Edward, the Black Prince (Magill’s Guide to Military History)
Article abstract: Military significance: Edward understood the value of a disciplined infantry against cavalry and made full use of the devastating longbow. Unfortunately, his excessive ambition and deep unpopularity in France and Spain led to unnecessary wars and revolts.
The eldest son of Edward III and Queen Philippa, Edward of Woodstock so distinguished himself at the Battle of Crécy in 1346 that he was knighted directly on the battlefield, becoming one of the first Knights of the Garter. After Crécy and Poitiers (1356), where he captured King John II, the Good, of England and returned him to England, Edward became known as the Black Prince because of his habit of wearing black armor.
Named prince of Aquitaine, he absented himself from England to intervene in Spanish affairs. He imposed heavy taxes on the Castilians, and his unpopularity led to the restoration of King Pedro the Cruel, as well as to a revolt in Aquitaine (1350- 1369) and a renewal of the Hundred Years’ War. The Black Prince’s army, attempting to restore Pedro to the throne, defeated French and Castilian forces at Nájera (Navarrette) in 1367.
After his sack of Limoges (1370), his health deteriorated, so he returned to England, resigned his principality (1372), and supported Parliament against John of Gaunt, his brother.
Barber, Richard W. Edward, Prince of Wales and Aquitaine....
(The entire section is 253 words.)
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