Egyptian Empire (Magill’s Guide to Military History)
Article abstract: Military significance: Egypt, one of the world’s oldest continuous civilizations, was invaded by Assyria in the seventh century. The Romans held Egypt from 30 b.c.e. to 395 c.e., after which it was controlled by Constantinople.
By 3200 b.c.e., the Upper (southern) Egyptian states were technologically, ideologically, and militarily unified. Upper Egyptian colonies spread into the Delta, Sinai, and southern Syro-Palestine. Southern conquest of the Delta resulted in the final unification of Egypt about 3100 b.c.e. Egyptian activities in Asia were apparently limited to mining expeditions, with more involved activity during the late Old Kingdom. In the south, Aswan was fortified; later considerable activity occurred farther south in Nubia.
First Intermediate Period (c. 2170-2020 b.c.e.)
After the Old Kingdom collapsed, Herakleopolis controlled northern and central Egypt, and internal conflict erupted in the south. The desiccation of the Sahara brought into the Nile Valley desert groups that provided troops, primarily for Thebes. Thebes exploited its location to control Eastern and Western Desert routes, its smaller forces employing desert routes to outflank Herakleopolitan forces. Thebes emerged supreme. Wheeled siege ladders as well as covered siege engines with long crowbars to attack walls appeared. Sapping led to the appearance of a protective glacis at the base of fortress walls....
(The entire section is 1632 words.)
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