Trelawny, Edward John
Edward John Trelawny 1792-1881
Trelawny's reputation as an author has long depended on his intimate knowledge of his more famous friends, Percy Bysshe Shelley and George Gordon (Lord) Byron in particular, and until the middle of this century he was considered a valuable heir, witness, and interpreter of the Romantic tradition. But the discovery that his “memoirs” were frequently threaded with fantasy and falsification tainted Trelawny's image. More recently, though, literary scholars have taken a renewed interest in Trelawny, not as a historical source but as a masterful storyteller who attempted to embody the Romantic ideal in both his life and his work.
Trelawny was the second of six children of Charles and Maria Trelawny. He grew up in London, although he would later consider Cornwall his “native country.” Little is known of Trelawny's early life except that his father, a lieutenant colonel in the British army, was an authoritarian figure, and that the younger Trelawny attended a boarding school for two years but was expelled for his unruliness. At the age of twelve he was enlisted in the Royal Navy, in whose service he remained until he was nineteen. This period in his life formed the basis of his attempt to embody the hero of Byron's Corsair (1814) and provided material for his increasingly embroidered stories. As a midshipman, he traveled throughout southeast Asia and was wounded in the British invasion of Mauritius in 1810. Soon after his return to London in 1812 he married Caroline Addison; they had two daughters by 1816 when Caroline abruptly left the marriage. Trelawny, already striving to cultivate a Romantic persona, challenged her lover to a duel; instead, in 1819, he faced the public humiliation and family scorn engendered by a divorce.
By this time Trelawny had read much of Byron's work as well as Shelley's poetry; both figures expressed the Romantic spirit by which Trelawny defined himself. Shelley in particular was to become his hero. Through a mutual acquaintance, Trelawny was invited to Pisa in 1822 to meet the poets and help them design sailboats. With his exotic presence, he was immediately accepted into the literary circle at Pisa, and the relationships he formed with these two men dominated the remaining six decades of his life. In the summer of 1822, Trelawny saw Shelley off in his new boat, the Don Juan, and ten days later identified Shelley's body on a beach. It was Trelawny who famously cremated Shelley and rescued his heart from the flames. He then accompanied Byron to Greece, where the struggle for independence provided an ample stage for Trelawny's self-styled heroic adventures. He had joined a small group of revolutionaries when he received word of Byron's death in 1824. After arranging for funeral rites and sorting through Byron's papers (including the unfinished poem Don Juan), Trelawny returned to the Greek liberation forces and married the thirteen-year-old half-sister of its leader. Seriously wounded, Trelawny left Greece for England in 1828. There, he renewed his relationship with Mary Shelley and her stepsister Claire Clairmont. Mary Shelley facilitated the publication of Trelawny's Adventures of a Younger Son (1831), which purported to chronicle his early life. This work brought Trelawny a measure of success, and in the following years he traveled to North America and then settled into a more conventional existence by entering political life and marrying Augusta Goring in 1841.
Recollections of the Last Days of Shelley and Byron, published in 1858, provoked more controversy than Trelawny's first memoir, but enjoyed an equal measure of success. This work established him as a living inheritor of the Romantic tradition, and for the following twenty years Trelawny commanded the attention of the literary world with his reminiscences of the two poets. Trelawny died after a fall in 1881, and, according to his wishes, he was buried next to Shelley's ashes in the Protestant cemetery in Rome.
Trelawny wrote two major memoirs during his lifetime, as well as numerous letters, all of which are interesting to scholars not only for their representation of a deliberately-nurtured Romantic figure, but also for their intimate portraits of Shelley and Byron. Adventures of a Younger Son was written in the years after Shelley's death, edited by Mary Shelley, and published anonymously in 1831. Its scathing account of Trelawny's childhood at home and at school contrasted sharply with the book's later sections, which describe a fantastic narrative of adventures on the high seas and encounters in the jungles of Asia with wild animals and savage humans—savage, that is, except for the young girl who became his wife and then died after being attacked by sharks and poisoned. The memoir departs from actual events beginning with Trelawny's desertion from the Navy and his joining the crew of a pirate named de Ruyter. The animated and seemingly unmediated tone of the narrator in this piece also characterizes Trelawny's later works: the short story “Sahib Tulwar” (“Master of the Sword”) in 1839, and Recollections of the Last Days of Shelley and Byron, written thirty years after their deaths and published in 1858. The latter work, structured primarily as dialogue and commentary, offers glimpses into the private lives of these two legendary figures through Trelawny's eyes. Later revised as Records of Shelley, Byron and the Author (1878), the memoir reflects Trelawny's understanding of himself as the confidante of the two poets and as the embodiment of their Romantic ideals.
It is in the Letters of Edward John Trelawny (1910) that the characteristic amalgamation of real and fictional elements in his writing becomes clear: William St. Clair describes them as “extremely good letters … and not the least of their virtues is that they are all unconscious of any eyes but their receivers.” These documents, written over the course of his life, reveal Trelawny's fascination with and admiration of Shelley, his shifting opinions of Mary Shelley, Byron, and others, and his passionate involvements with women, politics, and writing. Unpolished and frequently ungrammatical, they are addressed to such correspondents as Claire Clairmont, William Rossetti, and Mary Shelley, and are considered to be the most candid expressions of Trelawny's memories and interests.
During his own lifetime, Trelawny was hailed as a living incarnation of the Corsair. As many critics have remarked, Trelawny's success as popular chronicler of the lives of Shelley and Byron was accomplished in part by simply outliving both of these figures as well as others who might have contradicted his version of events. Rossetti engaged in an ongoing conversation with Trelawny as a source of information about the poets, and encouraged him to publish the Records. The popularity of Trelawny's works with the Victorian readership spanned fifty years, and his memoirs were translated into several languages. By the time of his death in 1881, Trelawny enjoyed a reputation as one of the last adventurers remaining in the Empire; a printed eulogy in Temple Bar, written by Henry E. Ward, described him as one of the “old human links that connect the present day with the mighty infancy and youth of this century.”
The Trelawny legend continued to fascinate students of the Romantic movement, but in this century research into his lineage and early life revealed that the adventures on which his reputation was founded were largely fictitious. Further inquiry into the many recorded versions of stories he told of his more famous friends—in transcribed conversations, letters, and the memoirs—corroborated the growing view that Trelawny's perspective was frequently distorted by self-aggrandizement, as well as by his persistent vision of himself as the true heir of Shelley's Romantic ideal. Trelawny's falsifications and adumbrations have been exhaustively traced, and it is only recently that critics have begun to evaluate his writing independently of the truth of its depictions. Most scholars note the vivacity of his images, the detailed quality of his descriptions, and his storytelling ability. His memoirs are characterized as driven by powerful narrative skills that are only complicated, rather than undermined, by the revelation that fact and fantasy are blended in the telling. Although Trelawny is no longer considered a reliable resource for biographical information, his reputation is nonetheless emerging rejuvenated, as his work has been scrutinized not for its accuracy but its literary qualities.
Adventures of a Younger Son (memoirs) 1831
“Sahib Tulwar” (“Master of the Sword”) (short story) 1839
Recollections of the Last Days of Shelley and Byron (memoirs) 1858; revised as Records of Shelley, Byron and the Author (memoirs) 1878
Letters of Edward John Trelawny (letters) 1910
Henry E. Ward (essay date 1881)
SOURCE: “Edward John Trelawny,” Temple Bar Vol. 63, November, 1881, pp. 325-42.
[Ward's essay, published just after Trelawny's death, reflects the general nineteenth-century acceptance of Trelawny's version of his own life and celebrates him as one of the last of the truly adventurous spirits.]
In the course of last season a collection of pictures was exhibited in Bond Street which not unnaturally attracted a good deal of notice. It was a small collection, comprising not more than eighteen or twenty canvases, and all the works were by one hand; but that hand was Mr. Millais'. Each step in the development of his genius and characteristics was illustrated by at least...
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Edward Garnett (essay date 1890)
SOURCE: Introduction to Adventures of a Younger Son, by Edward John Trelawny, T. Fisher Unwin, 1890, pp. 7-25.
[In the essay that follows, Garnett provides a biographical sketch of Trelawny, and contends that he “quickly caught and reflected the spirit of his age” by cultivating a romantic role for himself.]
The sources for a memoir of Trelawny are few. That the following sketch of his life and character—slight as it is—is the fullest yet published is due to the publication last year of a number of his letters in Mrs. Julian Marshall's Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley: Her Life and Letters. Other material is The Adventures of a...
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The Athenaeum (essay date 1911)
SOURCE: Review of Letters of Edward John Trelawny, by Edward John Trelawny, The Athenaeum, No. 4341, pp. 7-8.
[In the following essay, the anonymous reviewer discusses Trelawny's letters, which contain the “Trelawniness of Trelawny”—both the superficiality of some of his judgments and the depth of his enthusiasms.]
Is there any other figure of the last century so well worth knowing and so knowable as Edward Trelawny? The volume before us is a picture of the man by himself, historically still unfinished, but, from a post-impressionist point of view, final. All that is most significant, all that distinguishes Trelawny from other men, is given; as the...
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The Dial (essay date 1911)
SOURCE: Review of Letters of Edward John Trelawny, by Edward John Trelawny, The Dial, Vol. L, No. 595, April 1, 1911, p. 270.
[In the essay that follows, the reviewer comments on the most striking impressions of Trelawny's letters: that his character was “full of strange contradiction” and that the relationship that dominated his life was his friendship with Shelley.]
Of all the men who did “once see Shelley plain,” none survived him longer or loved to talk about him more than Edward John Trelawney [sic]. Byron, also, Trelawney knew well; and, though loving him less, followed him to Greece where they worked together for a common cause. Surviving these...
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Christopher Morley (essay date 1923)
SOURCE: “July 8, 1822” in The Powder of Sympathy, Doubleday, Page & Company, 1923, pp. 143-47.
[In the essay that follows, Morley examines Trelawny's dramatized depiction of Shelley's death and cremation.]
It is to-day a hundred years since that sultry afternoon when Edward John Trelawny, aboard Byron's schooner-yacht Bolivar, fretted anxiously in Leghorn Harbour and watched the threatening sky. The thunderstorm that broke about half-past six lasted only twenty minutes, but it was long enough to drown both Shelley and his friend Williams, very haphazard yachtsmen, who had set off a few hours earlier in their small craft. It was only some foolish red tape...
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H. J. Massingham (essay date 1930)
SOURCE: “Life and Letters (1822-1847)” in The Friend of Shelley: A Memoir of Edward John Trelawny, Cobden-Sanderson, 1930, pp. 221-88.
[In the following excerpt, Massingham characterizes Trelawny's letters as deeply inscribed by his short friendship with Shelley, although most of the letters date from the sixty-year period of Trelawny's life after Shelley's death in 1822.]
Trelawny's inner life pivots upon Shelley as integrally as the ocean tides take their motions from the moon. There is no doubt that he saw in Shelley the perfect man he wished to have been himself, had he not had poured into his composition something of the foreign matter of Byron the...
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Edmund Blunden (essay date 1932)
SOURCE: “Trelawny Interpreted” in Votive Tablets: Studies Chiefly Appreciative of English Authors and Books, Harper and Brothers, 1932, pp. 240-45.
[In the essay that follows, Blunden discusses the “hallucinatory” quality of Trelawny's autobiographical writings, in the absence of detailed independent information about his life.]
Trelawny insisted, while he was writing The Adventures of a Younger Son, that he was only recording his own life; fifty years later he was still pleased to assert the truthfulness of that romantic tale; and a biographer of the gentleman corsair who almost seemed able to outwit death itself is under the amusing necessity of at...
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Edward Sackville-West (essay date 1950)
SOURCE: Review of Trelawny, by R. Glynn Grylls, The New Statesman and Nation, Vol. XL, No. 1017, September 2, 1950, pp. 254, 256.
[In the following essay, Sackville-West argues that Trelawny's writings suggest that his artistic talents remained largely unrealized, due to his essential “aimlessness.”]
He was a long, earnest man, and though born on an icy coast, seemed well adapted to endure hot latitudes, his flesh being hard as twice-baked biscuit. Transported to the Indies, his live blood would not boil like bottled ale. … Only some thirty arid summers had he seen; those summers had dried up all his physical superfluousness. But this,...
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Cecil Roberts (essay date 1973)
SOURCE: “And Did Trelawny Lie?” Books and Bookmen, Vol. 19, No. 1, October, 1973, pp. 62-66.
[In the excerpt that follows, Roberts traces some of the egregiously “fabulous” features of Trelawny's accounts of his early life and his viewing of Byron's corpse, an incident which provoked a great deal of controversy in Victorian society.]
[Edward John Trelawny] was a light liar, an embroiderer of facts. He wrote two accounts of his life with Shelley and Byron. The first appeared in 1858, written after he was sixty, entitled Recollections of the Last Days of Shelley and Byron. Then, twenty years later, when an old man of eighty-five, he brought out another...
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Mary Jacobus (essay date 1974)
SOURCE: “The Corsair in Person,” The Times Literary Supplement, No. 3799, December 27, 1974, p. 1461.
[In the following review of Adventures of a Younger Son, Jacobus emphasizes the extent to which Trelawny believed in his own Romantic fantasies, particularly regarding his early adventures.]
“If we could only make Trelawny wash his hands and speak the truth we could make a gentleman of him.” Byron—by now cultivating a more sophisticated image—was understandably embarrassed when the personification of his own Corsair turned up at Pisa. It was the Shelleys who fell for his piratical past and tall stories. Byron warned that they would mould him into a...
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William St. Clair (essay date 1977)
SOURCE: “The Storyteller Part 2,” Trelawny: The Incurable Romancer, John Murray, 1977, pp. 182-90.
[In the essay that follows, St. Clair discusses Trelawny's fantastical distortion of historical truth in his accounts of his travels and his encounters with Shelley and Byron.]
It is a matter beyond dispute that Trelawny was one whose constitutional fearlessness and unimpeachable honour, in every circumstance of a stirring life, raised him on a pinnacle beyond the reach of detraction. His masterful bearing and unflinching honesty compelled respect wherever he went.
Richard Edgcumbe, who knew Trelawny in old age....
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Donald H. Reiman (essay date 1979)
SOURCE: “Trelawny and the Decay of Lying,” Review, Vol. 1, 1979, pp. 275-94.
[In the following excerpt, Reiman contrasts two biographies of Trelawny and concludes that his work should neither be accepted as factual nor dismissed due to its interweaving of fantasy and reality, but rather read for its literary merits as “autobiographical fiction.”]
“My life,” wrote Edward John Trelawny to Mary Shelley on 19 January 1831, “though I have sent it to you, as the dearest friend I have, is not written for the amusement of women; it is not a novel. If you begin clipping the wings of my true story, if you begin erasing words, you must then omit sentences, then...
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Gerson, Noel B. Trelawny's World: A Biography of Edward John Trelawny. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1977, 288 p.
A biography that attempts to redress what the author considers an overly critical and dismissive perspective on Trelawny.
Grylls, R. Glynn. Trelawny. London: Constable, 1950, 256 p.
An extensive review of Trelawny's life, measured against his own accounts of it.
Hill, Anne. “Trelawny's Family Background and Naval Career.” Keats-Shelley Journal V (Winter 1956): 11-32.
A seminal study of Trelawny's first twenty-five years, through...
(The entire section is 273 words.)