Roberts, Elizabeth Madox
Elizabeth Madox Roberts 1881-1941
American novelist, poet, and short story writer.
A prominent figure in American literature of the South, Roberts is best known for her novel The Time of Man (1926), which Ford Madox Ford described as "the most beautiful individual piece of writing that has yet come out of America." While various contemporary critics rank Roberts along with such prominent southern writers as William Faulkner, Robert Penn Warren, and Eudora Welty, she never attained either the critical or popular recognition of her peers.
Roberts was born in Perryville, Kentucky, and raised in Springfield. Her father held a variety of semi-skilled jobs and, like Roberts's grandmother, was an avid storyteller. A sensitive and physically frail child, Roberts was keenly interested in literature from an early age. After graduating from high school, she briefly attended the State College of Kentucky; Roberts withdrew because of ill-health and lack of money. In the succeeding decade she earned a living as a school teacher. In 1917, following time spent in Colorado and California, during which she recovered from a case of tuberculosis, Roberts entered the University of Chicago on a scholarship. She established herself as a central figure in the Poetry Club, started lifelong friendships with Glenway Westcott and Yvor Winters, and graduated with honors in 1921. Roberts spent the rest of her life in Springfield, writing full-time until her death from Hodgkin's disease in 1941.
Roberts's first published work, In the Great Steep's Garden (1915), is a collection of seven poems. Written while she was in Colorado, the poems were inspired by the flowers of the Rocky Mountains. While at the University of Chicago, she wrote the poems collected in Under the Tree (1922). Roberts called these "child poems" because they represent her adult attempt to imagine, or remember, what the experience of childhood was like. Most critics consider The Time of Man Roberts's masterpiece. The novel is a kind of bildungsroman which tells the story of Ellen Chesser, a young woman from a poor family whose forebears were Kentucky pioneers. The narrative recounts the harsh and difficult circumstances of her life, detailing her withdrawal from the world around her and her subsequent spiritual renewal as she learns acceptance and love. The Time of Man has been praised for its skillful and poignant evocation of Ellen's consciousness and for the poetry of its prose style. Somewhat similar to this work is My Heart and My Flesh (1927). This novel documents the fortunes of Theodosia Bell, a southern woman who loses her wealth and social standing, attempts suicide, and ultimately experiences a reaffirmation of life. Written while these two novels were still unfinished, Jingling in the Wind (1928) is an allegorical satire on the state of the modern world and the inadequacy of Christianity to deal with commercialism, decadence, and the corruption of the human spirit. Set during the revolutionary period in Virginia and Kentucky, The Great Meadow (1930) concerns the choice of Diony Hall to leave the comfort and stability of her family's farm for a life in the wilderness. The novel's main theme involves the wresting of order from a chaotic world. A Buried Treasure (1931) is about Andy and Philly Blair and the impact exerted on their lives by a found cache of gold coins. Thematically the novel examines the emergence of Andy and Philly's own self knowledge and their understanding of the depth of their love. The Haunted Mirror (1932) and Not by Strange Gods (1941) are both collections of short stories that critics regard as artistically less successful than her novels. He Sent Forth a Raven (1935) is set during World War I and concerns the personal and philosophical conflicts that arise between the people in the small town of Wolflick, Kentucky. The chaos represented by the war sets the beliefs and moral codes of the main characters in stark relief. Black Is My Truelove's Hair (1938) is a somewhat allegorical novel about a woman's redemption. With main characters who, on one level, stand for the figures in the story of Genesis, the novel describes the rise and fall and return to grace of the protagonist, Dena, who is an everyman figure. Song in the Meadow (1940), a poetry collection, was the last work published during Roberts's lifetime. Some of the works collected here are "child poems" similar to the ones in Under the Tree; others are love lyrics, narratives about folk heroes, and poems expounding philosophical positions, particularly those concerned with self-discovery and the idealism of Bishop Berkeley.
In the Great Steep's Garden (poetry) 1915
Under the Tree (poetry) 1922; revised edition published in 1930
The Time of Man (novel) 1926
My Heart and My Flesh (novel) 1927
Jingling in the Wind (novel) 1928
The Great Meadow (novel) 1930
A Buried Treasure (novel) 1931
The Haunted Mirror (short stories) 1932
He Sent Forth a Raven (novel) 1935
Black Is My Truelove's Hair (novel) 1938
Song in the Meadow (poetry) 1940
Not by Strange Gods (short stories) 1941
I Touched White Clover (poetry) 1981
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SOURCE: Review of The Time of Man, in The New Republic, Vol. XLVIII, No. 614, September 8, 1926, pp. 74-5.
[In the following review, Lovett describes The Time of Man as "an almost perfect blending of idea and substance, of soul and body."]
A recent school of criticism has made much of the fact that American literature has so rarely sprung directly from the American soil, has contained so meagrely the elements of folk culture: love of the land that sweetens the labor upon it; love of the life it brings forth, plant and animal; love of tools and material things fashioned by the hand of man for his work upon the earth; instinctive affection for fellow-men who born of the same mother, share the same inheritance. Pioneering has played a great part in American fiction, but the theme of the pioneer has been the conquest, not the growth of the soil. It has been our boast that we have never had a peasantry—social change and promotion have been too rapid to permit human life to sink its roots deeply into the earth. American treatment of the land has tended toward exploitation, not cultivation; and it is exploitation which is recorded in our literature. A sense of this poverty in the native sources of culture has shown itself in an attempt to claim for ourselves the civilization of the Indians of the Southwest and find in it the basis of a truly American art. Again, the racial inheritance of foreign...
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SOURCE: "Miss Roberts' First Novel," in The Dial, Chicago, Vol. 83, July, 1927, pp. 73-5.
[In the following review, Wescott praises Roberts for the "artfulness" of The Time of Man.]
In the beginning Miss Roberts was a poet, and a number of years ago Mr Huebsch published for her an admirable book of rhymed verses called Under the Tree. It is not merely a collection but a slight cycle exquisitely arranged—one little girl speaking in the first person from beginning to end. One might almost think it primarily intended for children; in any case, it is more like a lyric Alice in Wonderland than like A Child's Garden of Verses, containing neither any sentiments of a grown person wistfully regretting his childhood nor any morally uplifting couplets. The versification, founded throughout upon the cadences of a child's voice "speaking a piece," is graceful though monotonous. Every line has its delightful rhetorical trick; every stanza has been composed with a poet's thoroughness, even in affectation. But Miss Roberts' purpose seems to have been less to put the reader under a spell or a series of spells—the poet's purpose—than to inform him about matters too spiritual to be dealt with in plainer phrases. Conceits about nature and what are called "pathetic fallacies" serve to make clear, in miniature, mystical ideas. The delicately comical people about whom the little girl...
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SOURCE: "Elizabeth Madox Roberts," in The Spyglass: Views and Reviews, 1924-1930, edited by John Tyree Fain, Vanderbilt University Press, 1963, pp. 44-8.
[In the following review of The Great Meadow, originally published on March 16, 1930, Davidson determines that Roberts "does show the excellences and advantages of provincial art at its best."]
Elizabeth Madox Roberts's fourth novel, The Great Meadow, shows all her fine qualities at their best.… What is the subject matter? In general, this time it is the westward push of the pioneers from Virginia across the mountains that brought the Watauga and Cumberland settlements into Tennessee, and Boone's Fort and Harrod's Fort into Kentucky. Of course Miss Roberts is writing specifically about Kentucky, which is her own state, and about people that are her own people in a real ancestral sense. The Great Meadow is thus as historical a novel as I ever read before. What made the Albemarle people want to go into Kentucky; how did they feel about going; what did they think and feel about their journeying and arriving and settling down; how did they behave in all the dangerous shifts of wilderness life?—these, I take it, constitute the matter that Miss Roberts is interested in giving. All the time, it is evident, she wants to be inside the minds of the Kentucky pioneers, and is not much concerned about telling a brisk story,...
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SOURCE: "A Child Sings," in Poetry, Vol. XXXVIII, No. 4, July, 1931, pp. 227-29.
[In the following review, Teasdale enthusiastically assesses of the verse in Under the Tree.]
[Under the Tree] is as fresh and full of music as an April morning. A child is overheard singing, and we listen, afraid that the song will end. The little girl, perhaps five or six years old, is as much in love with life as the heroines of Miss Roberts' novels are, and as sensitive as they are to the moods of the earth and to the other creatures living on its surface. She seems to herself and to us an inevitable part of the rich life of the farms and the woods.
The magic of this book lies in its lovely freedom from self-consciousness. It is the heart of a child who knows life at its clearest and happiest. Verses about childhood are frequently sicklied o'er with pathos, or they are encumbered with nurses, governesses, Board Walks and a gaiety that is conscious of its immaculate pinafore. But here one escapes into the broad American country-side, into the life of a child to whom everything that she sees and hears becomes part of a delicious adventure all the keener for being savored chiefly alone.
These poems are as neatly spun as a cobweb and delicately jewelled as a web weighed down with rain-drops. They flash now with an exact observation, now with humor, but they are never...
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SOURCE: "Elizabeth Madox Roberts: Her Mind and Style," in The Private Reader: Selected Articles & Reviews, Henry Holt and Company, 1942, pp. 97-109.
[In the following essay, originally published in 1932, Van Doren comments on how Roberts's writing style adds another dimension to her novels.]
A reader of any novel by Elizabeth Madox Roberts is certain sooner or later to remark the presence of a style. Her style, say those who do not like it, is more than present; it is obtrusive. But even those who like it very much have it uppermost in their minds as they proceed, and when they have finished it is the language, or the way of writing, which they are most likely to mention in favor of the artist they have discovered. The Time of Man struck attention largely because of the novelty of its accent. It had other qualities, of course, since it is impossible for a piece of fiction to go far without substance of some sort. But it had an individual voice; and it is this voice which is the most interesting thing about Miss Roberts.
It is truly interesting, indeed, only because it expresses a character in the speaker. There is probably no such thing as a voice which is "beautiful" in itself; our perception of its beauty is a perception of something human behind it. So with styles, which are merely tiresome when they do not reveal a mental or moral character of greater or less...
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SOURCE: "Elizabeth Madox Roberts as Poet," in Elizabeth Madox Roberts: American Novelist, University of Oklahoma Press, 1956, pp. 251-72.
[In the following essay, Campbell and Foster survey Roberts's poetry.]
As a child of eight, Miss Roberts saw a picture of Elizabeth Barrett Browning under which was printed the single word, "Poet." She was so impressed by this that she pointed to the word and said, "That's what I want to be, a poet." And that she became. The very essence of her art is her poetry. The real key to the subtle appeal of her novels is poetry. [We will discuss] her two published volumes of poetry—Under the Tree and Song in the Meadow—and attempt to describe here the nature and value of these volumes.
We need to discuss briefly Miss Roberts' beliefs about the nature of poetry.…
Since Miss Roberts made an explicit statement about her poetic theory, we will quote from it at some length as an introduction to our discussion of her poetry:
I find that I have tried for a poignant speech, as direct as cause and effect is direct.…
Poetry must appeal to the emotions each time it appears, with the freshness and vigor and the charm of a clear first impression. It flashes into media where the intellect goes crawling and groping.…
… Poetry is...
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SOURCE: "A Few Hard, Tender Sayings," in Herald to Chaos: The Novels of Elizabeth Madox Roberts, University of Kentucky Press, 1960, pp. 129-48.
[In the following essay, Rovit concludes that Roberts's intricate style serves an important purpose in her prose, allowing the reader to identify more closely with the consciousness of her characters.]
Almost without exception, every literary review or critical analysis of Miss Roberts' work makes mention of her prose style, the inference being that somehow or other, her "style" is an element in her writing which thrusts itself obtrusively on the reader. Even those critics who make more than a superficial attempt to analyze the stylistic devices which Miss Roberts employs fail to integrate their analysis with the functional intention of this style. They forget that "style" is not an isolated segment of a piece of writing, but that it pervades the entire shape of the writing, integral to that shape at all points. This is true, I suppose, for all writing, but additionally significant for an author who is so persistent in her avowal of aesthetic organicism. Thus, a critical comment that "Miss Roberts is fond of Fra Angelico, and her style often mingles the Italian's blues and golds" [Grant C. Knight, American Literature and Culture] is of some biographical interest, but hardly helpful in evaluating the quality of her work. To try to go beyond this kind of...
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SOURCE: "The New Beginning," in Elizabeth Madox Roberts, Twayne Publishers, Inc., 1963, pp. 85-106.
[In the following essay, McDowell examines the characters, structure, and symbolism of The Great Meadow.]
I "A HALF-MYTHICAL LAND"
The spectacle of the pioneer surge westward had long played about the edges of Miss Roberts' mind; she once wrote that this subject had in fact fascinated her "almost … since first I began to think at all." In notes to the article written for the Literary Guild in 1930 when The Great Meadow was a selection, she told of the spell which the exploits of the Kentucky pioneers had cast over her imagination:
In 1921, in the spring, walking back across the Midway, behind me the square gray towers of Harper Memorial Library and before me the brave new wind that swept up from the south, that swayed the dainty elms and bent the vivid grass, my mind filled with the patterns of Giovanni Beeline who lived forever in Venice, who was learning fresh ways to paint and fresh ways to see the world, even after he was seventy—and I said, speaking inwardly, "Will it be done with ballad? … Or will it be some other kind which I cannot now think?"
Or farther back, in 1919, perched in my little birdcage of a room high above Fifty-Eighth Street, in an old stone ruin where there was a grand opera...
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SOURCE: "Elizabeth Madox Roberts," in Pioneers & Caretakers: A Study of 9 American Women Novelists, University of Minnesota Press, 1965, pp. 123-35.
[In the following essay, Auchincloss remarks on key novels and short stories by Roberts.]
If Emily Bronté had survived the publication of Wuthering Heights to write a series of obscure and ponderous allegorical novels, would her reputation be as splendid as it is today? One may doubt it. There is something about the image of a life seemingly offered up on the altar of literature as the price of one perfect book that becomes part of the atmosphere in which the book is read. If Elizabeth Madox Roberts had disappeared from the literary scene after the publication of her first novel, The Time of Man, in 1926, she might stand today in the company of Willa Cather and Ellen Glasgow. For as a lyrical evocation of the farmer's relation to the soil it is quite the equal of My Äntonia and Barren Ground.
Her life was dogged by poverty and ill health, and she was born amid bitter memories. Her father, Simpson Roberts, at fourteen saw his own father shot in cold blood for refusing to join the National Guard and at sixteen joined the Confederate Army. He and his wife, both of pioneer stock, struggled through a Kentucky reconstruction and survived with a small grocery on the first floor of their house in Springfield...
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SOURCE: "The Mind & Creative Habits of Elizabeth Madox Roberts," in … All These to Teach: Essays in Honor of C. A. Robertson, edited by Robert A. Bryan and others, University of Florida Press, 1965, pp. 237-48.
[In the following essay, Spivey points out the strengths and weaknesses in Roberts's prose.]
Elizabeth Madox Roberts (1881-1941) deserved and deserves more readers than she had or has for her twelve books: seven novels, two volumes of short stories, and three volumes of poetry. [In the Great Steep's Garden (poems, 1913), Under the Tree (poems, 1922), The Time of Man (a novel, 1925), My Heart and My Flesh (a novel, 1927), Jingling in the Wind (a satirical fantasy, 1928), The Great Meadow (a historical novel, 1930), A Buried Treasure (a novel, 1931), The Haunted Mirror (stories, 1931), He Sent Forth a Raven (a novel, 1935), Black Is My True Love's Hair (a novel, 1938), Song in the Meadow (poems, 1940), and Not by Strange Gods (stories, 1941).] Only two of these twelve were well received, and a third fairly well: The Time of Man, The Great Meadow, and Under the Tree. Readers now are better able to understand and appreciate her nine volumes of fiction, not only because of the illuminating books...
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SOURCE: "Elizabeth Madox Roberts and the Civilizing Consciousness," in The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, Vol. 64, No. 2, April, 1966, pp. 110-20.
[In the following essay, Murphy discusses Roberts's blending of historical fact with fiction in The Great Meadow, and her use of stream of consciousness in The Time of Man.]
In writing The Great Meadow, first published in 1930, Miss Roberts faced the common problem of the historical novelist, that of integrating fiction and historical fact. The excellence of this work, written in the tradition of Cooper's The Spy and countless novels dealing with the American Revolution and Civil War, resides in the novelist's unique method of fusing the two unmatched halves of the historical novel through the search for identity and conscious patterning of experiences of Diony Hall Jarvis, her heroine.
The plot of The Great Meadow possesses the simplicity of a chronicle. It was derived from material Miss Roberts spent some time gathering through travel in her native Kentucky, in the archives of the Filson Club of Louisville, and by study of John Filson's The Discovery, Settlement and Present State of Kentucke, 1784, which contains "The Adventures of Colonel Daniel Boon" and a narrative of the wars of Kentucky. It records the end of Diony Hall's adolescence in Albemarle County, Virginia, on the...
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SOURCE: "Social Development in the Poetry of Elizabeth Madox Roberts," in The Markham Review, Vol. 2, No. 1, September, 1969, pp. 16-20.
[In the following essay, Niles addresses the theme of social awareness in Roberts's poetry.]
An examination of the poetry of Elizabeth Madox Roberts makes evident that she attempted to develop in this genre many of the same thematic concerns which she forcefully presented in her novels. Therefore, if one is to study thematic variations and development in these poems, wherein thematic ideas of the novel are somewhat fore-shadowed, it is helpful to have studied at least Roberts' four major prose works—The Time of Man, The Great Meadow, My Heart and My Flesh, and He Sent Forth a Raven. (For a discussion of which of Roberts' novels are her best, see Campbell and Foster's Elizabeth Madox Roberts: American Novelist, Earl Rovit's Elizabeth Madox Roberts, and Wagenknecht's Cavalcade of the American Novel.) It is also expedient to be acquainted with her Journal, in which the poet sets down information helpful in explicating her themes.
However, even without knowledge of Miss Roberts' other writings, it is still possible to see that in her poetry this woman most essentially is again attempting to develop what may loosely be termed her social theme. Other thematic concerns are of course present in her poetry. But...
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SOURCE: "Time's Own River: The Three Major Novels of Elizabeth Madox Roberts," in Michigan Quarterly Review, Vol. XVI, No. 1, Winter, 1977, pp. 33-46.
[In the following essay, Tyree assesses the strengths and weaknesses of The Time of Man, The Great Meadow, and My Heart and My Flesh.]
In 1926, at the age of 45, Elizabeth Madox Roberts published her first novel, The Time of Man. It was immediately not only a popular success but a critical one, widely reviewed and praised. Sherwood Anderson said of it, "A wonderful performance. I am humble before it" [cited in Harry Modeen Campbell and Ruel E. Foster's Elizabeth Madox Roberts: American Novelist, 1956]. Two years later, Ford Madox Ford wrote in The Bookman that it was "the most beautiful individual piece of writing that has yet come out of America." By 1938, Miss Roberts had to her credit six more novels as well as volumes of poetry and short stories. One of the novels, The Great Meadow, is still considered among the best American historical novels ever written. Since her death in 1941, however, she has received little attention. In part, this can be traced to the reception given her 1935 novel, He Sent Forth A Raven. While this book probed more deeply into contemporary problems than her other works, its complexity and symbolic density presented formidable difficulties for her readers. Critic...
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SOURCE: "The Poetry of Space in Elizabeth Madox Roberts' The Time of Man," in The Southern Literary Journal, Vol. XVIII, No. 1, Fall, 1985, pp. 61-72.
[In the following essay, McBride demonstrates the symbolism between the various homes of Ellen Chesser in The Time of Man and the character's stages of maturity.]
As Elizabeth Madox Roberts' novel, The Time of Man, nears its conclusion, the outer appearance of the heroine, Ellen Chesser Kent, reflects her inner wholeness. Indeed, the jubilant words of young Luke Wimble capture the aura of her full self-awareness when he exclaims, "You're a bright shiny woman, Ellen Kent … You got the very honey of life in your heart." Despite the fact that Ellen, her husband Jasper, and their five children are again journeying into the unknown, her spiritual pilgrimage flows securely toward completion.
The common areas of space and the "o'nary" objects of home—as Ellen would describe them in her backcountry way—have nourished this inner growth. Ellen's steady movement toward spiritual unity rests on her total willingness to allow her psyche to encounter and absorb whatever lies closest at hand; she is always open to a direct experience of things in themselves. By imagining actual events and places in the life of a struggling Kentucky tenant farmer, Miss Roberts is able to depict a psychological drama unfolding under the...
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SOURCE: "Place in the Short Fiction of Elizabeth Madox Roberts," in The Kentucky Review, Vol. VI, No. 3, Fall, 1986, pp. 3-16.
[In the following essay, Hall discusses the importance of place in short stories by Roberts.]
Joan went down the path to the henyard, her mother's voice still telling her to feed the brooding hen. Away from the voices of the house she entered into the mid-morning quiet of the farm. She stopped at the hen's nest and she ran her hand among the soft feathers of the brooding mother, her sense of the place spiced with the odors of sweet lime and the odors of feathers that lay decaying in the dry dust under foot.
The path wound as feet had made it, swerving to the right or to the left. Infinities of rises, hillocks, low difficulties which the feet met, all feet, daily, and she was at the back door under the arbor where the old grapevines twined stiffly, her ear ready for the cry of the door when it should come at the end of the beating of her footsteps. She touched all these things without care, happy among them, feeling them with the senses and with memory.
These passages are from the opening of "The Scarecrow," one of the seven stories in Elizabeth Madox Roberts's first collection of short fiction, The Haunted...
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SOURCE: "Against the Chaos of the World: Language and Consciousness in Elizabeth Madox Roberts's The Time of Man," in The Mississippi Quarterly, Vol. XL, No. 2, Spring, 1987, pp. 95-111.
[In the following essay, Tate investigates the integration of style and theme in The Time of Man.]
In a letter to Harriet Monroe, Elizabeth Madox Roberts wrote that she had "poured into [The Time of Man] the notes which might otherwise have gone into the making of many bits of verse." For her, the novel was the result of her theory of "poetic realism," as she sought to find points of union between the spiritual and the physical, the inner world and the outer. Roberts defined her theory of "poetic realism" thus:
Somewhere there is a connection between the world of the mind and the outer order—it is the secret of the contact that we are after, the point, the moment of union. We faintly sense the one and we know as faintly the other, but there is a point where they come together, and we can never know the whole of reality until we have these two completely. [Quoted in Robert Penn Warren, "Elizabeth Madox Roberts: Life Is from Within," Saturday Review, March, 1963]
For Roberts, language was one of these "moments of union."
Given the incredible power language has to synthesize the inner and the outer, it...
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SOURCE: "History and the Will of the Artist: Elizabeth Madox Roberts," in The Fable of the Southern Writer, Louisiana State University Press, 1994, pp. 54-72.
[In the following essay, Simpson traces the development of Roberts's female protagonists as artists and as representations of artistic consciousness.]
"I feel myself to be a Kentuckian," Elizabeth Madox Roberts said, "and all my work … centers around Kentucky objects." Just as her younger contemporary William Faulkner took as his subject the history of the Deep South state of Mississippi, Roberts took as her subject the history of the border state of Kentucky. As with Faulkner, this choice was dictated by the discovery that her imaginative reaction to life in her native state defined the encompassing experience of the modern literary artist: the experience of a constant tension between the self and history.
Roberts' historical sensibility was formed by a singular circumstance of her education: her early acquaintance with an eighteenth-century philosophical treatise, Bishop Berkeley's The Principles of Human Knowledge. She was introduced to this book by her father, Simpson Roberts, a Confederate veteran who had a penchant for philosophical speculation. Having early in his education developed an obsessive devotion to Berkeley, he made a strong effort to mold his sensitive, precocious daughter in the image of his...
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Tate, Linda. "Elizabeth Madox Roberts: A Bibliographical Essay." Resources for American Literary Study 18, No. 1 (1992): 22-43.
Detailed discussion of Roberts's publishing history that includes an extended survey of critical reactions to her work.
Adams, J. Donald. "Elizabeth Madox Roberts." Virginia Quarterly Review 12, No. 1 (January 1936): 80-90.
Generally favorable assessment of Roberts's novels and an extended examination of her place in contemporary world literature at the time.
Bernstein, Stephen. "Comprehension, Composition, and Closure in Elizabeth Madox Roberts's The Time of Man." The Kentucky Review X, No. 1 (Spring 1990): 21-37.
Argues that the structure of Roberts's novel mirrors its themes and that earlier criticism of her work failed to recognize its formal dimension.
Bishop, John Peale. "Spirit and Sense." The Collected Essays of John Peale Bishop, pp. 313-16, edited by Edmund Wilson. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1948.
Brief, generally favorable assessment of Song in the Meadow.
Buchan, Alexander M. "Elizabeth Madox Roberts." Southwest Review XXV, No. 4 (July 1940): 463-81.
Examines Roberts's use of language in attempt to account for various critical...
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