Biography (Cyclopedia of World Authors, Fourth Revised Edition)
Frank Raymond Leavis (LEE-vuhs) was educated at the Perse School and Cambridge University, and he spent virtually his entire life in this university town. He had great admiration for and was deeply attached to his father, a sensitive, cultivated, deeply musical man, who owned a musical-instrument shop in Cambridge. After serving in the Ambulance Corps during World War I, Leavis won a scholarship to Emmanuel College. As an undergraduate, he began specializing in history but changed to English. The works that influenced his thoughts about literature, culture, and society were those by George Santayana, Matthew Arnold, T. S. Eliot, and Ford Madox Ford. As a schoolboy in 1912, he had subscribed to Ford’s The English Review. He was attracted to Ford’s belief that in the contemporary industrial world, the higher cultural values should be preserved by a small minority, which, however, should resist removing itself from life.
As a student at Cambridge University, Leavis was fascinated by such teachers as Mansfield Forbes and I. A. Richards, the advocate of “practical criticism.” Leavis was impressed by the periodical The Calendar of Modern Letters, which insisted on maintaining high critical standards. In 1924, he wrote his doctoral thesis on the periodical literature of the eighteenth century, “The Relationship of Journalism to Literature: Studies in the Rise and Earlier Development of the Press in England.” In 1925, Leavis began tutoring English literature at Emmanuel College and became an assistant lecturer in 1927. He continued teaching at Cambridge until his retirement in 1962. As a lecturer, he challenged the establishment with his theories on literature and the university. He annoyed the English faculty in the 1930’s when he began lecturing to his class on contemporary writings, such as James Joyce’s Ulysses (1922).
Leavis published his first book in 1930 and continued to produce numerous books, essays, and reviews, publishing his last book two years before his death. Among his most important and influential literary studies are New Bearings in English Poetry, Revaluation, The Great Tradition, and The...
(The entire section is 900 words.)
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Bibliography (Cyclopedia of World Authors, Fourth Revised Edition)
Bell, Michael. F. R. Leavis. New York: Routledge, 1988. From the series Critics of the Twentieth Century. Inclues an index and a bibliography.
Bilan, R. P. The Literary Criticism of F. R. Leavis. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979. An extended discussion of Leavis’s literary and social criticism.
Boyers, Robert. F. R. Leavis: Judgment and the Discipline of Thought. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1978. A fine introductory text.
Buckley, V. Poetry and Morality: Studies in the Criticism of Matthew Arnold, T. S. Eliot, and F. R. Leavis. London: Chatto & Windus, 1959. With an introduction by Basil Willey.
Day, Gary. Re-reading Leavis: Culture and Literary Criticism. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996. A reevaluation.
Ferns, John. F. R. Leavis. New York: Twayne, 2000. From the Twayne’s English Authors series.
Greenwood, Edward. F. R. Leavis. Harlow, England: Longman Group, 1978. A good introduction.
Kinch, M. B., William Baker, and John Kimber. F. R. Leavis and Q. D. Leavis: An Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland, 1989. Covers Leavis and his wife. Includes indexes.
McKenzie, D. F., and M. P. Allum. F. R. Leavis: A Check-List, 1924-1964. London: Chatto & Windus, 1966. A useful reference text.
MacKillop, I. D. F. R. Leavis: A Life in Criticism. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997. A biography.
Robertson, P. J. M. The Leavises on Fiction: An Historic Partnership. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1981. Covers Leavis and his wife. Includes a bibliography and an index.
Samson, Anne. F. R. Leavis. Buffalo. N.Y.: University of Toronto Press, 1992. From the series Modern Cultural Theorists.
Sauerberg, Lars Ole. Versions of the Past—Visions of the Future: The Canonical in the Criticism of T. S. Eliot, F. R. Leavis, Northrop Frye, and Harold Bloom. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997. A critical study. Includes bibliographical references and an index.
Singh, G. F. R. Leavis: A Literary Biography. London: Duckworth, 1995. Includes Q. D. Leavis’s “memoir” of her husband.
Walsh, William. F. R. Leavis. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1980. A thorough discussion of Leavis’s literary and social criticism.