Biography (Dictionary of World Biography: Twentieth Century)
Article abstract: Hemingway was one of the most influential writers in the twentieth century, both as a much-imitated stylist and as a larger-than-life celebrity.
Born into a conservative, upper-middle-class family in Oak Park, Illinois, an affluent suburb of Chicago, Ernest Hemingway spent much of his life and early literary career trying to break away from the constraints of his youth. Hemingway’s father, Clarence Edmonds Hemingway, was a physician who had a great interest in hunting and fishing. The young Hemingway, whose father hoped that his son would eventually join him in his medical practice, became an avid outdoorsman at an early age.
During long holidays spent at the family’s summer home on Walloon Lake in northern Michigan, Ernest, who was not healthy as a youth, pushed himself to the limits of his physical endurance, as he did throughout much of his later life. He became an enthusiastic sportsman.
Grace Hall Hemingway, Ernest’s mother, was a cultivated woman, much interested in music. She dominated her husband, and Ernest realized early that his father was henpecked. Until her death, Grace Hemingway never had a positive word to say about her son’s work. She regarded Ernest’s writing as an embarrassment to the family because it dealt with a side of life that Grace considered seamy. Never able to win from his mother the approbation that he wanted, Hemingway was early attracted to older women who appreciated his work and who appreciated him. Three of his four wives were considerably older than he, and his first serious romantic encounter was with Agnes von Kurowsky, a nurse who tended him in Italy and was eight years his senior.
Hemingway completed high school in 1917, just as the United States was being drawn into World War I. He had no wish to go to college and was eager to serve his country. His defective vision precluded his serving in the armed forces, so after a summer at Walloon Lake, Hemingway, drawing on his experience in writing for his high school newspaper in Oak Park, went to Kansas City as a reporter for the Star, a celebrated daily newspaper of that era. He was to return to Oak Park only five or six times in his entire life after he made the initial break. In Kansas City, Hemingway served an intense journalistic apprenticeship for seven months before he left for Italy as a Red Cross ambulance driver in May, 1918.
Hemingway had been in Italy for less than six weeks when he was wounded at Fossalta di Piave on Italy’s boundary with Austria. Despite his wounds, he dragged an injured solider from the front line to safety. For this act of heroism, he was decorated.
After spending some time in an Italian hospital near Milan recovering from his wounds, Hemingway was sent home, where he was looked upon as a hero. He reveled in his newly won celebrity. After he regained his strength at Lake Walloon, Hemingway went to Chicago, where he held a variety of menial jobs. Soon he married Hadley Richardson, eight years older than he, and sailed with her for France, where he served as a foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star. He arrived in Paris just as the city was reaching a postwar zenith of intellectual ferment and literary activity, and there he was to remain for the better part of the next decade, coming to know well such influential literary figures as F. Scott Fitzgerald, Gertrude Stein, Ford Madox Ford, Ezra Pound, and James Joyce.
Hemingway, handsome with his animated eyes, his ready smile, and his dark mustache, was soon the darling of Parisian literary society. His good looks and amiability won for him a legion of friends, many of whom ultimately came to see the darker side of his highly complex and often bewildering personality. Aside from his journalistic commitments, he began in Paris to work assiduously on his short stories and on a novel about the aimless postwar expatriates who lived a somewhat undirected existence in France and Spain. On a personal level, Hemingway was able to give purpose to his own life by writing about the aimlessness that characterized many of the Americans of his generation who lived in Europe at that time. He came to deplore the term he had popularized (borrowed from Gertrude Stein): the “lost generation.”
Hemingway’s first book, a collection of short stories interspersed with imagistic reflections, In Our Time (1924), was recognized by the literati as a work of considerable promise. Although the book was not a resounding commercial success, it was clearly the work of a serious author who had begun to master his craft.
Hemingway’s first novel, The Sun Also Rises (1926), established him as an author of considerable significance, just as In Our Time had established him as an author of considerable promise. The Sun Also Rises, a book that was right for its time, depicts dislocated members of the postwar generation. Set in Paris and Pamplona, Spain, it featured Hemingway’s first extended treatment of one of his lifelong fascinations: the art of the bullfight. It was not merely the timeliness of The Sun Also Rises that established Hemingway as a serious artist; it was also the meticulous control that he exercised over his material and the care and authenticity of his spare descriptions that made both readers and literary critics realize that he was an author of extraordinary stature.
The Sun Also Rises was followed by A Farewell to Arms (1929), which was published in the year that Hemingway divorced his first wife, Hadley, who had borne him one son, John. The protagonist of A Farewell to Arms is an American disenchanted with a society that could let...
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Hemingway started his writing career as a newspaper reporter, then volunteered to drive ambulances for Italy during the early part of World War I. Afterward, he returned to journalism, joining the ranks of newspaper correspondents in Europe by writing for the Toronto Star. While he was living in Paris, his life was altered when he joined a group of artists and intellectuals known as the lost generation.
With Ezra Pound and Gertrude Stein encouraging him to write, Hemingway published his first collection of stories, In Our Time, in 1924. In 1926 his novel about the postwar generation, The Sun Also Rises, put his literary reputation on an upward climb. In 1930, however, this book was banned in Boston, Massachusetts; in 1953 it was prohibited in Ireland; and in 1960 the San Jose, California, school system banned the book, and all of Hemingway’s books were removed from Riverside, California, school libraries.
Hemingway’s “code heroes” and snappy dialogue brought to life the drama of an Italian retreat during World War I in A Farewell to Arms (1929). The book drew immediate protests from Italians, who had banned it in their country because its account of the Italian humiliation was too painfully accurate. In the United States, the book’s later film adaptation was censored because of Italian pressure. Boston banned the five issues of Scribner’s Magazine that contained the story. Throughout the years the novel continued to be challenged and condemned by public school systems through the United States.
After Adolf Hitler’s National Socialist Party took power in Germany in 1933, Hemingway’s works were among the thousands of books publicly burned. Later, in a 1937 address to the Writer’s Congress in New York, Hemingway condemned Germany’s fascist government, saying that under its system good writers could not exist, and that “fascism is a lie told by bullies.” Hemingway’s publication of To Have and Have Not in 1938 led to more controversy. Detroit, Michigan, bannished the book’s sale, and public libraries removed it from circulation. Hemingway’s For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940) was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize; however, it drew strong objections and no work of fiction received the prize that year. The U.S. Post Office declared the book to be unmailable.
Biography (Critical Survey of Short Fiction, Second Revised Edition)
Ernest Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Illinois, a Chicago suburb, in 1899, the second child of Clarence (Ed) and Grace Hemingway’s six children. Growing up in a doctor’s house, under the domination of a forceful mother, would provide Ernest grist for his literary mill in years to come. The family’s frequent trips to northern Michigan would also figure in his development as a writer, providing him a locale for numerous stories and an appreciation for wild terrain.
After graduating from high school, Hemingway left Chicago to take a job on the Kansas City Star. Shortly after the United States entered World War I, he quit his job and went to Italy as a Red Cross volunteer. There, he was wounded while assisting Italian soldiers. He spent several weeks in a Milan hospital, where he met Agnes von Kurowsky, who would serve as a model for Catherine Barkeley in A Farewell to Arms.
Hemingway returned to the United States in 1919 and began writing stories—none of which sold. In 1920, he met Hadley Richardson, whom he married the following year. They returned to Europe late in 1921, and for the next decade, Hemingway spent his time in Paris or in other locales on the Continent, sharpening his skills as a short-story writer. Two collections of his work were published by literary presses. The many expatriates whom he met in Paris served as models for his first full-length novel, The Sun Also Rises, which appeared to...
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Biography (Critical Survey of Long Fiction, Fourth Edition)
Ernest Miller Hemingway was the first son of an Oak Park, Illinois, physician, Clarence Edmonds Hemingway, and Grace Hemingway, a Christian Scientist. As a student in the Oak Park public schools, Hemingway received his first journalistic experience writing for the Trapeze, a student newspaper. After working as a reporter for the Kansas City Star for less than a year, he enlisted as an ambulance driver for the American Red Cross during World War I. He was sent in 1918 to serve on the Italian front, where he received a leg wound. His injury required that he be sent to an American hospital in Milan, and there he met and fell in love with Agnes Von Kurowski, who provided the basis for his characterization of Catherine...
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The son of a Midwest doctor, Ernest Hemingway began his writing career as a reporter for the Kansas City Star. In 1918, he went to Italy, where he drove a Red Cross ambulance in World War I and was wounded by machine gun fire. After recuperation, he returned to Europe as a war correspondent, but he soon gave up journalism to write fiction.
His first major novel, The Sun Also Rises, portrays the lost generation of expatriates who wandered Europe in the wake of World War I. A Farewell to Arms tells the story of an American lieutenant in the Italian army. In 1936 and 1937, Hemingway covered...
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Biography (Magill's Literary Annual 1982)
Because his letters contained so much that would hurt the reputations of those still living, Hemingway requested in his will that they not be released for publication. Despite this, he himself allowed some fragments to “go public” during his lifetime, and since his death many notes and letters have found their way into print. This disorganized and yet unstoppable flow of her husband’s correspondence gradually led Mary Hemingway to decide that an authorized edition of the letters would be preferable to a random sampling. To do this and yet to feel comfortable about the edition she needed to find a person who was both discreet and knowledgeable.
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Biography (Cyclopedia of World Authors, Fourth Revised Edition)
Because of his compelling prose style and his vision of heroism, Ernest Miller Hemingway holds a secure place among the leading fiction writers of the twentieth century. Born in the Chicago suburb of Oak Park, Illinois, Hemingway was the second child of Clarence “Ed” Hemingway, a physician, and his wife, Grace Hall, a voice teacher. Though reared in a strict home, Hemingway developed as a youth the energetic lifestyle for which he later became known. He participated in competitive sports—football, boxing, swimming—and enjoyed hunting and fishing trips with his father. During high school, he wrote poems and short stories, and following graduation he became employed as a reporter for the Kansas City Star. During...
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Biography (Magill's Survey of American Literature, Revised Edition)
Ernest Miller Hemingway was born into an affluent family in the Chicago suburb of Oak Park, Illinois, on July 21, 1899, the eldest of six children. His father, Clarence Edmond, was a physician. His mother, the former Grace Hall, kept an attractive house at 439 North Oak Park Avenue, her father’s dwelling, into which her husband moved and lived until her father’s death in 1905. Grace exposed her son Ernest to the arts by taking him to museums in Chicago and by enrolling him in piano lessons. Hemingway, as both son and writer, frequently rebelled against her puritanical values.
As a student at Oak Park High...
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Biography (Magill's Survey of American Literature, Revised Edition)
Like many writers, Ernest Hemingway was a man of many contradictions and of a very convoluted nature. A master stylist, he identified with common people and captured them in their speech patterns, faithfully depicted in his pages. His personal and political philosophy have much to do with proving oneself. Life to Hemingway was a battle to be fought valiantly, as Santiago fought the marlin in The Old Man and the Sea. Perhaps for Hemingway there are no victors, only people who display grace under pressure.
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Ernest Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois, to Clarence Edmunds (physician) and Grace (music teacher) Hemingway, both strict Congregationalists. He started writing when he was a teenager, penning a weekly column for his high school newspaper. During this period, he also began to write poems and stories, some of which were published in his school’s literary magazine. After graduating high school in 1917, Hemingway started his career as a reporter for the Kansas City Star, covering city crime and writing feature stories. The position helped him develop a journalistic style, which would later become one of the most identifiable characteristics of his fiction.
When World War I broke out, he volunteered as a Red Cross ambulance driver in Italy. After suffering severe leg injuries, Hemingway met and fell in love with a nurse who would eventually break off their relationship. Disillusioned with the war and with romantic relationships, Hemingway returned home and turned his attention to fiction writing. To support himself, however, he returned to reporting, accepting a position at the Toronto Star.
Like many of his compatriots of the Lost Generation, Hemingway left America for Europe, where he joined the group of literary expatriates in Paris, including Gertrude Stein and F. Scott Fitzgerald. He lived in Paris for the next seven years, working on his fiction and serving as a European correspondent for American newspapers. From 1937 to 1938, he covered the Spanish Civil War and from 1944 to 1945, he reported on the battles of World War II.
Edward J. O’Brien named Hemingway’s short story “My Old Man,” which appeared in his first publication, Three Stories and Ten Poems, in his list of the best stories of 1923. Hemingway’s next publication, a series of short stories interspersed with vignettes, entitled In Our Time (1924), was well received, and he began to earn a reputation as an astute chronicler of the Lost Generation. This reputation was solidified after the publication of his next story collection, Men Without Women (1927), and the novels The Sun Also Rises (1926) and A Farewell to Arms (1929). When For Whom the Bell Tolls was published in 1940, it was regarded by the public and the critics as one of his best works.
Along with his growing reputation as one of the most important contemporary American writers, Hemingway developed a mythic persona that he helped perpetuate. During the middle of the century, the public began to envision Hemingway as the personification of his heroes—a hard drinking, forceful American, who could stand his ground on the battlefield, in the boxing ring, and on safari. Several American magazines, such as Life and Esquire, chronicled his adventures. Yet, during this period, he also devoted himself to his craft, which he considered of paramount importance in his life and his time.
During the 1950s, a life of alcohol abuse and rough living took a toll on his health. His health problems, compounded by his three failed marriages and periods of creative stagnation, resulted in a mental breakdown in 1960, and the following year on July 2, Hemingway committed suicide in Ketchum, Idaho.
Hemingway has retained his reputation as one of America’s most significant and influential writers. During his long literary career, he earned several accolades, including the Pulitzer Prize in 1953 for The Old Man and the Sea, the Nobel Prize for literature in 1954, and the Award of Merit from the American Academy of Arts & Letters in 1954.
IntroductionErnest Hemingway played a major role in defining twentieth-century American literature, but his life, art, and image are so deeply intertwined that it is hard to separate them. This is because he had such high standards and because he insisted on a certain type of intense truth in his writing. Since he often wrote about the sort of experience that tested a man’s mettle, he repeatedly risked his life in high-adventure situations. Hemingway served as a Red Cross ambulance driver in World War I (where he was injured by both mortar and machine gun fire), reported on the Spanish Civil War and World War II, worked as a deep sea fisherman, and went on big game safaris throughout Africa. He was in two plane crashes while visiting Africa and was so badly injured in one that some newspapers reported he had been killed. All of this and more showed up in his writing.
- Hemingway won the Italian Silver Medal for Valor for his actions in World War I. (Even though he had over 200 pieces of mortar shell in his legs, Hemingway carried an injured soldier to medical help.)
- While his work was well received by critics almost from the start, Hemingway himself was the subject of much criticism for his morals and behavior. This led to a lot of verbal conflicts...and even some physical ones.
- In the 1920s, Hemingway was part of a group of American expatriate writers living in Paris. There he socialized—and argued with and learned from—writers such as Ezra Pound, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Gertrude Stein, and T. S. Eliot.
- Hemingway married four times, often falling for one woman while still married to another one.
- After battling depression and poor health for several years, Hemingway shot himself in 1961...just as his father had in 1928.
Ernest Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Illinois, on July 21, 1899, to Clarence and Grace Hemingway. His father was a doctor and his mother a musician who had given up her career to care for the couple’s six children.
Hemingway’s early life was an upper-middle class, comfortable existence. He and his family spent summers at their cottage in northern Michigan. He graduated from high school and went to work as a reporter, a career he continued on and off for the rest of his life.
The comfortable life ended, however, in 1918 when Hemingway volunteered as a Red Cross ambulance driver to do service on the front lines of World War I in Europe. While in Italy, just before his nineteenth birthday, he was severely wounded while helping to rescue another wounded man. The experiences that Hemingway had in the war and during his recuperation stayed with him for the rest of his life, impacting his work greatly.
After the war, Hemingway returned to his work as a reporter. He married Hadley Richardson in 1921, and the couple moved to Paris. There he developed connections with other expatriate writers, including Ezra Pound and Gertrude Stein among others. He also met and established a friendship with James Joyce. Throughout this period, he continued to work as a correspondent while launching his own literary career.
In 1926, Hemingway published The Sun Also Rises, his first novel, which generated considerable critical attention. The novel firmly established Hemingway as the voice of his generation, which is sometimes referred to as the ‘‘lost generation.’’ He continued to meet with success in publishing his short stories. In 1927, he and his first wife divorced, and he married Pauline Pfeiffer. In that same year, he published the well-received collection of short stories, Men Without Women, a collection that included the short story, ‘‘Hills Like White Elephants.’’
In the years that followed, the Hemingways established a household in Key West, Florida. In 1929, Hemingway’s novel A Farewell to Arms was published. Hemingway’s fame continued to grow, but not only for his literary skill—his ‘‘extracurricular’’ activities placed him squarely in the public eye. He hunted big game in Africa in the 1930s and German submarines in the Caribbean in the 1940s, and after covering the Spanish Civil War as a reporter, he memorialized the Loyalist cause in For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940).
By 1940, Hemingway had moved to Cuba and married his third wife, Martha Gellhorn. He subsequently divorced Gellhorn and married Mary Welsh in 1946. In 1952, he published The Old Man and the Sea, for which he was awarded the 1953 Pulitzer Prize. In 1954, Hemingway won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Hemingway’s final years were filled with growing physical and mental pain. In 1961, at his home in Ketchum, Idaho, he took his own life with a shotgun blast, ending a decades-long literary career and a life filled with both the highest adventure and the deepest depression. His work continues to generate immense critical and popular interest.
Ernest Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Illinois, into an upper-middle-class family. Although his childhood does not seem to have been particularly traumatic, in later years he often displayed bitterness towards his father, whom he saw as weak and ineffectual, and his mother, whom he felt was strict and domineering. By the time he was in high school he had developed an interest in literature, writing for his school newspaper and its literary magazine. During his family’s summers in northern Michigan, he developed a love of hunting, fishing, and outdoor life. Upon graduation, he took a job at the Kansas City Star, where he honed the spare, objective style that would be his hallmark.
When the United States entered World War I Hemingway volunteered as an ambulance driver for the Red Cross in Italy. Wounded, he recuperated in a Milan hospital among injured Italian soldiers, an experience that would provide the background for his 1927 story ‘‘In Another Country.’’ This is also where he met nurse Agnes von Kurowsky, the inspiration for Catherine Barkeley in his novel A Farewell to Arms.
Upon returning to the United States in 1919, Hemingway wrote several short stories, but sold none. One year later, he met Hadley Richardson; they were wed the following year. They moved to Europe, settling primarily in Paris where their expatriate colleagues included important literary figures, such as F. Scott Fitzgerald and Gertrude Stein. During that time, Hemingway published two collections of short stories, followed by his acclaimed novel The Sun Also Rises, which featured characters based on his new circle of friends. Not long after, in 1927, he and Richardson divorced; Hemingway married Pauline Pfeiffer, a writer, less than two months later. In 1929, A Farewell to Arms was published, which cemented his literary reputation.
During the 1930s, Hemingway moved to Key West, Florida, yet spent much of his time traveling in Spain, where his fascination with bullfighting became the subject of his 1932 nonfiction work, Death in the Afternoon. He also pursued big game hunting, which he wrote about in The Green Hills of Africa (1935). Hunting figures prominently in many of Hemingway’s stories, including ‘‘The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber,’’ first published in 1936.
In 1937, Hemingway went to Spain to cover the Spanish Civil War for the North American Newspaper Alliance and began a relationship with writer Martha Gelhorn, whom he had met in Florida. He received a divorce from Pfeiffer in November, 1940; Gelhorn became his third wife two weeks later. The same year, he published his novel about the Spanish Civil War, For Whom the Bell Tolls, another major success, and his play The Fifth Column was performed briefly on Broadway.
The 1940s found Hemingway working first as a war correspondent in China then, along with Gelhorn, in Europe during World War II. However, their relationship deteriorated and they divorced in 1945. He began a relationship with Mary Welsh, another writer, whom he married in 1946. They lived in Cuba, as well as the United States and Europe. Hemingway continued to write, but did not have another major success until his 1952 novella, The Old Man and the Sea, which won the Pulitzer Prize in 1953. The next year he received the Nobel Prize for Literature, but did not attend the ceremony to accept the prize. In 1960, after suffering a mental breakdown, he entered the Mayo Clinic to undergo electrotherapy. He killed himself in his home in Ketchum, Idaho in 1961.
Ernest Hemingway is one of the most influential American writers of the twentieth century. His influence extends not only to novelists and short story writers but also to journalists, playwrights, critics, and filmmakers. Four decades after his death, biographies about him continue to appear. Born July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois, Ernest Miller Hemingway was the second child of Clarence Hemingway, a doctor, and Grace (Hall) Hemingway. Hemingway’s middle-class upbringing was conventional, and after graduating in 1917 from Oak Park High School, he joined the Kansas City Star as a reporter. In 1918 Hemingway joined the Red Cross, driving an ambulance in Italy during the waning months of World War I. He was struck with shell fragments from an exploding mortar in July and had more than two hundred pieces of mortar removed from his leg. Over the next four years, Hemingway honed his writing skills as European correspondent for the Toronto Star and contributed ‘‘color pieces’’ (feature articles also known as ‘‘slice of life’’ pieces) to other publications. During this period, he also met American expatriate Gertrude Stein a writer and wealthy art collector who held gatherings in her Paris apartment, during which artists and writers could mingle and ‘‘talk shop.’’ Stein, along with American writers Ezra Pound and Sherwood Anderson were indispensable to Hemingway’s early career, providing him with contacts and recommending his work to various editors.
In 1925, Liveright released Hemingway’s first widely distributed book, In Our Time, a collection of short stories featuring Nick Adams, an autobiographical character who would also appear in future Hemingway stories. His second collection, Men Without Women (1927), contained many of what would become Hemingway’s most popular and anthologized stories, including ‘‘The Killers’’ and ‘‘Hills Like White Elephants.’’ In these stories, Hemingway perfected his spare, elliptical style, using dialogue almost exclusively to develop characters and drive his plot. His early novels, however, cemented his popularity and established Hemingway as the leading voice of his generation. The Sun Also Rises (1926) and A Farewell to Arms (1929) both address the emotionally debilitating effects of World War I on characters that were fictional projections of Hemingway.
The quality of Hemingway’s work diminished after he had established an international reputation, though he did produce two critical and popular successes with his novels For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940) and The Old Man and the Sea (1952), the latter of which helped Hemingway win the Nobel Prize in literature in 1954. While alive, Hemingway was a popular and much-admired celebrity, a man’s man, who cultivated a brawling, hard-drinking, hard-loving image. In 1961, his emotional and physical health deteriorating, ‘‘Papa’’ Hemingway, as he had become known, committed suicide by shooting himself at his home in Ketchum, Idaho. Hemingway’s father had also committed suicide. Posthumous works include A Moveable Feast (1964), which recounts Hemingway’s years in Paris in the 1920s and a number of reissued story collections and novels pieced together by editors, including Islands in the Stream (1970), The Nick Adams Stories (1972), and The Garden of Eden (1986).
Ernest Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Illinois, in 1899. He was the second son of Clarence Hemingway, a doctor, and Grace Hall Hemingway, who had been an aspiring opera singer. While his father encouraged his son’s athletic and outdoor skills, his mother fostered her son’s artistic talents. In school, Hemingway was an active, if not outstanding, athlete. He wrote poems and articles for the school newspaper, and he also tried his hand at stories. After graduation Hemingway became a reporter on the Kansas City Star, where he learned the newspaper’s preferred style of simple declarative sentences that was to permanently influence his own style of writing.
In May of 1918 Hemingway volunteered for duty in World War I serving as an ambulance driver on the Italian front. This experience later served as the source material for A Farewell to Arms. He, like the novel’s protagonist, was wounded in the legs. However, instead of being returned to the front he was sent home, where he was greeted as a celebrity. He spent months convalescing at the family cabin in Michigan. Having recovered, in 1920, Hemingway moved to Toronto where he functioned as companion to a disabled youth. There, he again entered the world of writing by working for the Toronto Star. After marrying, he became a correspondent with the paper. His position enabled him to begin pursuing a career as a novelist. He and his wife, Hadley Richardson, left for Paris, where Hemingway associated with a group of other authors known collectively as the “Lost Generation.” The group included James Joyce Ezra Pound Gertrude Stein and Ford Madox Ford.
Awaiting the birth of their child, the Hemingways returned to Toronto in 1923. Following the birth of their son John, the family went back to Paris. There Hemingway spent a year and a half editing a literary magazine. 1925 to 1929 proved to be a prolific period for Hemingway, who wrote and published the short story collection In Our Time and the novels The Sun Also Rises and A Farewell to Arms, as well as others. The end of the 1920s was marred, however, by his divorce from Hadley in 1927 and by the suicide of his father in 1928. In the same period, Pauline Pfeiffer, whom Hemingway married the same year as his divorce, nearly died while she was giving birth to their child. This experience later found its way into the death of the character Catherine Barkley in A Farewell to Arms.
The 1930s, on the other hand, were filled with writing and adventure, as Hemingway hunted in Africa, fished in the Gulf Stream near Cuba, and reported on the Spanish Civil War for the North American Newspaper Alliance. During the mid-1930s Hemingway began gathering material for The Sea, one part of which eventually became The Old Man and the Sea. The other parts, as edited by Charles Scribner, were later published posthumously in 1970 as Islands in the Stream.
In 1940 Hemingway left Pfeiffer for Martha Gellhorn. The same year he published For Whom the Bell Tolls. Hemingway and Gellhorn then went to China. Next, he became a war correspondent with the U.S. Fourth Infantry Division where he met Mary Welsh. In 1946, one year after divorcing Gellhorn, he married Welsh.
The Old Man and the Sea won the Pulitzer Prize in 1952. Two years later, Hemingway was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. But as he approached his sixties, Hemingway’s health began deteriorating. The once robust adventurer now suffered from hypertension, mild diabetes, depression, and paranoia. Despite treatment for mental health issues, Hemingway committed suicide on July 2, 1961. He is remembered as one of the great stylistic innovators of modern American literature.
Ernest Hemingway is one of the most famous American writers of the twentieth century. His rugged lifestyle and terse, penetrating prose have inspired generations of imitators. As much as for his writing, he is known for his adventurous personality and love of the outdoors. He was an avid fisherman and hunter, a firsthand witness of many wars, and a bullfighting aficionado. He was born in 1899 in Oak Park, Illinois, where he was raised. His childhood experiences in the woods of Michigan, where his family owned a summer home, contributed to several of his most famous stories which feature the character Nick Adams. After graduating from high school in 1917, where he had contributed a weekly column to the school newspaper and contributed fiction to the school’s magazine, he went to work for the Kansas City Star. Many attribute his terse writing style to his experience as a journalist.
Hemingway was an ambulance driver in Italy during World War I and received shrapnel wounds on his legs. He married for the first time in 1921—the first of four trips to the altar—and returned to Europe to begin his career as a writer of fiction. For the next forty years, he published numerous short stories and novels, among the most famous of which are the short stories “Hills Like White Elephants,” and “The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber,” and the novels The Sun Also Rises (1926) and For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940). A memoir of sorts was published in 1964 as A Moveable Feast, in which he related many of his early experiences in Paris during the 1920s when the city was a haven for American expatriate artists and writers. Hemingway and his cohorts, F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald James Joyce and Ford Madox Ford among them, are sometimes called the “Lost Generation” because of their cynical view of life forged in the modernist era between the world wars.
Though primarily known as a writer of fiction, he continued throughout his life to function as a journalist, covering several wars, including the Greco-Turkish War in 1920 and the Spanish Civil War from 1937-38. In 1944, he served as a reporter and paramilitary aide during the liberation of France. In 1953 he was awarded a Pulitzer Prize for his novel The Old Man and the Sea. He was awarded the 1954 Nobel Prize in Literature but did not attend the ceremony to accept the prize. In 1960, after suffering a mental breakdown, he entered the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, to undergo electroshock therapy. He committed suicide in 1961 in Ketchum, Idaho.
Ernest Hemingway will always be associated with the dynamic group of artists known as the “modernists” whose ideas set the European continent on fire in the first decades of this century. These artists came from many countries, and many of them, like Hemingway, honed their art and thought in Paris in the 1920s.
Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois. By all accounts, he enjoyed a secure and unexceptional youth. His first taste of Europe came, at the age of eighteen (1918), when he volunteered to drive an ambulance in Italy during World War I (1914-1918 known as the “Great War’’). He was wounded in Italy, and once he had recovered, he returned to the U.S.
He began his writing career as a journalist for the Kansas City Star, but soon interested himself in fiction. He befriended the writer Sherwood Anderson who gave him letters of introduction to important writers in Paris. 1921 found him with his letters of introduction, and his first wife, sailing for the continent where he would socialize with, or learn from the likes of Gertrude Stein F. Scott Fitzgerald James Joyce and Djuna Barnes. Metropolitan, especially European, capital cities were bustling with artists in the 1920s, and this was why Paris was Hemingway’s destination. These artists were restless war exiles (WWI) and other expatriates who espoused dramatic new ways of thinking accompanied by dramatic new styles in representation. Expatriates like Hemingway were self-styled internationalists in order to deplore the national borders and colonial politics that had caused the war conflict.
Hemingway’s time in Europe confirmed his decision to be, first and foremost, a fiction writer, even though he never gave up writing journalism and other nonfiction. This time also confirmed his life-long attachment to Spain, its traditions, and peoples, and once he had returned to the states for good, he spent much time in other Latin enclaves (Southern Florida and Cuba). Indeed, he wrote about Spanish and Latin American subjects throughout his career, as in the short story “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place.” And although after the 1920s he never again lived exclusively in Europe, he traveled around the world constantly until his death (Africa was a favorite destination).
Hemingway was a prolific writer who schooled himself relentlessly. He produced a large body of short stories, much journalism and nonfiction, a few novellas, and a series of novels. He never lost interest in news reportage and covered many world conflicts, including the devastating Spanish Civil War which began in 1936. His personal life was adventurous and privileged. Financially comfortable thanks to his writing, his fame, or perhaps a wealthy wife (he married four times), Hemingway was able to cultivate his sporting passions expansively (big-game hunting and deep-sea fishing).
Ernest Hemingway wrote, hunted, sailed, traveled, and drank himself through a hectically muscular life. He seems to have been a driven man, and whatever propelled him finally led him to choose suicide as a means to die, in 1961. Hemingway suicided like his father before him, and one of his daughters after him. Before this sad event, however, he secured himself a central place in American letters and lore. His renown and reputation was such, in fact, that he won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954.
Ernest Hemingway, as a result of his short stories, novels, and nonfiction, has become perhaps the best-known American writer of the twentieth century. In such novels as The Sun Also Rises and A Farewell to Arms, Hemingway chronicled the lives of aimless, adventuring young adults in Europe in the early decades of the twentieth century. In other writings, Hemingway wrote elegantly and perceptively about some of his passions: bullfighting, hunting, fishing, drinking. But it is in his short stories where Hemingway best shows his mastery of style and structure and where his deepest and most enduring themes—death, writing, machismo, bravery, and the alienation of men in the modern world—dominate.
Hemingway was born, in 1899, into perhaps the most characteristically American of environments: the suburbs. His mother was domineering, and dressed young Ernest in girls’ clothes when he was young (a fact that many of Hemingway’s biographers and critics have noted as an explanation for his relentless machismo). He graduated from Oak Park (Illinois) High School in 1917 and immediately went to work for a Kansas City newspaper. In 1918 he enlisted in the Red Cross and drove ambulances on the Italian front in World War I until he was seriously wounded—an episode that forms the basis for his famous novel A Farewell To Arms (1929).
The period between the World Wars brought Hemingway fame, fortune, and great artistic success. In 1920, Hemingway moved to Paris, where he lived for much of the following decade. Hemingway became a defining figure of the famous “Lost Generation” of Americans in Paris in the 1920s, and wrote The Sun Also Rises (1926) as a portrait of the lives of his rootless, thrill-seeking friends who wandered from Paris to the south of France to Spain and back. During the 1930s, Hemingway wandered the world himself, spending time hunting and fishing in such locales as Kenya, Key West, Montana, and Spain. In the late 1930s Hemingway covered the Spanish Civil War as a journalist; from this experience arose his 1940 novel For Whom the Bell Tolls. In 1939, now an international celebrity, he moved to Cuba, but with the outbreak of war in 1939, his taste for adventuring returned and he came to Europe in 1942 to fly with the RAF and participate in the Normandy invasion in 1944.
The years after World War II when Hemingway entered middle age, grew increasingly difficult for him. He continued to write, but only one of his books, The Old Man and the Sea, received much critical acclaim. He survived two airplane crashes, from which he never entirely healed, and his death was reported in the press at one point in 1954. That same year, Hemingway won the Nobel Prize for Literature, but he was declining and depressed. In 1961, he committed suicide in his cabin in Ketchum, Idaho, leaving behind four ex-wives, a number of children, and many thousands of pages of unpublished manuscripts.
Ernest Hemingway was born in 1899 to Dr. Clarence Hemingway and Grace Hall Hemingway. They lived in Oak Park, Illinois, and Ernest actively pursued sports with his father and arts with his mother, but without distinction. In 1917, after graduating from high school, he took a junior position at the Kansas City Star. This paper started Hemingway on a writing career and trained him in his style. The paper gave its reporters a style book which demanded brief, declarative, and direct sentences—Hemingway became the master of this style.
In May of 1918 he volunteered for war duty and served as an ambulance driver on the Italian front. This experience later served as the source material for A Farewell to Arms. He, like his character, was wounded in the legs. However, instead of being returned to the front he was sent home, where he was greeted as a celebrity and passed his months of convalescence at the family cabin in Michigan.
Having recovered, he took a position as companion to a lame boy in Toronto in 1920. There, he again entered the world of writing through the Toronto Star. After marriage to Hadley Richardson, he became a correspondent with the paper. He and his wife left for Paris where Hemingway associated with those writers known as the “Lost Generation” (James Joyce Ezra Pound Gertrude Stein and Ford Madox Ford). His position with the Toronto Star enabled him to begin writing for himself.
His first publishing success was a short story entitled “My Old Man” in 1923. For the next few years he continued to meet literary figures (F. Scott Fitzgerald among others) and edit a journal with Ford Madox Ford. Then, in 1925, he began The Sun Also Rises and The Torrents of Spring. Both were published the following year; 1926 also saw Hemingway divorce Hadley for his second wife, Pauline Pfeiffer.
In 1927, Hemingway published the short story collection Men without Women and began A Farewell to Arms in 1928. His son, Patrick, was born by cesarean section and this event influenced the writing of Catherine Barkley’s fate. With the publication of A Farewell to Arms in 1929, Hemingway found himself flooded with success and began a very mobile life. He frequented Cuba, Florida, and France; he went on several safaris in Africa; he contributed money for ambulance service in the Spanish Civil War and also covered the war for The North American Newspaper Alliance. In 1940 he left Pfeiffer for Martha Gellhorn and published For Whom the Bell Tolls. Hemingway and Gellhorn then went to China. Next, he became a war correspondent with the U.S. Fourth Infantry Division where he met Mary Welsh. In 1945, he married Mary Welsh.
Hemingway continued to publish various works until 1952, when Old Man and the Sea crowned his fantastic career. This story gained him the Pulitzer Prize in 1953. He was awarded the prestigious Nobel Prize for Literature the following year. Unfortunately, by the mid-1950s his adventurous life had taken its toll. Hemingway became depressed and spent time in various hospitals. Finally, he returned from a stay in the Mayo Clinic on June 30, 1961, to his home in Ketchum, Idaho. There, he took a favorite gun and committed suicide on July 2.