English Civil War of 1642-1651 (Magill’s Guide to Military History)
Article abstract: At issue: Struggle between the Crown and Parliament for control of Britain. Result: The Parliamentary armies defeated the Royalists, tried and executed the king, subdued Ireland and Scotland, and crushed the forces seeking to restore the future Charles II at Worcester; the victorious army established a commonwealth in 1649.
Tensions in England heightened in 1638 when the king’s efforts to impose episcopacy in Scotland led to a disastrous war, a Scottish invasion of northern England, and the humiliating treaty at Berwick. Desperate for monies to prosecute the war, Charles I summoned Parliament after an eleven-year hiatus. The Puritan House of Commons, sympathetic to the Scottish opposition to bishops, demanded redress of grievances and restrictions on royal authority before voting revenues. Charles dissolved the first Parliament of 1640 and called a successor; however, it was even less compliant. The Irish rebelled in 1641 (Great Irish Rebellion, 1641-1652) and relations between Charles and the House of Commons worsened. Following a botched attempt to arrest opposition leaders in January, 1642, the king left London, and both sides moved closer to military conflict. With some local variations, support for King Charles generally came from the poorer regions of the north and west, and Parliament drew its strength from the wealthier areas of the south and east. Once war commenced, Parliament...
(The entire section is 976 words.)
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