Eugène Delacroix 1798-1863
(Born Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix) French painter and writer.
Eugène Delacroix is considered among the greatest and most influential French painters. Many scholars classify him as the greatest painter of the French Romantic movement, and note that his use of color was instrumental in the development of both impressionist and post-impressionist movements. His drew inspiration from a variety of other disciplines, including history, music, and literature, but a visit to Morocco in 1832 proved to be a defining moment in his development as an artist. The exotic locale entranced Delacroix and served as source material for his work for the rest of his life. Delacroix's fascination with literature not only inspired his art, but also led him to keep a comprehensive journal containing both mundane and highly artistic elements. The Journal d'Eugène Delacroix (1893-95) has since attained a unique place in the canon of French literature, and scholar Roger Kimball has called it “perhaps the greatest literary testament any painter has left.”
Delacroix was born on April 26, 1798, in the small town of Charenton St. Maurice near Paris, France. He was the youngest of four children; his parents were listed as Charles Delacroix and Victoire Oeben, but doubts remain among scholars about his true paternity. Rumors abounded during Delacroix's lifetime that his biological father was not Charles Delacroix, but instead Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, who succeeded Charles as Napoleon's minister of foreign relations when Charles's health deteriorated (he died in 1805). The rumors were fostered by Delacroix's strong facial resemblance with Talleyrand and the fact that in the early days of his career the young artist received extensive patronage and support from an anonymous but powerful source. His financial situation changed dramatically with Napoleon's defeat and the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy. The privileged lifestyle of his family disappeared, and with his mother's death in 1814, the orphaned Delacroix struggled economically for much of the next two decades.
Born near the end of the Rococo period, Delacroix began taking art lessons as a teenager. He studied briefly with the academic painter Pierre-Narcisse Guerin, who had also taught Theodore Gericault. Delacroix was keenly interested in the new directions taken by Francisco de Goya, Jean-Antoine Gros, and Gericault. Largely self-taught from looking at the works of Michelangelo, Peter Paul Rubens, and Titian in the Louvre, he made many acute observations about art in his journal—comments that remain compelling reading for art historians. The young painter sparked controversy (and notoriety) when he submitted “Dante and Virgil in Hell” (also known as “The Barque of Dante”) to the Paris Salon exhibition in 1822. Between 1827 and 1832, Delacroix seemed to produce one masterpiece after another, ultimately producing more than 850 paintings and a great number of drawings, murals, and other works. In 1833, Delacroix painted a group of murals for the king's chamber at the Palais Bourbon. Other works include panels for the Louvre and for the Museum of History at Versailles. Much of his architectural painting involved long hours on uncomfortable scaffolding in drafty buildings, and his health declined. He died on August 13, 1863 in Paris. His apartment was made into a museum in his honor.
Delacroix's defining literary piece was Journal d'Eugène Delacroix, which he began during his youth and then continued with more extensive contributions later in his life. Delacroix's own words in the following excerpt from his journal entry dated May 14, 1824, describe his need to write about his art: “But what is this urge not only to write, but to publish one's work? Besides the pleasure of being praised, there is the thought of communicating with other souls capable of understanding one's own, and thus of one's work becoming a meeting place for the souls of men. The very people who believe that everything has already been discovered and everything said, will greet your work as something new, and will close the door behind you, repeating once more that nothing remains to be said … Newness is in the mind of the artist who creates, and not in the object he portrays.” Critics assert that the Journal illuminates his painting and displays Delacroix's considerable literary talent. The Journal articulates the painter's views on art, politics, and life, but his commentary on artistic aesthetics represent a unique contribution to the study of painting. Delacroix found inspiration in the writings of Dante, Goethe, Shakespeare, and Sir Walter Scott, whose works he often illustrated, and the Journal contains insightful comparative analysis between masterworks of painting and literature. He published articles on a variety of subjects, including early essays on Sir Thomas Lawrence, Raphael, Michelangelo, and a later piece on Nicolas Charlet. Delacroix also conceived an ambitious and innovative project, a treatise on the fine arts called Dictionnaire des Beaux-Arts, which was published in its incomplete form in 1996. The Dictionnaire, designed to contain separate sections on individual artists, mediums, or aesthetic categories, has been described by prominent Delacroix scholar Michèle Hannoosh as a “highly experimental and original kind of writing about art.”
Biographers have found that Delacroix was not held in favor by the art establishment, which often rejected him both professionally and socially. His Journal, however, has received a steady stream of critical responses, many of which focus on the correlation between Delacroix's written intentions and ambitions for a work of art and the resulting work itself. In one of the earliest critical surveys, C. R. Parsons examined Delacroix's discussion of the interrelations and differences between literature and painting, noting that the painter is one of the few artists to examine this relationship in detail. George Mras agrees with Parsons, stating that Delacroix's Journal is an original literary document that demonstrates the author's need to fully articulate his artistic vision. Roger Porter investigates the introspective nature of the Journal, focusing on the artist's ambiguous and, at times, conflicting notions of self. Hannoosh has examined Delacroix's literary output in a variety of ways, including detailed discussions of the painter's artistic theories, conception of time, and reactions to modernity. The Journal's influence will never match that of the artist's paintings, but it has an enduring value for historians and artists alike, as evidenced by its recent reissue in both French and English editions. Soon after Delacroix's death, German art critic Julius Meier-Graefe ventured to say that the Journal “should be a sort of Bible for young painters.”
Lettres inédites d'Eugène Delacroix (letters) 1877
Journal d'Eugène Delacroix. 3 vols. (journal) 1893-1895; also published as Journal de Eugène Delacroix 1932; translated as The Journal of Eugène Delacroix 1937
Correspondance générale d'Eugène Delacroix. 5 vols. (letters) 1935-38
Dictionnaire des Beaux-Arts (unfinished essay) 1996
(The entire section is 45 words.)
SOURCE: Parsons, C. R. “Eugene Delacroix and Literary Inspiration.” University of Toronto Quarterly 33 (1964): 164-177.
[In the following essay, Parsons examines the relationship between literature and painting, often left unexamined by artists themselves, with the notable exception of Delacroix.]
The problem of the relationship between literature and painting, although it has attracted for a long time the attention of scholars and has led to interesting research, still remains a profitable field of investigation. Unfortunately, artists and men of letters are often reluctant to admit how much they owe to one another. An exception is Eugène Delacroix, who lived from 1798 to 1863. His case affords us by far the best opportunity for re-examining the problem under consideration. For Delacroix in addition to being a great painter was also a prolific writer and in his literary works he not only admits openly his debt to literature but also devotes much attention to comparative aesthetics. The facts we discover in his Journal, his correspondence, and his published articles enable us to appreciate the nature and extent of the influence of literature on his art as a painter. These same facts help us to understand in their early stages some of the more significant trends of modern art.
For Delacroix the pleasure we gain from the contemplation of nature does not reside, as certain...
(The entire section is 6371 words.)
SOURCE: Mras, George P. “Preface” and “Delacroix's Conception of Art.” In Eugene Delacroix's Theory of Art, pp. vii-ix, 10-12. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966.
[In the following excerpts, Mras asserts that Delacroix's literary endeavors are the “most significant non-visual contribution by a major artist to the history of art.” The critic also links Delacroix's personality with the need for articulation in all matters that concerned his art.]
The literary endeavors of Eugène Delacroix, especially the Journal, have long been ranked among the most significant nonvisual contributions by a major artist to the history of art. Rich in anecdote, criticism, philosophy, and biography, and expressed in a persuasive prose style, these writings have inspired widespread admiration. For the student of art theory they possess special value in that few artists have revealed the inner core of a basic aesthetic in so thorough a manner. The industrious reader of the Journal, along with a formidable mass of articles and letters, inevitably approaches the vast corpus of his paintings armed with profound insights into the aim and method of his art. This reader also goes armed with an extraordinarily comprehensive and complex mixture of traditional and original theory. For Delacroix, like his illustrious predecessor, Leonardo da Vinci, used past theory as...
(The entire section is 1798 words.)
SOURCE: Porter, Roger J. “‘A Serpent in the Coils of a Pythoness’: Conflict and Self-Dramatization in Delacroix's Journal.” In Autobiography, Historiography, Rhetoric: A Festschrift in Honor of Frank Paul Bowman, edited by Mary Donaldson-Evans, Lucienne Frappier-Mazur, and Gerald Prince, pp. 161-79. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1994.
[In the following essay, Porter analyzes the introspective aspects of Delacroix's Journal, evaluating what these deeply personal writings say about the author's artistic aesthetic, the role of conflict in his art, and self-identification.]
On September 3, 1822, Eugène Delacroix began the journal which he would keep, punctuated by several long interruptions, for the next forty-one years. At the very outset he declared “je l'écris pour moi seul”,1 and this disclaimer of a desire to make his inner life available to the public is largely true. Much of the Journal consists of an intensely private meditation on his habits of mind and work, an account of fears and anxieties, an analysis of struggle and urgings towards greatness, and a not-always convincing attempt to assure himself that his art has been adequate compensation for the deprivations of family and sustained love. Delacroix's leading American critic notes that “The focus of his life was inward, its drama loaded inside his own consciousness … he was essentially an isolated and...
(The entire section is 8324 words.)
SOURCE: Hannoosh, Michèle. “Introduction” and “A Language for Painting: The Dictionnaire des Beaux-Arts.” In Painting and the Journal of Eugene Delacroix, pp. 3-22, 93-105. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.
[In the following essay, Hannoosh discusses the development of paradoxes and complexities in Delacroix's Journal. The critic also evaluates Delacroix's various articles on the arts as well as his unfinished essay Dictionnaire des Beaux-Arts.]
Tuesday, 3 September 1822—I am carrying out my plan, formulated so many times, of writing a diary. What I want most keenly is not to lose sight of the fact that I am writing it for myself alone; thus I will be truthful, I hope; I will become the better for it. This paper will reproach me for my variations.
[Mardi 3 septembre 1822—Je mets à exécution le projet formé tant de fois d'écrire un journal. Ce que je désire le plus vivement, c'est de ne pas perdre de vue que je l'écris pour moi seul; je serai donc vrai, je l'espère; j'en deviendrai meilleur. Ce papier me reprochera mes variations.]
For all the clarity of purpose of its opening statement, the Journal of Eugène Delacroix soon betrays some of the paradoxes and complexities that develop...
(The entire section is 18465 words.)
SOURCE: Hannoosh, Michèle. “A Painter's Impressions of Modernity: Delacroix, Citizen of the Nineteenth Century.” In Impressions of French Modernity: Art and Literature in France 1850-1900, edited by Richard Hobbs, pp. 9-29. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1998.
[In the following essay, an earlier version of which was presented as a lecture in 1996, Hannoosh examines Delacroix's conception of time, as seen in the Journal, and investigates the painter's reaction to the technological and industrial revolution occurring around him.]
‘Toutes ces aventures de tous les jours prennent sous cette plume un intérêt incroyable’ (All those everyday happenings become, under his pen, incredibly interesting).1 As most readers have acknowledged since its first publication in 1893, Delacroix's diary is one of the richest writings on art and one of the finest examples of artists' writings in the literature of art history.2 Yet as his observation, cited here, about the Mémoires of Saint-Simon suggests, the Journal, inserted into the time of the day to day, into the temporality of the present, also constitutes a work of extraordinary sociohistorical interest, furnishing an ongoing, often indirect, commentary on the culture of nineteenth-century France. Largely ignored in this context, these private meditations of a painter are, in both content and form,...
(The entire section is 10100 words.)
SOURCE: Guentner, Wendelin. “The Inscription of the Sketch in the 19th-Century French Journal: Michelet, Delacroix and the Goncourt Brothers.” Nineteenth-Century French Studies 27, nos. 3 & 4 (spring/summer 1999): 276-289.
[In the following excerpt, Wendelin discusses Delacroix's conception of the artistic sketch as part of a larger argument regarding the definition of art in the nineteenth century.]
In one of his many reflections on art and aesthetics Paul Valéry wrote the following in 1934:
Achever un ouvrage consiste à faire disparaître tout ce qui montre ou suggère sa fabrication. L'artiste ne doit, selon cette tradition surannée, s'accuser que par son style, et doit soutenir son effort jusqu'à ce que le travail ait effacé les traces du travail. Mais le souci de la personne et de l'instant l'emportant peu à peu sur celui de l'œuvre en soi et de la durée, la condition d'achèvement a paru, non seulement inutile et gênante, mais même contraire à la vérité, à la sensibilité et à la manifestation du génie. La personnalité parut essentielle, même au public. L'esquisse valut le tableau.
Valéry bears witness here to the transformation in the conception of what constitutes a work of art that occurred during the nineteenth century. In...
(The entire section is 3836 words.)
Hannoosh, Michèle. “Delacroix as Essayist, Writings on Art.” In The Cambridge Companion to Delacroix, edited by Beth S. Wright, pp. 154-169. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Evaluates Delacroix's significant body of published articles and his “extended and substantive discussion” of the arts in his Journal.
Prideaux, Tom. The World of Delacroix 1798-1863. New York: Time-Life Books, 1966, 196 p.
Provides an overview of Delacroix's life and works.
Scott, David. “Painting/Literature: The Impact of Delacroix on Aesthetic Theory, Art Criticism, and Poetics in Mid-Nineteenth-Century France.” In The Cambridge Companion to Delacroix, edited by Beth S. Wright, pp. 170-186. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Delves into the correlation between painting and literature, using Delacroix as a case study.
Additional coverage of Delacroix's life and career is contained in the following source published by the Gale Group: European Writers, Vol. 5.
(The entire section is 138 words.)