Hemingway, Ernest (Literary Masters)
See also Volumes 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 13, and 30.
Ernest Hemingway is a giant of modern literature. Among twentieth-century American fiction writers, his work is most often compared to that of his contemporaries William Faulkner and F. Scott Fitzgerald. Combined with his outstanding short stories, Hemingway’s four major novels—The Sun Also Rises (1926), A Farewell to Arms (1929), For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940), and The Old Man and the Sea (1952)—comprise a contribution to modern fiction that is far more substantial than Fitzgerald’s and that approximates Faulkner’s.
Faulkner was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature a few years before Hemingway received this recognition, but their respective approaches to fiction are so dissimilar that this belated receipt says little or nothing about Hemingway’s stature relative to that of Faulkner. When set alongside Faulkner’s Mississippi novels, Hemingway’s major works feature simpler structures and narrative voices/personae.
As or more important, Hemingway’s style, with its consistent use of short, concrete, direct prose and of scenes consisting exclusively of dialogue, gives his novels and short stories a distinctive accessibility that is immediately identifiable with the author. Owing to the direct character of both his style and his life-style, there is a tendency to cast Hemingway as a “representative” American writer whose work reflects the bold, forthright and rugged individualism of the American spirit in action.
His own background as a wounded veteran of World War I, as an engaged combatant in the fight against Fascism/Nazism, and as a “he-man” with a passion for outdoor adventures and other manly pursuits reinforce this association.
But this identification of Hemingway as a uniquely American genius is problematic. Although three of his major novels are told by and/or through American men, Hemingway’s protagonists are expatriates, and his fictional settings are in France, Italy, Spain, and later Cuba, rather than America itself.
While Hemingway’s early career benefited from his connections with Fitzgerald and (more so) with American novelist Sherwood Anderson, his aesthetic is actually closer to that shared by the transplanted American poets that he met in Paris during the 1920s; T. S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, and, most crucially, Gertrude Stein. In this context, we must realize that Hemingway’s approach to the craft of fiction is direct but never blunt or just plain simple.
Hemingway’s text is the result of a painstaking selection process, each word performing an assigned function in the narrative. These choices of language, in turn, occur through the mind and experience of his novels’ central characters whether they serve explicitly as narrators of their experience or as focal characters from whose perspectives the story unfolds. The main working corollary of Hemingway’s “iceberg principle” is that the full meaning of the text is not limited to moving the plot forward: there is always a web of association and inference, a submerged reason behind the inclusion (or even the omission) of every detail.
We note, too, that although Hemingway’s novels usually follow a straightforward chronological progression as in the three days of For Whom the Bell Tolls, Hemingway does make use of summary accounts of the past, of memories related externally as stories, and of flashbacks. These devices lend further depth to his characters and create narrative structures that are not completely straightforward chronicles.
Hemingway is direct. But he is also quite subtle, and subtlety is not a trait that we ascribe to the American way. In the end, Hemingway is an international artist, a man who never relinquished his American identity but who entered new territories too broad and too deep to fit within the domain of any national culture.
Born: 21 July 1899 in Oak Park, Illinois
Died: 2 July 1961 in Ketchum, Idaho
Married: Hadley Richardson, 3 September 1921 (divorced 14 April 1927); married Pauline Pfeiffer, 10 May 1927 (divorced 4 November 1940); married Martha Gellhorn, 21 November 1940 (divorced 21 December 1945); married Mary Welsh, 14 March 1946.
Education: Oak Park and River Forest High School
Ernest Hemingway was born on 21 July 1899 in Oak Park, Illinois, an early and affluent suburb of Chicago. His father, Clarence Edmonds Hemingway, who graduated from Oberlin College and Rush Medical College, was a respected professional whose specialty became obstetrics. Dr. Hemingway was an avid outdoorsman, hunter, fisherman, and naturalist. In Oak Park he founded a local Agassiz Club, introducing boys to natural history. Hemingway's mother, Grace Hall Hemingway, was a well-trained contralto who had at least two New York City performances before marrying Dr. Hemingway. In Oak Park, she enjoyed a lengthy career as a voice and music teacher, choir director, and, later in life, as a largely self-taught painter. Young Hemingway grew up with an older sister,...
(The entire section is 8474 words.)
Chronology Of Events In Ernest Hemingway’s Life
In the last year of the nineteenth century, Ernest Hemingway was born in the afterglow of the Spanish-American War. Nothing about his birth or his parentage was particularly significant. Sixty-one years and eleven months later, when he died by his own hand, it was headline news in almost every major newspaper in the world. He had become an American icon, a face so familiar that it needed no identifying caption. In the last year of the twentieth century, the centennial of his birth, the world once more paid homage to this American writer who changed the way Americans wrote about themselves.
As one of his sons has said, Hemingway lived on a fast clock. He burned with an intensity that made emotional and physical demands both on himself and those around him. In the first half of the twentieth century, he was present at the crucial events that shaped world history. In World War I, he was wounded on the Italian front, a fitting initiation into the violence that would characterize his times. As a journalist, he covered the Greco-Turkish War in 1922, the Spanish Civil War from 1937 to 1939, and World War II in 1940 and 1944. As a serious student of revolutions, he observed political intrigues in Spain, Cuba, and the Dominican Republic. As a writer, he published books in every decade from the 1920s to the 1990s, five of them from the grave. He won prestigious literary prizes, sat down at table in the Franklin Roosevelt White House, and was...
(The entire section is 4285 words.)
About Ernest Hemingway
Born: 21 July 1899 in Oak Park, Illinois
Died: 2 July 1961 in Ketchum, Idaho
Married: Hadley Richardson, 3 September 1921 (divorced 14 April 1927);
married Pauline Pfeiffer, 10 May 1927 (divorced 4 November 1940);
married Martha Gellhorn, 21 November 1940 (divorced 21 December 1945); married Mary Welsh, 14 March 1946.
Education: Oak Park and River Forest High School
Ernest Hemingway was born on 21 July 1899 in Oak Park, Illinois, an early and affluent suburb of Chicago. His father, Clarence Edmonds Hemingway, who graduated from Oberlin College and Rush Medical College, was a respected professional whose specialty became obstetrics. Dr. Hemingway was an avid outdoorsman, hunter, fisherman, and naturalist. In Oak Park he founded a local Agassiz Club, introducing boys to natural history. Hemingway’s mother, Grace Hall Hemingway, was a well-trained contralto who had at least two New York City performances before marrying Dr. Hemingway. In Oak Park, she enjoyed a lengthy career as a voice and music teacher, choir director, and, later in life, as a largely self-taught painter. Young Hemingway grew up with an older sister, Marcelline, and three younger sisters, Ursula, Madelaine, and Carol. He had one younger brother, Leicester. Both of his grandfathers served in the Grand Army of the Republic during the Civil War, and young Ernest heard war...
(The entire section is 5175 words.)
Hemingway at Work
In January of 1919, when Ernest Hemingway returned to Oak Park, Illinois, from the Great War, he knew he was going to be a writer, but his sights were set no higher than the fiction in popular magazines such as The Saturday Evening Post and Red Book. He had not yet read Joseph Conrad, D. H. Lawrence, or Ivan Turgenev. He had not heard of James Joyce, Gertrude Stein, or Ezra Pound. He had not met Sherwood Anderson. Moving back into his old bedroom on North Kenilworth, he found copies of his high-school fiction modeled largely on Jack London stories. That spring of 1919, he wrote a story told by an experienced gambler to a much younger narrator. In the story, a card shark lures his seemingly innocent victim deeper and deeper into a high-stakes poker game. On the final call, the shark turns over four kings. The supposed victim turns over four aces. The older gambler then twists the story one more time when he tells the young narrator that when he folded his hand in the game, he held two aces of his own. The victim had outcheated the shark. Nothing in the story...
(The entire section is 7869 words.)
- THE PARIS YEARS: 1921-1929
- THE KEY WEST YEARS: 1930-1939
- WORLD WAR II: 1940-1945
- THE CUBAN YEARS: 1945-1962
After 1921 Ernest Hemingway never lived in an American urban center, never worked nine-to-five for an American employer, never, as far as is known, voted in an election. But he paid his U.S. taxes, was a loyal American in time of war, and always thought of himself as a native son. When one speaks of Hemingway’s “eras,” one must realize that there are no easy generalizations. Most American writers are formed during their first twenty years, spend their apprenticeship digesting their experience, and become associated with the period of their fame. For example, few of the successful 1920s novelists with whom Hemingway is associated managed to remain successful during the Great Depression of the 1930s. Sinclair Lewis, Ben Hecht, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Thornton Wilder, Willa Cather, and Ellen Glasgow— all of whom burned brightly during the 1920s—did not fare well during the 1930s. Fewer still were able to make the transition into the postwar culture of the 1940s and 1950s. Out of that generation of novelists born around the turn of the century, only Hemingway and William Faulkner managed to write well across four...
(The entire section is 6256 words.)
Three Stories & Ten Poems. Paris: Contact Publishing Company, 1923. Robert McAlmon was the owner and editor of Contact. The stories are “Up in Michigan,” “Out of Season,” and “My Old Man.” The last two reappeared in the 1925 story collection In Our Time.“Up in Michigan” was not reprinted until 1938 in a revised form.
in our time. Paris: Three Mountains Press, 1924. William Bird was the owner and editor of Three Mountains Press. This edition includes eighteen vignettes, most of which were reprinted as divisions between stories in the 1925 story collection In Our Time.
In Our Time. New York: Boni & Liveright, 1925. This collection includes fourteen of Hemingway’s breakthrough short stories, including “Indian Camp,” “The Doctor and the Doctor’s Wife,” “The Battler,” “The End of Something,” and “Big Two-Hearted River.” This book was reissued by Charles Scribner’s Sons in 1930 with minor revisions and one new story, “On the Quai at Smyrna,” which Hemingway wrote in lieu of an author’s introduction.
The Torrents of Spring. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons,1926. A satire on the state of contemporary fiction, Sherwood Anderson, and Gertrude Stein, among other targets. This book is the contract breaker that Charles Scribner’s Sons published in order to get The Sun Also Rises.
(The entire section is 11548 words.)
Hemingway on Hemingway
- HEMINGWAY ON LEARNING TO WRITE
- HEMINGWAY’S ADVICE ON WRITING
- HEMINGWAY ON THE PROFESSION OF WRITING
- OBITUARIES AND TRIBUTES
Like many of his contemporaries (William Butler Yeats, James Joyce, Gertrude Stein, Ezra Pound, D. H. Lawrence), Ernest Hemingway was unusually aware that an author must also be his own best publicist. Or, as Wallace Stevens suggested, the artist not only must perform upon the stage, he first must build the stage that would contain and explain the artist’s performance. Beginning with his earliest journalism, feature stories that included himself in some way, Hemingway began constructing that focusing stage until gradually in the public mind he replaced the man himself with the public performer.
The earliest of Hemingway’s journalism written for the Oak Park and River Forest High School newspaper, The Trapeze, and his nascent fiction in the high school’s Tabula magazine, has most recently been collected as Hemingway at Oak Park High, edited by Cynthia Maziarka and Donald Vogel Jr. (Oak Park, 111.: Oak Park and River Forest High School, 1993). Earlier, Matthew J. Bruccoli edited a similar collection, Ernest Hemingway’s Apprenticeship: Oak Park, 1916—1917 (Washington, D.C.: NCR Microcard Editions,...
(The entire section is 16920 words.)
Hemingway as Studied
One of the most common misconceptions about Ernest Hemingway is to assume that as only a high-school graduate, he was not particularly well educated or well read. True, he never attended a university, but he educated himself far beyond what he would have learned in the classroom. By the time he died, his library in Cuba held more than eight thousand volumes. He was well read on European history, military tactics, World War I, the American Civil War, the American West, Italy, Spain, East Africa, fishing and hunting, and contemporary writers. He spoke with varying degrees of fluency French, Spanish, Italian, German, and a little Swahili. He was an astute analyst of politics, an avid and continuous traveler, a reader of poetry, and was well schooled in classical music. His public image of outdoorsman, brawler, and drinker was a comfortable mask that protected the sensitive, hard-working professional writer.
Hemingway’s most obvious links to earlier writers can be found in his several lists of books that would-be authors should read and in his list of his own literary forebears. Whether or not any of these authors actually influenced Hemingway’s development is a question still in the process of reaching resolution, but his lists do tell something...
(The entire section is 3326 words.)
Frequently Asked Questions About Ernest Hemingway
Why was Hemingway so fascinated with death?
In his book on bullfighting, Death in the Afternoon, Hemingway observed that, "All stories, if continued far enough, end in death." Death looms large in Hemingway's novels, most of which end with the explicit or implied demise of a major character. In his personal life, Hemingway deliberately courted danger and exhibited a fatalistic disregard for his own life. Some of Hemingway's biographers have speculated that his apparent fascination with death arose from the nearly fatal injuries that he received in World War I. Hemingway saw very little action on the Italian front and may have felt a compulsion to repeatedly test his own courage. Plainly, in his books and in his own life, Hemingway considered confrontations with death to offer an "opportunity to define oneself.
Why did Hemingway commit suicide?
Like his father and in contrast to Robert Jordan, the hero of For Whom the Bell Tolls, Hemingway took his own life. This seems odd given the quality of endurance that Jordan, the old fisherman Santiago, and Frederic Henry display in his works. Yet all of these characters retain the capacity to function, and this stands in sharp contrast to Hemingway's physical and mental condition in the last years of his life. Hemingway never full recovered from the tandem airplane crashes that he suffered while on Safari. This left him incapable of pursuing the...
(The entire section is 2202 words.)
Brasch, James, and Joseph Sigmund. Hemingway’s Library. New York: Garland, 1981. Necessary to any source study of Hemingway’s post-1940 writing.
Catalog of the Ernest Hemingway Collection at the John F. Kennedy Library, 2 volumes. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1982.
Hanneman, Audre.Ernest Hemingway, A Comprehensive Bibliography, 2 volumes. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967; supplement, 1975. Vital research tool.
Larson, Kelli.Ernest Hemingway: A Reference Guide, 1974-1989. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1991.
Mandel, Miriam B. Reading Hemingway: The Facts in the Fiction. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1995. Excel-lent resource for references in the works.
Oliver, Charles.Ernest Hemingway A to Z. New York: Facts on File, 1999.
Reynolds, Michael.Hemingway’s Reading 1910-1940. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981. Also available on-line at the Hemingway Collection home page, John F. Kennedy Library (http://www.cs.umb.edu/jfklibrary/index.htm).
Smith, Paul.A Reader’s Guide to the Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1989. Best single source on the creation and criticism of Hemingway’s short fiction.
Waldhorn, Arthur. A Reader’s Guide to Ernest Hemingway. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1981.
The following libraries have Hemingway collections, their most significant, but by no means their only, holdings noted in parentheses.
Blaine County Library, Ketchum, Idaho (oral histories, photographs).
Indiana University, The Lilly Library (Letters, Ezra Pound and William Bird papers).
John F. Kennedy Library, Boston (the major Hemingway collection of manuscripts, letters, secondary materials, maps, and photographs, established by Mary Hemingway).
Monroe County Library, Key West, Florida (some galleys, photographs, local history).
Oak Park Public Library, Oak Park, Illinois (Tabula and Trapeze from Oak Park High School, local newspaper, photographs).
Princeton University Library (Carlos Baker files, Scribner Author files, Patrick Hemingway Collection).
Stanford University Library (Pauline Hemingway’s 1933-1934 safari journal and Hemingway-Carlos Baker correspondence).
University of Delaware Library (Cut opening of The Sun Also Rises, letters).
University of South Carolina, Thomas Cooper Library (Hemingway and Fitzgerald materials).
University of Texas, Humanities Research Center (Death in the Afternoon and parts of “Big Two-Hearted River” manuscripts, family letters).
University of Tulsa Library (some Spanish Civil War materials).
University of Virginia, Alderman Library (Green Hills of Africa manuscript).
Yale University, Beinecke Library (Charles Fenton Collection, letters to Gertrude Stein).
Gellhorn, Martha. Travels With Myself and Another. London: Eland Books, 1983. Best source for story of Hemingway in China in 1941.
Hemingway, Gregory.Papa. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1976.
Hemingway, Jack.Misadventures of a Fly Fisherman. Dallas: Taylor, 1986.
Hemingway, Leicester. My Brother, Ernest Hemingway. Cleveland: World, 1962; revised edition, with family letters, Sarasota, Fla.: Pineapple Press, 1996.
Hemingway, Mary. How It Was. New York: Knopf, 1976. Based on journals she kept during their marriage.
Miller, Madelaine Hemingway.Ernie. New York: Crown, 1975. Best view of life in Oak Park.
Sanford, Marcelline Hemingway.At the Hemingways. Boston: Little, Brown, 1962; revised edition, with family letters and new introductions, Moscow: University of Idaho Press, 1999.
MEMOIRS OF OTHERS WHO KNEW HEMINGWAY
Beach, Sylvia.Shakespeare and Company. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1959. Factually flawed, but a well-meaning view of Paris in the 1920s.
Brian, Denis.The True Gen. New York: Grove, 1988. Invaluable collection of brief takes on Hemingway.
Callaghan, Morley.That Summer in Paris: Memories of Tangled Friendships with Hemingway, Fitzgerald, and Some Others. New York: Coward-McCann, 1963.
Castillo-Puche, Jose Luis.Hemingway in Spain, translated by Helen R. Lane. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1974.
Donnelly, Honoria Murphy.Sara &Gerald: Memories of the Murphys and Their Friends, New York: Times Books, 1982.
Loeb, Harold.The Way It Was. New York: Criterion Books, 1959. The prototype for Cohn in The Sun Also Rises tries to set the record straight.
MacLeish, Archibald. Reflections, edited by Bernard Drabeck and Helen Ellis. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1986.
McAlmon, Robert.Being Geniuses Together, 1920-1930, revised by Kay Boyle. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1968. Biased, a little bitter, but an interesting memoir.
Ross, Lillian.Portrait of Hemingway. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1961. Infamous portrayal of Hemingway on a New York visit.
Samuelson, Arnold. With Hemingway: A Year in Key West and Cuba. New York: Random House, 1984.
Stein, Gertrude.The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1933. Stein’s biased view of Hemingway.
Viertel, Peter.Dangerous Friends: At Large with Hemingway and Huston in the Fifties. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1992. Good take on Hemingway in the 1950s based on new letters and personal contact.
COLLECTIONS OF INTERVIEWS
The following books are compilations of interviews with those who knew Hemingway at different points in his life.
Fuentes, Noberto. Hemingway in Cuba, translated by Consuelo E. Corwin. Secaucus, N.J.: Lyle Stuart, 1984. Useful inside information on the Cuban years.
Paporov, Uri.Hemingway en Cuba, translated by Armando Partida Tayzan. Mexico City: Siglo XXI Editores, 1993. Interesting book based on interviews shortly after Hemingway’s death.
Plath, James, and Frank Simons.Remembering Ernest Hemingway. Key West, Fla.: Ketch & Yawl Press, 1999. Wide-ranging interviews with Hemingway friends.
Baker, Carlos. Ernest Hemingway: A Life Story. New York: Scribners, 1969. Baker’s biography remains the standard one-volume life of Hemingway.
Bruccoli, Matthew J.Fitzgerald and Hemingway: A Dangerous Friendship. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1994. Best analysis of the famed friendship.
Donaldson, Scott.By Force of Will: The Life and Art of Ernest Hemingway. New York: Viking, 1977.
Fenton, Charles.The Apprenticeship of Ernest Hemingway. New York: Viking, 1954.
Griffin, Peter.Along With Youth: Hemingway, the Early Years. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985. The only source of several pre-Paris short stories.
Kert, Bernice.The Hemingway Women. New York: Norton, 1983. After Baker, this book is the best single-volume biography, interviews with women who would not talk to the male biographers.
Lynn, Kenneth S.Hemingway. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1987.
McLendon, James.Papa: Hemingway in Key West, revised edition. Key West, Fla.: Langley Press, 1990.
Mellow, James R.Hemingway: A Life Without Consequences. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1992.
Meyers, Jeffrey.Hemingway. New York: Harper & Row, 1985.
Montgomery, Constance C.Hemingway in Michigan. New York: Fleet, 1966. Lots of local information on the Michigan lakes and woods of Hemingway’s youth.
Reynolds, Michael. Young Hemingway. Oxford: Blackwell, 1986; New York: Norton, 1998.
Reynolds.Hemingway: The Paris Years. Oxford: Blackwell, 1989; New York: Norton, 1999.
Reynolds.Hemingway: The Homecoming. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992; New York: Norton, 1999.
Reynolds.Hemingway: The 1930s. New York: Norton, 1997.
Reynolds.Hemingway: The Final Years. New York: Norton, 1999.
OTHER BIOGRAPHIES AND HISTORIES
Benstock, Shari.Women of the Left Bank. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1986. A comprehensive survey. Information not easily found elsewhere.
Berg, A. Scott.Max Perkins, Editor of Genius. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1978. Fine narrative of the relationship between Hemingway and his editor, plus Fitzgerald and Thomas Wolfe.
Bruccoli, Matthew J.Some Sort of Epic Grandeur: The Life of F. Scott Fitzgerald. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1981. Highly reliable Fitzgerald biography.
Bruccoli and Robert W. Trogdon, eds. American Expatriate Writers: Paris in the Twenties (Dictionary of Literary Biography, Documentary Series, 15). Detroit: Bruccoli Clark Layman / Gale, 1997.
Carr, Virginia Spencer. Dos Passos: A Life. Garden City: Doubleday, 1984.
Delaney, John, ed.The House of Scribner, 1905-1936 (Dictionary of Literary Biography, Documentary Series, 16). Detroit: Bruccoli Clark Layman / Gale, 1997.
Diliberto, Gioia.Hadley. New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1992.
Donaldson, Scott.Archibald MacLeish: An American Life. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992.
Ford, Hugh. Published in Paris: A Literary Chronicle of Paris in the 1920s and 1930s. New York: Macmillan, 1975.
Hansen, Arlen.Expatriate Paris: A Cultural and Literary Guide to Paris of the 1920s. New York: Little, Brown, 1990. The best of many street, place, and people guides to Paris in the 1920s.
Hoffman, Frederick. The Twenties. New York: Viking, 1955. Seminal cultural and literary survey of the era.
Ludington, Townsend. John Dos Passos. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1980.
Miller, Linda P.Letters from the Lost Generation: Gerald and Sara Murphy and Friends. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1991.
Raeburn, John. Fame Became of Him: Hemingway as a Public Writer. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984. Excellent documentation and analysis of Hemingway’s rise to fame in the media.
Rollyson, Carl. Nothing Ever Happens to the Brave: The Story of Martha Gell-horn. St. Martin’s Press, 1990. The unauthorized and only Gellhorn biography.
Rovit, Earl. Ernest Hemingway. New York: Twayne, 1963. Another seminal work that still makes sense.
Sarason, Bertram D. Hemingway and the Sun Set. Washington, D.C.: NCR Microcard Editions, 1972. Everything anyone ever wanted to know about the characters in The Sun Also Rises, with interviews.
Sokoloff, Alice H. Hadley: The First Mrs. Hemingway. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1973.
Stephens, Robert O. Hemingway’s Nonfiction. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1968. First and best analysis of Hemingway’s nonfiction and its relationship to his fiction.
Thomas, Hugh. The Spanish Civil War. New York: Harper & Row, 1961. Basic history.
Vaill, Amanda.Everybody Was So Young: Gerald and Sara Murphy, a Lost Generation Love Story. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1998.
Young, Philip. Ernest Hemingway: A Reconsideration. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1966. Along with Fenton and Baker, Young’s book set the agenda for Hemingway criticism between 1955 and 1975.
Arnold, Lloyd. Hemingway: High on the Wild. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1977. Good source for photos of Hemingway in Idaho.
Buckley, Peter. Ernest. New York: Dial, 1978.
Fuentes, Norberto. Ernest Hemingway Rediscovered. New York: Scribners, 1988.
Gajdusek, Robert E. Hemingway’s Paris. New York: Scribners, 1978.
Hotchner, A. E.Hemingway and His World. New York: Viking, 1989.
Trogdon, Robert W., ed.,Ernest Hemingway: A Documentary Volume (Dictionary of Literary Biography, 210). Detroit: Bruccoli Clark Layman / Gale, 1999.
Voss, Frederick.Picturing Hemingway. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999.
There are many online resources for Hemingway researchers and enthusiasts. Listed below are general sites of interest to students. Most contain links to other, more specialized, sites.
<http://www.hemingway.org/> Site maintained by the Hemingway Foundation to foster understanding of the life and work of Ernest Hemingway with emphasis on his Oak Park origins and his impact on world literature. Its mission reflects the Foundation’s belief in the importance of the written word and the value of thoughtful reading and writing.
Collection of general resources on Hemingway presented by the Department of English at the University of Florida.
Site maintained by the Michigan Hemingway Society—made up of university professors, writers, teachers, fly fishers, journalists and anyone interested exploring Hemingway’s work and its relationship to Michigan.
<http://www.lostgeneration.com/hrc.htm> General resources, featuring a biography, bibliography, audio clips, a writing contest, and a checklist of links.