
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Selected Bibliographical, Biographical, and Critical Studies (Includes Works on Zelda Fitzgerald)
- BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND CATALOGUES
- BIOGRAPHIES AND MEMOIRS
- BOOK SECTIONS AND ARTICLES
- CRITICAL STUDIES
- BOOK SECTIONS AND ARTICLES
- GENERAL REFERENCES
- WEB SITES
- SPECIAL COLLECTIONS
American Literary Scholarship: An Annual, 1963-. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1965-. Includes chapters on F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway.
Bruccoli, Matthew J. F. Scott Fitzgerald: A Descriptive Bibliography, revised and augmented edition. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1987. Primary. Essential tool for Fitzgerald scholarship.
Bryer, Jackson R. The Critical Reputation of E Scott Fitzgerald. Hamden, Conn.: Archon, 1967. Secondary. Basic annotated bibliography of writings about Fitzgerald.
Bryer. The Critical Reputation of F. Scott Fitzgerald: Supplement One Through 1981. Hamden, Conn.: Archon, 1984. Secondary. Basic annotated bibliography of writings about Fitzgerald.
Bucker, Park, ed. Catalogue of the Matthew J. and Arlyn Bruccoli F. Scott Fitzgerald Collection at the Thomas Cooper Library, The University of South Carolina. Columbia, S.C.: MJB, 1997.
F. Scott Fitzgerald Centenary Exhibition. Columbia: University of South Carolina for the Thomas Cooper Library, 1996. Illustrated exhibition catalogue.
In their time/1920–1940: Fiestas, Moveable Feasts, and “Many Fetes”: An Exhibition at the University of Virginia Library, December 1977-March 1978. Bloomfield Hills, Mich. & Columbia, S.C.: Bruccoli Clark, .1977. Exhibition catalogue.
Stanley, Linda C. The Foreign Critical Reputation of F. Scott Fitzgerald. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1980. Secondary.
Bruccoli, Matthew J. Scott and Ernest: The Authority of Failure and the Authority of Success. New York: Random House, 1978. Revised as Fitzgerald and Hemingway: A Dangerous Friendship. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1994.
Bruccoli. Some Sort of Epic Grandeur. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1981. Revised edition, London: Cardinal, 1991; New York: Carroll & Graf, 1993. The standard biography.
Buttitta, Tony. After the Good Gay Times. New York: Viking, 1974; republished as The Lost Summer. London: Robson, 1987.
Donaldson, Scott. Fool for Love. New York: Congdon & Weed, 1983.
Graham, Sheilah and Gerold Frank. Beloved Infidel. New York: Holt, 1958.
Graham. College of One. New York: Viking, 1967.
Graham. The Real F. Scott Fitzgerald: Thirty-Five Years Later. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1976.
Hackl, Lloyd C. F. Scott Fitzgerald and St. Paul: “Still Home to Me.” Cambridge, Minn.: Adventure Publications, 1996.
Koblas, John J. F. Scott Fitzgerald in Minnesota: His Homes and Haunts. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1978.
Lanahan, Eleanor, ed. Zelda, An Illustrated Life: The Private World of Zelda Fitzgerald. New York: Abrams, 1996.
Latham, Aaron. Crazy Sundays: F. Scott Fitzgerald in Hollywood. New York: Viking, 1971.
LeVot, André. F. Scott Fitzgerald. Paris: Julliard, 1979; translated by William Byron. Garden City, N.Y: Doubleday, 1983.
Mellow, James R. Invented Lives. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1984.
Meyers, Jeffrey. Scott Fitzgerald: A Biography. New York: HarperCollins, 1994.
Milford, Nancy. Zelda. New York: Harper & Row, 1970.
Mizener, Arthur. The Far Side of Paradise. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1951. Revised edition, 1965. First book-length biography.
Mizener. Scott Fitzgerald and His World New York: Putnam, 1972.
Page, David and John Koblas. F. Scott Fitzgerald in Minnesota: Toward the Summit. St. Cloud: North Star Press, 1996.
Ring, Frances Kroll. Against the Current: As I Remember F. Scott Fitzgerald. San Francisco: Ellis/Creative Arts, 1985. Memoir by Fitzgerald’s secretary during his final years in Hollywood.
Smith, Scottie Fitzgerald, Bruccoli, and Joan P. Kerr, eds. The Romantic Egoists: A Pictorial Autobiography from the Scrapbooks and Albums of F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald. New York: Scribners, 1974. Essential documentary volume.
Turnbull, Andrew. Scott Fitzgerald. New York: Scribners, 1962.
Westbrook, Robert. Intimate Lies: F. Scott Fitzgerald and Sheilah Graham. New York: HarperCollins, 1995.
Callaghan, Morley. That Summer in Paris. New York: Coward-McCann, 1963. Passim.
Dardis, Tom. “F. Scott Fitzgerald: What Do You Do When There’s Nothing to Do?” In his Some Time in the Sun. New York: Scribners, 1976.
Donaldson, Scott. “F. Scott Fitzgerald, Princeton ’17.” Princeton University Library Chronicle, 40 (Winter 1979): 119-154.
Fitzgerald, Frances Scott. “Princeton and F. Scott Fitzgerald.” Nassau Literary Magazine, 100 (1942): 45; reprinted as “Princeton & My Father.” Princeton Alumni Weekly, 56 (9 March 1956): 8-9.
Hearne, Laura Guthrie. “A Summer with F Scott Fitzgerald. “Esquire, 62 (December 1964): 160-165, 232, 236-237, 240, 242, 246, 250, 252, 254-258, 260.
Hemingway, Ernest. “Scott Fitzgerald,” “Hawks Do Not Share,” “A Matter of Measurements.” In his A Moveable Feast. New York: Scribners, 1964. Sensational but unreliable portraits of the Fitzgerald-Hemingway relationship.
Lanahan, Frances Fitzgerald. “My Father’s Letters: Advice Without Consent.” Esquire, 64 (October 1965): 95-97. Reprinted as introduction to Letters to His Daughter, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, edited by Andrew Turnbull. New York: Scribners, 1965.
Lanahan. Introduction to Six Tales of the Jazz Age and Other Stories, by F. Scott Fitzgerald. New York: Scribners, 1960.
Meyers, Jeffrey.“Scott Fitzgerald and Edmund Wilson: A Troubled Friendship.“American Scholar, 61 (Summer 1992): 375-388.
Miller, Linda Patterson. “’As a Friend You Have Never Failed Me’: The Fitzgerald-Murphy Correspondence.” Journal of Modem Literature, 5 (September 1976): 357-382.
Schulberg, Budd. “Old Scott: The Mask, the Myth, and the Man. “Esquire, 55 (January 1961): 97-101. Reprinted in The Four Seasons of Success, by Schulberg. Garden City, N.Y: Doubleday, 1972.
Smith, Scottie Fitzgerald. “The Colonial Ancestors of Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald.” In Some Sort of Epic Grandeur by Bruccoli. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1981.
Smith. Foreword to Zelda, exhibition catalogue. Montgomery: Museum of Fine Arts, 1974. Reprinted as foreword to Zelda Fitzgerald: The Collected Writings, edited by Matthew J. Bruccoli. New York: Scribners, 1991.
“F. Scott Fitzgerald in Hollywood.” 1976. Directed by Anthony Page.
“F. Scott Fitzgerald: The Great American Dreamer.” A&E, 1997. Written and produced by Deirdre O’Hearn.
“Marked for Glory.” 1963. Written and produced by Gwinn Owens.
Allen, Joan M. Candles and Carnival Lights: The Catholic Sensibility of F. Scott Fitzgerald. New York: New York University Press, 1978.
Berman, Ronald. The Great Gatsby and Modem Times. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994.
Bruccoli, Matthew J. The Composition of Tender Is the Night. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1963.
Bruccoli. “The Last of the Novelists”: F. Scott Fitzgerald and The Last Tycoon. Carbondale & Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press, 1977.
Bruccoli, with Judith S. Baughman. Reader’s Companion to F. Scott Fitzgerald’s Tender Is the Night. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1996. Notes, chronology, and other material necessary for the study of the novel.
Bruccoli, ed. F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby: A Documentary Volume. Dictionary of Literary Biography, vol. 219. Detroit: Bruccoli Clark Layman/Gale Research, 2000. Useful background material for study of the novel.
Chambers, John B. The Novels of F. Scott Fitzgerald. London: Macmillan/New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1989.
Crosland, Andrew T. A Concordance to F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby. Detroit: Bruccoli Clark/Gale Research, 1975.
Cross, K. G. W. Scott Fitzgerald. New York: Grove, 1964.
Dixon, Wheeler W. The Cinematic Vision of F. Scott Fitzgerald. Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI, 1986.
Eble, Kenneth. F Scott Fitzgerald. New York: Twayne, 1963. Revised, 1977.
Fahey, William A. F. Scott Fitzgerald and the American Dream. New York: Crowell, 1973.
Higgins, John A. F. Scott Fitzgerald: A Study of the Stories. New York: St. John’s University Press, 1971.
Hook, Andrew. F. Scott Fitzgerald. London & New York: E. Arnold, 1992.
Kuehl, John. F. Scott Fitzgerald: A Study of the Short Fiction. Boston: Twayne, 1991.
Lehan, Richard D. F. Scott Fitzgerald and the Craft of Fiction. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1966.
Lehan. The Great Gatsby: The Limits of Wonder. Boston: Twayne, 1990.
Long, Robert Emmet. The Achieving of The Great Gatsby. Lewisburg, Pa.: Bucknell University Press, 1979.
Mangum, Bryant. A Fortune Yet: Money in the Art of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s Short Stories. New York: Garland, 1991.
Matterson, Stephen. The Great Gatsby and the Critics. London: Macmillan, 1990.
Miller, James E., Jr. F. Scott Fitzgerald: His Art and His Technique. New York: New York University Press, 1964. Revised as The Fictional Technique of Scott Fitzgerald. Folcroft, Pa.: Fol-croft Press, 1974. An excellent early study.
Parkinson, Kathleen. F. Scott Fitzgerald: The Great Gatsby. Harmondsworth, U.K.: Penguin, 1987.
Parkinson. F. Scott Fitzgerald: Tender Is the Night. Harmondsworth, U.K.: Penguin, 1986.
Pendleton, Thomas A. I’m Sorry about the Clock: Chronology, Composition, and Narrative Technique in The Great Gatsby. Selinsgrove, Pa.: Susque-hanna University Press, 1993.
Perosa, Sergio. The Art of F. Scott Fitzgerald. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1965.
Petry, Alice Hall. Fitzgerald’s Craft of Short Fiction: The Collected Stories. Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI, 1989.
Piper, Henry Dan. F. Scott Fitzgerald: A Critical Portrait. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1965.
Sellers, Dan. Image Patterns in the Novels of F. Scott Fitzgerald. Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI, 1986.
Shain, Charles E. F. Scott Fitzgerald. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1961.
Sklar, Robert. F. Scott Fitzgerald: The Last Laocoõn. New York: Oxford University Press, 1967. Intelligent study of Fitzgerald’s development as a fiction writer.
Stavola, Thomas J. Scott Fitzgerald: Crisis in an American Identity. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1979.
Stern, Milton R. The Golden Moment: The Novels of F. Scott Fitzgerald. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1970.
Stern. Tender Is the Night: The Broken Universe. New York: Twayne, 1994.
Tate, Mary Jo. F. Scott Fitzgerald A to Z: The Essential Reference to His Life and Work. New York: Facts on File, 1998. Indispensable encyclopedia.
Way, Brian. F. Scott Fitzgerald and the Art of Social Fiction. London: Arnold, 1980; New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1980.
Whitley, John S. F. Scott Fitzgerald: The Great Gatsby. London: Arnold, 1976.
COLLECTIONS OF ESSAYS
Bloom, Harold, ed. F. Scott Fitzgerald. New York: Chelsea House, 1985.
Bloom, ed. F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby. New York: Chelsea House, 1986.
Bloom, ed. Gatsby. New York: Chelsea House, 1991.
Bruccoli, Matthew J., ed. New Essays on The Great Gatsby. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Bruccoli, ed. Profile of F. Scott Fitzgerald. Columbus, Ohio: Merrill, 1971.
Bryer, Jackson R., ed. F. Scott Fitzgerald: The Critical Reception. New York: Burt Franklin, 1978. Useful collection of reviews of Fitzgerald’s books that appeared between 1920 and 1941.
Bryer, ed. New Essays on F. Scott Fitzgerald’s Neglected Stories. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1996.
Bryer, ed. The Short Stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald: New Approaches in Criticism. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1982.
Claridge, Henry, ed. F. Scott Fitzgerald: Critical Assessments, 4 vols. Near Robertsbridge, East Sussex, U.K.: Helm Information, 1991. Best single source.
Donaldson, Scott, ed. Critical Essays on F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1984.
Eble, Kenneth, ed. F. Scott Fitzgerald: A Collection of Criticism. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973.
F. Scott Fitzgerald at 100. Rockville, Md.: Quill & Brush, 1996. Includes statements on Fitzgerald by Alice Adams, Frederick Busch, Hortense Calisher, Thomas Caplan, Alan Cheuse, Nicholas Delbanco, Don DeLillo, Nelson DeMille, Thomas Flanagan, George Garrett, Herbert Gold, Allan Gurganus, A. R. Gurney, Joe Haldeman, Alfred Kazin, Edmund Keeley, John McPhee, James Alan McPherson, Arthur Miller, Hugh Nissenson, Reynolds Price, E. Annie Proulx, Budd Schulberg, Carolyn See, Anne Rivers Siddons, Elizabeth Spencer, Christopher Tilghman, John Updike, Richard Wilbur, and Larry Woiwode.
Hoffman, Frederick J., ed. The Great Gatsby: A Study. New York: Scribners, 1962.
Kazin, Alfred, ed. F. Scott Fitzgerald: The Man and His Work. Cleveland: World, 1951.
Kennedy, J. Gerald and Bryer, eds. French Connections: Hemingway and Fitzgerald Abroad. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.
LaHood, Marvin J., ed. Tender Is the Night: Essays in Criticism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1969.
Lee, A. Robert, ed. Scott Fitzgerald: The Promises of Life. London: Vision/New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1989.
Lockridge, Ernest, ed. Twentieth Century Interpretations of The Great Gatsby. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1968.
Mizener, Arthur, ed. F. Scott Fitzgerald: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1963.
Piper, Henry Dan, ed. Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby: The Novel, The Critics, The Background. New York: Scribners, 1970. Useful.
Stern, Milton R., ed. Critical Essays on F. Scott Fitzgerald’s Tender Is the Night. Boston: Hall, 1986.
Tributes. Columbia: Thomas Cooper Society, 1996. Includes statements on Fitzgerald by Jeffrey Archer, Margaret Atwood, Paul Auster, Richard Bausch, Robert Bausch, Thomas Berger, Sydney Blair, Vance Bourjaily, Frederick Busch, Nicholas Delbanco, Don DeLillo, James Dickey, Annie Dillard, Irvin Faust, Leslie A. Fiedler, George Garrett, George V. Higgins, John Iggulden, John Jakes, John le Carre, Norman Mailer, William Maxwell, Budd Schulberg, Charles M. Schulz, Mary Lee Settle, Tony Tanner, and Arnold Wesker.
Fitzgerald Newsletter (quarterly, 1958–1968). Reprinted, Washington, D.C.: NCR Microcard Editions, 1969. Includes checklists.
Fitzgerald/Hemingway Annual (1969–1979). Washington, D.C.: NCR Microcard Editions, 1969–1973; Englewood, Colo.: Information Handling Services, 1974–1976; Detroit: Gale Research, 1977–1979. Includes checklists.
F. Scott Fitzgerald Collection Notes. Columbia, S.C.: Thomas Cooper Library, University of South Carolina, 1995-.
Anderson, W. R. “Fitzgerald After Tender Is the Night.“ In Fitzgerald/Hemingway Annual 1979.
Arnold, Edwin T. “The Motion Picture as Metaphor in the Works of Fitzgerald.” In Fitzgerald/Hemingway Annual 1977.
Berryman, John. “F. Scott Fitzgerald.” Kenyon Review, 8 (Winter 1946): 103-112.
Bewley, Marius. “Scott Fitzgerald’s Criticism of America.”Sewanee Review, 62 (Spring 1954): 223-246. Expanded as “Scott Fitzgerald and the Collapse of the American Dream.” In The Eccentric Design, by Bewley. New York: Columbia University Press, 1959. Early treatment of a major Fitzgerald theme.
Bicknell, John W. “The Waste Land of F. Scott Fitzgerald. “Virginia Quarterly Review, 30 (Autumn 1954): 556-572.
Bishop, John Peale. “The Missing All.” Virginia Quarterly Review, 13 (Winter 1937): 106-121.
Bruccoli, Matthew J. “Getting It Right: The Publishing Process and the Correction of Factual Errors—with Reference to The Great Gatsby.“ In Essays in Honor of William B. Todd, compiled by Warner Barnes and Larry Carver. Austin: Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, The University of Texas, 1991. Revised edition separately published. Columbia, S.C.: Privately printed, 1994.
Bryer, Jackson R. “Four Decades of Fitzgerald Studies: The Best and the Brightest.” Twentieth Century Literature, 26 (Summer 1980): 247-267.
Bryer. “Style as Memory in The Great Gatsby: Notes Toward a New Approach. “In Critical Essays on F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby, edited by Scott Donaldson. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1984.
Buell, Lawrence. “The Significance of Fantasy in Fitzgerald’s Short Fiction.” In The Short Stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald: New Approaches in Criticism, edited by Bryer. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1982.
Burhans, Clinton S. “Structure and Theme in This Side of Paradise.” Journal of English and Germanic Philology, 68 (October 1969): 605-624.
Callahan, John F. “‘France Was a Land,’: F. Scott Fitzgerald’s Expatriate Theme in Tender Is the Night.” In French Connections: Hemingway and Fitzgerald Abroad, edited by J. Gerald Kennedy and Bryer. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.
Carrithers, Gale H. “Fitzgerald’s Triumph.” In The Great Gatsby: A Study, edited by Frederick J. Hoffman. New York: Scribners, 1962.
Corso, Joseph. “One Not-Forgotten Summer Night: Sources for Fictional Symbols of American Character in The Great Gatsby.” In Fitzgerald/Hemingway Annual 1976.
Cowley, Malcolm. “F. Scott Fitzgerald: The Romance of Money.” Western Review, 17 (Summer 1953): 245-255. Treatment of a central Fitzgerald subject.
Cowley. “Fitzgerald: The Double Man.” Saturday Review of Literature, 34 (24 February 1951): 9-10, 42-44. Very influential study of Fitzgerald’s “double vision.”
Cowley. “ThF. Scott Fitzgerald Story.” New Republic, 124 (12 February 1951): 17-20.
Cowley. “Third Act and Epilogue.” New Yorker, 21 (30 June 1945): 53-54, 57-58.
Donaldson, Scott. “The Crisis of Fitzgerald’s ‘Crack-Up.,’” Twentieth Century Literature, 26 (Summer 1980): 171-188.
Donaldson. “Money and Marriage in Fitzgerald’s Stories.” In The Short Stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald: New Approaches in Criticism, edited by Bryer. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1982.
Donaldson. “The Political Development of F. Scott Fitzgerald.“Prospects, 6 (1981): 313-355.
Donaldson. “Scott Fitzgerald’s Romance with the South.” Southern Literary Journal, 5 (Spring 1973): 3-17.
Dos Passos, John. “Fitzgerald and the Press.” New Republic, 104 (17 February 1941): 213.
Elias, Amy J. “The Composition and Revision of Fitzgerald’s The Beautiful and Damned. “Princeton University Library Chronicle, 51 (Spring 1990): 245-266.
Emmitt, Robert J. “Love, Death and Resurrection in The Great Gatsby.” In Aeolian Harps, edited by Donna G. and Douglas C. Fricke. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green University Press, 1976.
Friedrich, Otto. “Reappraisals—F. Scott Fitzgerald: Money, Money, Money. “American Scholar, 29 (Summer 1960): 392-405.
Fussell, Edwin S. “Fitzgerald’s Brave New World. “ELH, 19 (December 1952): 291-306.
Garrett, George. “Fire and Freshness: A Matter of Style in The Great Gatsby.“ In New Essays on The Great Gatsby, edited by Bruccoli. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Geismar, Maxwell. “F. Scott Fitzgerald: Orestes at the Ritz.” In his The Last of the Provincials. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1943.
Gervais, Ronald J. “The Socialist and the Silk Stockings: Fitzgerald’s Double Allegiance.” Mosaic, 15 (June 1982): 79-92.
Good, Dorothy Ballweg. “‘A Romance and a Reading List,’:, The Literary References in This Side of Paradise.” In Fitzgerald/Hemingway Annual 1976.
Goodwin, Donald W. “The Alcoholism of Fitzgerald.“Journal of the American Medical Association, 212 (6 April 1970): 86-90.
Grenberg, Bruce L. “Fitzgerald’s ‘Figured Curtain’: Personality and History in Tender Is the Night.“ In Fitzgerald/Hemingway Annual 1978.
Harding, D. W. “Scott Fitzgerald.” Scrutiny, 18 (Winter 1951–1952): 166-174.
Harvey, W. J. “Theme and Texture in The Great Gatsby.“ English Studies, 38, no. 1 (1957): 12-20.
Haywood, Lynn. “Historical Notes for This Side of Paradise.” Resources for American Literary Study, 10 (Autumn 1980): 191-208.
Holman, C. Hugh. “Fitzgerald’s Changes on the Southern Belle: The Tarleton Trilogy.” In The Short Stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald: New Approaches in Criticism, edited by Bryer. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1982.
Irish, Carol. “The Myth of Success in Fitzgerald’s Boyhood.” Studies in American Fiction, 1 (Autumn 1973): 176-187.
Kenner, Hugh. “The Promised Land.” In his A Homemade World. New York: Knopf, 1975.
Kuehl, John. “Scott Fitzgerald: Romantic and Realist.” Texas Studies in Literature and Language, 1 (Autumn 1959): 412-426.
Kuehl. “Scott Fitzgerald’s Critical Opinions.” Modem Fiction Studies, 7 (Spring 1961): 3-18.
Kuehl. “Scott Fitzgerald’s Reading.” Princeton University Library Chronicle, 22 (Winter 1961): 58-89.
Langman, E H. “Style and Shape in The Great Gatsby.” In Critical Essays on F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby, edited by Donaldson. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1984.
Lehan, Richard D. “F. Scott Fitzgerald and Romantic Destiny. “Twentieth Century Literature, 26 (Summer 1980): 137-156.
LeVot, Andre. “Fitzgerald in Paris.” In Fitzgerald/Hemingway Annual 1973.
MacKendrick, Paul L. “The Great Gatsby and Trimalchio.” Classical Journal, 45 (April 1950): 307-314.
Margolies, Alan. “Fitzgerald’s Work in the Film Studios.” Princeton University Library Chronicle, 32 (Winter 1971): 81-110.
Margolies. “The Maturing of F. Scott Fitzgerald.” Twentieth Century Literature, 43 (Spring 1997): 75-93.
Miller, James E. “Fitzgerald’s Gatsby: The World as Ash Heap.” In Critical Essays on F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby, edited by Donaldson. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1984.
Mizener, Arthur. “Scott Fitzgerald and the 1920’s.” Minnesota Review, 1 (Winter 1961): 161-174.
Mizener. “The Voice of Scott Fitzgerald’s Prose.” Essays and Studies, 16 (1963): 56-67.
Morris, Wright. “The Ability to Function: A Reappraisal of Fitzgerald and Hemingway.” New World Writing, no. 13 (June 1958): 34-51. Reprinted in The Territory Ahead, by Morris. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1958.
Moyer, Kermit W. “The Great Gatsby: Fitzgerald’s Meditation on American History.” In Fitzgerald/Hemingway Annual 1972.
O’Hara, John. “On F. Scott Fitzgerald.” In “An Artist Is His Own Fault”: John O’Hara on Writers and Writing, edited by Bruccoli. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1977. Generous appraisals by a major contemporary.
Ornstein, Robert. “Scott Fitzgerald’s Fable of East and West.” College English, 18 (December 1956): 139-143.
Podis, Leonard A. “The Unreality of Reality: Metaphor in The Great Gatsby.” Style, 11 (Winter 1977): 56-72.
Prigozy, Ruth. “Gatsby’s Guest List and Fitzgerald’s Technique of Naming.” In Fitzgerald/Hemingway Annual 1972.
Prigozy. “Poor Butterfly: F. Scott Fitzgerald and Popular Music.” Prospects, 2 (1976): 41-67.
Raleigh, John Henry. “F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby: Legendary Bases and Allegorical Significance.” University of Kansas City Review, 24 (Autumn 1957): 55-58.
Rosenfeld, Paul. “F. Scott Fitzgerald.” In his Men Seen. New York: Dial, 1925.
Samuels, Charles T. “The Greatness of ‘Gatsby.,’” Massachusetts Review, 7 (Autumn 1966): 783-794.
Sanders, Barbara G. “Structural Imagery in The Great Gatsby: Metaphor and Matrix.” Linguistics in Literature, 1, no. 1 (1975): 53-75.
Savage, D. S. “The Significance of F. Scott Fitzgerald.” Arizona Quarterly, 8 (Autumn 1952): 197-210.
Schoenwald, Richard L. “F. Scott Fitzgerald as John Keats.” Boston University Studies in English, 3 (Spring 1957): 12-21.
Scribner, Charles, III. “Celestial Eyes: From Metamorphosis to Masterpiece.” Princeton University Library Chronicle, 53 (Winter 1992): 140-155. Study of the dust-jacket art for The Great Gatsby.
Scrimgeour, Gary J. “Against The Great Gatsby.” Criticism, 8 (Winter 1966): 75-86.
Stallman, R. W. “Conrad and The Great Gatsby.” Twentieth Century Literature,1 (April 1955): 5-12.
Stark, Bruce R. “The Intricate Pattern in The Great Gatsby.” In Fitzgerald/Hemingway Annual 1974.
Steinbrink, Jeffrey. “‘Boats Against the Current’: Mortality and the Myth of Renewal in The Great Gatsby.” Twentieth Century Literature, 26 (Summer 1980): 157-170.
Tanselle, G. Thomas, and Bryer. “The Great Gatsby: A Study in Literary Reputation.” New Mexico Quarterly, 33 (Winter 1963–1964): 409-425.
Thurber, James. “Scott in Thorns.” Reporter, 4 (17 April 1951): 35-38. Reprinted in Credos and Curios, by Thurber. New York: Harper & Row, 1962.
Trilling, Lionel. “F. Scott Fitzgerald.” In his The Liberal Imagination. New York: Viking, 1950. Brilliant early assessment of Fitzgerald’s vision and style.
Trilling. “Fitzgerald Plain.” New Yorker, 26 (3 February 1951): 90-92.
Troy, William. “Scott Fitzgerald—The Authority of Failure.“ Accent, 6 (Autumn 1945): 56-60.
Van Antwerp, Margaret A., ed. “F. Scott Fitzgerald.“Dictionary of Literary Biography Documentary Series, vol. 1. Detroit: Bruccoli Clark/Gale Research, 1982.
Watkins, Floyd C. “Fitzgerald’s Jay Gatz and Young Ben Franklin.” New England Quarterly, 27 (June 1954): 249-252.
Weir, Charles, Jr. “‘An Invite With Gilded Edges.’“Virginia Quarterly Review, 20 (Winter 1944): 100-113.
Wescott, Glenway. “The Moral of Scott Fitzgerald.” New Republic, 104 (17 February 1941): 213-217.
Wilson, Edmund. “The Literary Spot-light—VI: F Scott Fitzgerald.” Book man, 55 (March 1922): 20-25.
Bruccoli, Matthew J. An Introduction to F Scott Fitzgerald’s Fiction. Modern American Literature—Eminent Scholar/Teachers Series. Detroit: Omnigraphics, 1988. Videorecording with lecture guide by Thomas Jackson Rice. Useful.
Bruccoli. Reading F Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby. Modern American Literature—Eminent Scholar/Teachers Series. Detroit: Omnigraphics, 1988. Videorecording with lecture guide by Thomas Jackson Rice. Useful.
Aldridge, John W. After the Lost Generation: A Critical Study of the Writers of Two Wars. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1951.
Allan, Tony. Americans in Paris. Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1977.
Allen, Frederick Lewis. Only Yesterday: An Informal History of the Nineteen-Twen-ties. New York: Harper, 1931.
The American Heritage History of the 20‘s and 30,’s. New York: American Heritage, 1970.
Baker, Carlos. Ernest Hemingway: A Life Story. New York: Scribners, 1969.
Baker, ed. Ernest Hemingway:Selected Letters, 1917–1961. New York: Scribners, 1981.
Baughman, Judith S., ed. American Decades: 1920–1929. Detroit: Manly/Gale Research, 1995.
Beach, Sylvia. Shakespeare & Company. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1959.
Behr, Edward. Prohibition: Thirteen Years That Changed America. New York: Arcade, 1996.
Berg, A. Scott. Max Perkins: Editor of Genius. New York: Congdon/Dutton, 1978.
Bondi, Victor, ed. American Decades: 1930–1939. Detroit: Manly/Gale Research, 1995.
Brown, Dorothy M. Setting A Course: American Women in the Twenties. Boston: Twayne, 1987.
Bruccoli, Matthew J., and Robert W. Trodgon, eds. American Expatriate Writers: Paris in the Twenties. Dictionary of Literary Biography Documentary Series 15. Detroit: Bruccoli Clark Layman/Gale, 1997.
Bruccoli, ed., with Trogdon. The Only Thing That Counts: The Ernest Hemingway/Maxwell Perkins Correspondence. New York: Scribners, 1996.
Carpenter, Humphrey. Geniuses Together: American Writers in Paris in the Twenties. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1988.
Coffey, Thomas M. The Long Thirst: Prohibition in America. New York: Dell, 1976.
Collier, James L. The Making of Jazz: A Comprehensive History. New York: Dell, 1979.
Cowley, Malcolm. Exile’s Return: A Literary Odyssey of the 1920s. New York: Norton, 1934. Revised, New York: Viking, 1951.
Cowley. A Second Flowering: Works and Days of the Lost Generation. New York: Viking, 1973.
Cowley. Unshaken Friend: A Profile of Maxwell Perkins. Boulder, Colo.: Roberts Rinehart, 1985.
Cowley and Robert Cowley, eds. Fitzgerald and the Jazz Age. New York: Scribners, 1966.
Delaney, John, ed. The House of Scribner, 1905–1930. Dictionary of Literary Biography Documentary Series 16. Detroit: Bruccoli Clark Layman/Gale Research, 1997.
Donnelly, Honoria M., with Richard N. Billings. Sara and Gerald: Villa America and After. New York: Times Books, 1982.
Dos Passos, John. The Best Times: An Informal Memoir. New York: New American Library, 1966.
Elder, Donald. Ring Lardner: A Biography. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1956.
Fass, Paula. The Damned and the Beautiful: American Youth in the 1920s. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977.
French, Warren, ed. The Thirties: Fiction, Poetry, Drama. Second edition, De Land, Fla.: Everett/Edwards, 1976.
French, ed. The Twenties: Fiction, Poetry, Drama. De Land, Fla.: Everett/Edwards, 1975.
Greenfeld, Howard. They Came to Paris. New York: Crown, 1975.
Hansen, Arlen J. Expatriate Paris: A Cultural and Literary Guide to Paris in the 1920s. New York: Arcade, 1990.
Hoffman, Frederick J. The Twenties:American Writing in the Postwar Decade. New York: Viking, 1955. Revised, New York: Collier, 1962.
Lanahan, Eleanor. Scottie, the Daughter of . . . : The Life of Frances Scott Fitzgerald Lanahan Smith. New York: HarperCollins, 1995.
Manchester, William. Disturber of the Peace: The Life of H. L. Mencken. New York: Harper, 1951.
Mencken, H. L. The American Language: A Preliminary Inquiry into the Development of English in the United States. New York: Knopf, 1919; revised and enlarged, 1921, 1923; corrected, enlarged, and rewritten, 1936. Supplement I, 1945. Supplement II, 1948.
Mencken. My Life as Author and Editor New York: Knopf, 1992.
Mencken. Prejudices: First Series. New York: Knopf, 1919; Second Series, 1920; Third Series, 1922; Fourth Series, 1924; Fifth Series, 1926; Sixth Series, 1927.
Meyers, Jeffrey. Edmund Wilson: A Biography Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1995.
Miller, Linda Patterson, ed. Letters from the Lost Generation: Gerald and Sara Murphy and Friends. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1991.
Morton, Brian N. Americans in Paris: An Anecdotal Street Guide. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Olivia & Hill Press, 1984.
Reynolds, Michael. Hemingway: The Paris Years. Oxford & New York: Basil Blackwell, 1989.
Rood, Karen Lane, ed., with foreword by Malcolm Cowley. American Writers in Paris, 1920–1939. Dictionary of Literary Biography, Vol. 4. Detroit: Bruccoli Clark/Gale, 1980.
Spindler, Elizabeth Carroll. John Peale Bishop: A Biography. Morgantown: West Virginia University Library, 1980.
Stein, Gertrude. The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1933.
Thomas, Bob. Thalberg. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1969.
Toll, Seymour 1. A Judge Uncommon: A Life of John Biggs, Jr. Philadelphia: Legal Communications, 1993.
Tomkins, Calvin. Living Well Is the Best Revenge. New York: Viking, 1971.
Wiser, William. The Crazy Years: Paris in the Twenties. New York: Atheneum, 1983.
Wheelock, John Hall, ed. Editor to Author: The Letters of Maxwell Perkins. New York: Scribners, 1979.
Wickes, George. Americans in Paris. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1969. Wilson, Edmund. The American Earthquake: A Documentary of the Twenties and Thirties. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1958.
Wilson. Letters on Literature and Politics 1912–1972, edited by Elena Wilson. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1977.
Wilson. The Shores of Light. New York: Farrar, Straus & Young, 1952.
Wilson. The Thirties: From Notebooks and Diaries of the Period. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1980.
Wilson. The Twenties, edited by Leon Edel. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1975.
Wright, Austin McGiffert. The American Short Story in the Twenties. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961.
Yardley, Jonathan. Ring: A Biography of Ring Lardner. New York: Random House, 1977.
F Scott Fitzgerald Centenary Home Page.
This page is the most comprehensive on-line guide to the life and works of F Scott Fitzgerald. The site includes extensive primary and secondary bibliographies for Fitzgerald as well as a primary bibliography for Zelda Fitzgerald; a brief biography; and a Fitzgerald chronology. Other sections incorporate quotations, essays, and articles by and about Fitzgerald, as well as facts about him. The site provides information on the 1996 centenary celebrations and photographs of persons, places, and events. It includes pictures of items from the Matthew J. and Arlyn Broccoli Collection of F. Scott Fitzgerald at the University of South Carolina, such as Fitzgerald’s briefcase and engraved flask and the dust jackets to his novels and story collections. Visitors to the site can access audio and video clips of Fitzgerald and can download full texts of eleven short stories published before 1923, juvenilia, and apprenticeship writings. Texts are accompanied by original artwork and magazine covers. Fitzgerald’s first novel, This Side of Paradise, can be accessed via a link to Columbia University’s Bartelby.com. The page offers a history of Charles Scribner’s Sons and links to the University of South Carolina Press through which recent texts and videos on the life and work of Fitzgerald can be ordered.
Fitzgerald Campfire Chat.
<http://killdevilhill.com/fitzgeraldchat/wwwboard.html.> Part of Kill Devil Hill’s Great Books, Literary Cafes, and Chatrooms, this site offers the opportunity to chat on-line or post a message about Fitzgerald topics.
Fitzgerald Childhood Home Tour.
<www.pioneerplanet.com/archive/fitzgerald/stories/fitztourl0.htm> Pioneer Planet offers an excellent way to “visit” the places of F Scott Fitzgerald’s youth. This site provides a general map and master schedule of the on-line tour. Stops include Fitzgerald’s birthplace on Laurel Avenue in St. Paul; his first prep school, the St. Paul Academy; and Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald’s rented home at 626 Goodrich Avenue, where they lived between November 1921 and June 1922. Although only some stops provide photographs, each includes informative text linking the place to important times, events, and works in Fitzgerald’s life.
The Great Gatsby, A Beginner’s Guide.
<www.geocities.com/BourbonStreet/3844/> This page offers a concise biography of Fitzgerald as well as character studies and a discussion of four major themes in The Great Gatsby. It presents a brief summary of life in 1920s America and includes a link to a page titled “Flapper Culture and Style,” which further defines the Jazz Age era.
The Great Gatsby Guide.
This page includes a brief biography of Fitzgerald, an essay on the major themes of The Great Gatsby, chapter summaries, and a simplistic outline of the novel. Descriptions provided for Gatsby are useful in assessing character types and understanding each character’s role in the novel. The page links to The Great Gatsby Trivia Challenge.
Information on Web sites by Lisa Kerr.
Firestone Library, Princeton University: In 1950 Fitzgerald’s daughter, Scottie, made a gift of her father’s books and papers to Princeton University. The collection now has some three hundred volumes by and about Fitzgerald and books from his personal library, including his own marked copies of The Great Gatsby and Tender Is the Night. Princeton also holds the manuscript and corrected proofs for Gatsby, and manuscripts, typescripts, and proofs for Fitzgerald’s other novels, as well as manuscripts, typescripts, and tearsheets for some of his stories, articles, and poems. The collection includes Fitzgerald’s letters to and from Zelda Fitzgerald and his letters from such friends and associates as Harold Ober, Ernest Hemingway, Arnold Gingrich, Ring Lardner, H. L. Mencken, and Edmund Wilson. The collection also has the Fitzgeralds’ scrapbooks, photographs, clippings, and memorabilia. In addition, Princeton holds substantial material by and about Zelda Fitzgerald: the typescripts of Save Me the Waltz, Scandalabra, and her stories and articles; several of her drawings; her medical records; and much of her surviving correspondence. Princeton is also the repository for other collections crucial to Fitzgerald scholarship: The John Peale Bishop Papers; The Charles Scribner’s Sons Archives, which features the correspondence and other records of the publishing house, including the Fitzgerald-Perkins letters; the John Biggs Papers, which chiefly treat Judge Biggs’s management of Fitzgerald’s estate between 1940 and 1949; and Sheilah Graham’s “College of One” collection, 246 volumes, some of which are inscribed and annotated by Fitzgerald.
A description of the F Scott Fitzgerald Papers and related collections can be accessed on-line.
Thomas Cooper Library, University of South Carolina: The Matthew J. and Arlyn Bruccoli Collection of F. Scott Fitzgerald, which came to the University of South Carolina in 1994, is the most comprehensive working collection for Fitzgerald research. It includes some three thousand items, among them works by Fitzgerald in all their English-language editions and printings; works about Fitzgerald; and more than three hundred volumes of translations. Among the notable proof and manuscript holdings are the only known set of uncorrected galleys for “Trimalchio,” which was rewritten as The Great Gatsby; the only known galleys for the first serial installment of Tender Is the Night; and revised typescripts for “The Swimmers,” “The Count of Darkness,” and “The Kingdom in the Dark.” The collection is particularly strong in books inscribed to and from Fitzgerald: recipients of Fitzgerald inscriptions include actress Lois Moran and agent Harold Ober; among the books inscribed by their authors to Fitzgerald are Ulysses and A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, by James Joyce; For Whom the Bell Tolls, by Ernest Hemingway; Ash-Wednesday, by T. S. Eliot;Prejudices Second Series, by H. L. Mencken; and How to Write, by Gertrude Stein. The collection is rich in material from Fitzgerald’s prep-school and Princeton days and in Fitzgerald-related photographs, including one of Hemingway that he inscribed to Fitzgerald. Among the personal possessions assembled here are Fitzgerald’s briefcase and engraved flask. The collection also has substantial holdings for authors associated with Fitzgerald: Ring Lardner, Budd Schulberg, Edmund Wilson, and Ernest Hemingway, among others.
Park Bucker, ed., Catalogue of the Matthew J. and Arlyn Bruccoli F Scott Fitzgerald Collection at the Thomas Cooper Library, The University of South Carolina. (See under Bibliographies and Catalogues.)
F. Scott Fitzgerald Centenary Exhibition. (See under Bibliographies and Catalogues.)
A catalogue for the collection can be accessed on-line at: <http://www.sc.edu/research.html>. Select