Biography (World Philosophers and Their Works)
Article abstract: Epictetus revived early Greek Stoicism, emphasizing tolerance of pain and the freedom of the soul. His teachings were admired by early Christians, who found them consonant with their own reactions to persecution.
Epictetus was born a slave around the year 55 in the commercially significant city of Hierapolis between the rivers Maeander and Lycus in the country of Phrygia (modern-day Turkey), which was the eastern stretch of the Roman Empire. His master, Epaphroditus, was a freed slave who worked under Emperor Nero as an administrative secretary. The name Epictetus is Latin from the Greek word for “acquired,” and Epictetus’s master may have given him this name as a joke about his slave status, or it may have been a nickname Epictetus either chose or accepted.
Epictetus was a frail, bashful, feeble man who had a pronounced limp. Some observers claimed he was only weakened late in life with rheumatism or that he had always walked with a limp. A legend persists, however, that Epaphroditus once twisted Epictetus’s leg in anger. The fledgling Stoic warned his master that he would break the leg by using so much force. The leg then broke, and Epictetus merely noted that he had been correct.
Slaves were prevalent in the late Roman Empire, and masters often educated or trained their slaves to be tutors or craftspeople in order to rise in prestige among their peers. Epaphroditus took Epictetus to Rome while he was still a minor so that he could attend lectures by the most prominent Stoic teacher of the time, Musonius Rufus, who was imprisoned for the crime of being wise, according to the writer Philostratus. According to Epictetus, Rufus was an overbearing, intense lecturer who held the class’s attention by making each student feel chastised for having great ignorance.
Epictetus continued to serve under Epaphroditus, who allegedly accompanied Nero when he was forced to flee Rome in the year 68. Epaphroditus then assisted Nero in his suicide, and for this crime, the new emperor Domitian had him killed some time before the year 89. At his master’s death, Epictetus was presumably freed, although no record of a manumission exists. He remained in Rome until around the year 94, when Domitian exiled all philosophers and teachers from Italy. The reason for this action is usually seen as Domitian’s fear of their influence on Romans’ minds and his belief that intellectuals favored republicanism over a dictatorship. Epictetus subsequently left Rome and settled in Nicopolis in Epirus on the northwest coast of present-day Greece, where he founded a Stoic school for elite young men that soon became large and famous.
Epictetus spent the rest of his career as a teacher in Nicopolis, making short visits to Athens and Olympia. A contemporary of Plutarch and Tacitus, he wrote nothing, perhaps in acknowledgment of his hero Socrates, whom he emulated by questioning people in the streets before founding his school. Many of his lectures and conversations, however, were recorded by one of his students, Arrian of Nicomedia, who prepared an eight-book transcription of lectures entitled Discourses (only four books of which are extant) and a shorter list of aphorisms from the Discourses entitled Encheiridion (manual). Arrian wrote down the lectures when he was a student around the age of twenty during the years around 110 and published his work after Epictetus’s death after he noticed unauthorized copies in circulation. The delay was occasioned by the supposed subversive nature of Epictetus’s lectures. Arrian also wrote a biography of Epictetus, which has since been lost.
Epictetus read from the writings of Stoics, and he would assign papers on technical Stoic subjects, which would be read and criticized in class. Epictetus’s classes, however, were usually characterized by informal discussions in which he would try to shock the students and encourage them to argue with him. Students observed that he had a strong personality and was an enthusiastic lecturer. Epictetus would relate homilies as he taught ethics, and he constantly brought up current events or well-known recent historical events to show examples of human behavior. Sometimes he would relate anecdotes about himself, his master, or other people he knew to prove a point. When presented with a recalcitrant class, Epictetus would forgo arguing with his students and create dialogues in which he would argue with himself. Because some of the dialogues concern visitors from Rome speaking with Epictetus, some scholars have suggested that Epictetus would not have private conversations with these visitors, but that he would argue with them in front of the class for Arrian to record. Others claim that Arrian fictionalized these dialogues, though he wrote using the Greek dialect in which Epictetus spoke, a dialect different from that in which Arrian usually wrote, indicating their probable authenticity.
Because of the nature of Epictetus’s lectures, many readers find it hard to determine when Epictetus is being truthful to his own beliefs and when he is inventing a ridiculous argument that he intends to refute. For example, Epictetus is generally believed not to condone suicide except in extreme cases, yet at one point, he advocates suicide rather than having one’s beard cut off. After careful study, however, some consistent beliefs do emerge. Epictetus taught as if education were defined as a painful alteration of attitudes. He taught his students to be independent. He wanted to guide their natural sense of the good into a mature acknowledgment of virtue, with ethical actions determined through the use of...
(The entire section is 2346 words.)
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Epictetus’ ethical system identified areas where personal freedom and individual responsibility coexisted with a deterministic universe. His approach resembled that of earlier Stoics: The purpose of life is happiness, which is reached through conformity with a pantheistic natural order. Reason makes the good life possible by disclosing those things that are beyond human power and those that are not. Environmental forces such as health and status belong to Providence; freedom and responsibility operate in matters of opinion, aim, and desire. Attempts to dominate outside forces produce frustration and unhappiness. Disciplined impulses directed toward proper ends bring liberation, establish a proper relationship between the self and the cosmos, allow the exercise of responsibility toward others, and benefit society. Much of Epictetus’ work consisted of practical advice on controlling and directing impulses. His school at Nicopolis, in Epirus, presented Stoicism as a way of life as well as a set of general principles. Epictetus’ austere, subjectivist ethics inspired later Roman stoics and reinforced stoic elements in Christianity. His approach to the problems of freedom and dependence also influenced later systems of natural religion and rationalistic philosophical movements such as Kantian idealism.
Biography (Cyclopedia of World Authors, Fourth Revised Edition)
The two leading figures of Roman Stoicism, a school of philosophy that posited the existence of divine providence and human brotherhood, occupied opposite ends of the social spectrum: Marcus Aurelius (121-180 c.e.) was an emperor, Epictetus (ehp-ihk-TEET-uhs), who had preceeded him and whose teachings had greatly influenced him, was a slave. The social gulf separating these two individuals gives some indication of just how widespread the appeal of Stoic philosophy was in the troubled years of the second century.
Because of Epictetus’s low status in society, relatively little is known about his life. Born to a slave woman in the Phrygian city of Hierapolis (now in Turkey), Epictetus is traditionally represented as having been lame, possibly because of mistreatment as a child. Early in his life he became the slave of Epaphroditus (c. 30-95 c.e.), Nero’s secretary, who is said to have treated him kindly. Sensing Epictetus’s keen intelligence, Epaphroditus allowed Epictetus to attend the public lectures of the influential Stoic philosopher Gaius Musonius Rufus (c. 30-c. 100 c.e.) and later set him free. In time Epictetus began to earn his living by offering his own series of lectures in Rome. The rise of the emperor Domitian (51-96 c.e.) proved disastrous to Epaphroditus and Epictetus alike. Nero’s secretary was killed, probably for his role in helping the emperor to commit suicide, and the philosopher was sent into exile during one of Domitian’s general expulsions of scholars from Rome.
Around the year 90 c.e., Epictetus went to Nicopolis in Epirus (northwestern Greece), where he established a philosophical school that became his home for the rest of his life. Because Domitian continued to expel philosophers from Rome, Epirus attracted a large number of scholars trained in logic, physics, and...
(The entire section is 808 words.)