Study Guide

Everyday Use

by Alice Walker

Everyday Use Analysis

Style and Technique (Comprehensive Guide to Short Stories, Critical Edition)

The thematic richness of “Everyday Use” is made possible by the flexible, perceptive voice of the first-person narrator. It is the mother’s point of view that permits the reader’s understanding of both Dee and Maggie. Seen from a greater distance, both young women might seem stereotypical—one a smart but ruthless college girl, the other a sweet but ineffectual homebody. The mother’s close scrutiny redeems Dee and Maggie, as characters, from banality.

For example, Maggie’s shyness is explained in terms of the terrible fire she survived: “Sometimes I can still hear the flames and feel Maggie’s arms sticking to me, her hair smoking and her dress falling off her in little black papery flakes. Her eyes seemed stretched open, blazed open by the flames reflected in them.” Ever since, “she has been like this, chin on chest, eyes on ground, feet in shuffle.” In Dee’s case, the reader learns that as she was growing up, the high demands she made of others tended to drive people away. She had few friends, and her one boyfriend “flew to marry a cheap city girl from a family of ignorant flashy people” after Dee “turned all her faultfinding power on him.” Her drive for a better life has cost Dee dearly, and her mother’s commentary reveals that Dee, too, has scars, though they are less visible than Maggie’s.

In addition to the skillful use of point of view, “Everyday Use” is enriched by Alice Walker’s development of symbols. In particular, the contested quilts become symbolic of the story’s theme; in a sense, they represent the past of the women in the family. Worked on by two generations, they contain bits of fabric from even earlier eras, including a scrap of a Civil War uniform worn by Great Grandpa Ezra. The debate over how the quilts should be treated—used or hung on the wall—summarizes the black woman’s dilemma about how to face the future. Can her life be seen as continuous with that of her ancestors? For Maggie, the answer is yes. Not only will she use the quilts, but also she will go on making more—she has learned the skill from Grandma Dee. For Dee, at least for the present, the answer is no. She would frame the quilts and hang them on the wall, distancing them from her present life and aspirations; to put them to everyday use would be to admit her status as a member of her old-fashioned family.

Everyday Use Historical Context

The Black Power Movement
Even before their emancipation from slavery, African Americans struggled to define their collective...

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Everyday Use Literary Style

Walker uses several literary devices to examine the themes in the story and to give a voice to the poor and the uneducated.

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Everyday Use Compare and Contrast

1971: The Supreme Court upholds busing students to various schools in order for them to achieve greater racial integration.

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Everyday Use Topics for Further Study

Walker has often been considered a black feminist writer. Does this story have a feminist message? If so, is the message any different than a...

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Everyday Use What Do I Read Next?

The Color Purple, Walker's novel about black women who persevere despite oppression by society and abuse by the men in their lives,...

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Everyday Use Bibliography and Further Reading

Sources
Bryant, Jerry H. A review of In Love and Trouble, in The Nation, Vol. 217, November 12, 1973, pp. 503-5....

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Everyday Use Bibliography (Comprehensive Guide to Short Stories, Critical Edition)

Banks, Erma Davis, and Keith Byerman. Alice Walker: An Annotated Bibliography, 1968-1986. New York: Garland, 1989.

Christian, Barbara. “Novel for Everyday Use: The Novels of Alice Walker.” In Black Women Novelists: The Development of a Tradition, 1892-1976. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1980.

Lauret, Maria. Alice Walker. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999.

McMillan, Laurie: “Telling a Critical Story: Alice Walker’s In Search of Our Mothers’ Gardens.” Journal of Modern Literature 23, no. 1 (Fall, 2004): 103-107.

Noe, Marcia. “Teaching Alice Walker’s ’Everyday Use’: Employing Race, Class, and Gender, with an Annotated Bibliography.” Eureka Studies in Teaching Short Fiction 5, no. 1 (Fall, 2004): 123-136.

Parker-Smith, Bettye J. “Alice Walker’s Women: In Search of Some Peace of Mind.” In Black Women Writers (1950-1980): A Critical Evaluation, edited by Mari Evans. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor, 1984.

Tate, Claudia. Black Women Writers at Work. New York: Continuum, 1983.

Willis, Susan. “Black Woman Writers: Taking a Critical Perspective.” In Making a Difference: Feminist Literary Criticism, edited by Gayle Greene and Coppelia Kahn. London: Methuen, 1985.