Edmund Waller 1606-1687
Waller was an urbane and technically sophisticated poet whose career spanned the greater part of the seventeenth century, from the reign of Charles I, through the years of the English Civil War and the Protectorate, to the Restoration. Celebrated by his contemporaries and eighteenth-century successors for its wit, smoothness of line, and rhetorical eloquence, Waller's poetry is seen as uniting the fluency of the Cavaliers and the abstract imagery of the Metaphysical poets with the dignified tone and elevated sentiments of the neoclassical Augustan poets who emerged later in the century. Of Waller's influence on his successors, John Dryden, a younger contemporary, is recorded as having declared: “Unless he had written, none of us could write.” Less admired were Waller's actions during the period of the Civil War; indeed, his political opportunism, reputed corruption, and apparent betrayal of his compatriots in order to secure his own political and personal survival during that turbulent time, have been roundly condemned as cowardly and ignoble.
Waller was born March 3, 1606, at the Manor-House, Coleshill, in what was then Hertfordshire. When Waller was ten, his father died, leaving him a significant fortune; he would later greatly increase his wealth through an advantageous marriage. Waller was educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge, but did not take a degree. Reportedly, he became a member of Parliament as early as the age of sixteen. Waller married Anne Banks, a London heiress, in 1631. She died giving birth to their second child, a daughter, in 1634. After her death Waller began the study of poetry as a member of the intellectual circle at Dr. George Morely's country home. Waller's early works consisted of political panegyrics and love poems. The latter were written in an unsuccessful attempt to court Lady Dorothy Sidney. In 1633 Waller published “To the King, On his Return from Scotland,” a panegyric dedicated to Charles I that was typical of his works during this period. In his political poetry Waller expressed his support for tradition, moderation, and civilized values. In Parliament Waller supported the reform of ecclesiastical abuses but did not espouse radical change in the social order or the institutions of religion and the monarchy. Such a centrist position in the increasingly anti-royalist House of Commons was a precarious one. In 1643 he was appointed to the parliamentary commission charged with negotiating with the king. A few months after this appointment, however, he was discovered to be a leading figure in what came to be known as Waller's Plot, which sought to restore royal prerogatives. Waller apparently betrayed some of his fellow conspirators, who were hanged, but Waller himself escaped death by bribing the entire House of Commons. He was fined £10,000 and exiled in late 1644. Waller traveled on the continent, settling in Paris, where he met leading intellectuals of the period, including René Descartes and Thomas Hobbes. Waller's brother-in-law interceded with Oliver Cromwell—himself a distant relation of Waller—and obtained a pardon in late 1651; Waller returned to England early the following year. Waller wrote A Panegyrick to My Lord Protector, of the present greatness and joynt interest of His Highness, and this nation in 1652. When it was published in 1655, he was criticized for betraying his royalist convictions. Waller also wrote an elegy upon Cromwell's death: Upon the Late Storme and of the death of His Highnesse ensuing the same, by Mr. Waller (1658). In 1660, when Charles II returned and the monarchy was restored, he published a poem praising the monarch, To the King, upon His Majesties happy return (1660). Waller again took a seat in Parliament in 1661. During this period Waller published two important works, On the Park at St. Jamese's (1660) and Instructions to a painter, for the drawing of a picture on the state and posture of the English forces at sea, under the command of His Royal Highness in the conclusion of the year 1664 (1665). Toward the end of his life, Waller lived on his estates in Buckinghamshire and wrote spiritual poetry. He died at his birthplace, Coleshill, in 1687.
Waller's poetry consists of political panegyrics, occasional poems dedicated to individuals, and love poems. His best-known poems include those addressed to “Sacharissa” (his epithet for Lady Dorothy Sidney): “At Penshurst,” and “Go, Lovely Rose.” In his panegyrics to Cromwell, A Panegyrick to My Lord Protector and Upon the Late Storme and of the death of His Highnesse, Waller justifies Cromwell's reign because it ensures that anarchy and civil war do not break out in the country. In the earlier poem, Waller compares Cromwell to biblical King David; in the later he compares Cromwell's death to that of Romulus, the mythical founder of Rome, and praises the Protector's work in increasing Britain's power. Waller's poem praising Charles II at the time of the Restoration, To the King, upon His Majesties happy return, glorifies Charles II, comparing him to the eye of a Cyclops, and depicts the English people demanding the return of the monarchy. Waller also showed support for the monarchy in On the Park at St. Jamese's, which praises England's newfound stability under the monarchy. Instructions to a painter, for the drawing of a picture on the state and posture of the English forces at sea, under the command of His Royal Highness in the conclusion of the year 1664. was one of many poems Waller wrote about art and artists. Written in heroic couplets, the poem uses the trope of instructing a painter on how to depict the triumph of the Duke of York's victory at Lowestoft. Because of revelations of ineptitude and neglect on the part of the Duke of York, which resulted in the subsequent loss of the advances made in the battle, the poem was viewed as having uncritically glossed over the less-than-heroic truths of the conflict. The poem was satirized by both Waller's contemporaries and later writers, including Andrew Marvell. Waller's later religious poems, which were collected in Divine Poems (1685) reflect the positive images and themes characteristic of most of Waller's works.
Waller enjoyed popular and critical success during his lifetime and for some fifty years after his death. The Augustan poets who wrote in the generation after him believed Waller civilized and refined English poetry by developing the use of the heroic couplet, regularizing diction and phrasing, employing stronger rhymes, popularizing gentle irony, and emphasizing objectivity and wit. As times and tastes changed, Waller's poetry fell out of favor, and commentators began to question the extent of Waller's technical achievements. To a certain degree, Waller's reputation remains in decline among critics, whose views, as H. M. Richmond has noted, may be colored by the deplorable actions of his personal and political life. Nevertheless, Waller has his defenders among modern scholars, who admire his technical mastery and acknowledge his significant influence on the Augustans and the development of neoclassicism.
“To the King, On his Return from Scotland” (poetry) 1633
A Panegyrick to My Lord Protector, of the present greatness and joynt interest of His Highness, and this nation (poetry) 1655; also published as A Panegyrick to My Lord Protector, by a gentleman that loves the peace, union, and prosperity of the English nation, 1655
Upon the Late Storme and of the death of His Highnesse ensuing the same, by Mr. Waller (poetry) 1658; published in Three poems Upon the Death of his late Highnesse Oliver Lord Protector of England, Scotland & Ireland, 1659
To the King, upon His Majesties happy return (poetry) 1660
On the Park at St. Jamese's (poetry) 1660; republished as A Poem on St. James's Park as lately improved by His Majesty, 1661
To Lady Morton on New-Years-Day, 1650 (poetry) 1661
To the Queen, upon Her Majesties birth-day (poetry) 1663
Instructions to a painter, for the drawing of a picture on the state and posture of the English forces at sea, under the command of His Royal Highness in the conclusion of the year 1664 (poetry) 1665; enlarged as Instructions to a Painter, for the drawing of the posture & progress of His Maties forces at sea, under the command of His Highness Royal. Together with the battel & victory obtained over the Dutch,...
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SOURCE: Bateson, F. W. “A Word for Waller.” In English Poetry: A Critical Introduction, pp. 116-22. London: Longmans, 1950.
[In the following essay, Bateson explores reasons for the decline in Waller's reputation as a poet.]
Waller is the Augustan Wyatt. ‘Unless he had written’, Dryden owned, ‘none of us could write.’1 In the memorial volume that Rymer, the critic and historian, edited in 1688 Sir Thomas Higgons compared Waller's contribution to the English language with Petrarch's to Italian:
The English he hath to Perfection brought; And we to speak are by his Measures taught. Those very Words, which are in Fashion now, He brought in Credit half an Age ago. Thus Petrarch mended the Italian Tongue: And now they speak the Language which he sung.(2)
And Atterbury paid a similar tribute in 1690:
He undoubtedly stands first in the List of Refiners, and for ought I know, last too; for I question whether in Charles the Second's Reign, English did not come to its full perfection; and whether it has not had its Augustean Age, as well as the Latin … In the mean time, 'tis a surprizing Reflection, that between what Spencer wrote last, and Waller first, there should not be much above twenty years distance; and yet the one's Language, like the Money of that time, is as currant now as...
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SOURCE: Richmond, H. M. “The Fate of Edmund Waller.” South Atlantic Quarterly 60 (1961): 230-38.
[In the following essay, Richmond looks at Waller's reputation, arguing that he merits more critical attention.]
When Waller died in 1687, his tomb at Beaconsfield was dignified by an epitaph from the Historiographer Royal. It is in the usual fulsome, empty style which dissipates trust by overemphasis, but surprisingly its claim that Waller endeared English literature to the muses is approved by Waller's most distinguished literary contemporaries. In Dryden's preface to Walsh's Dialogue Concerning Women (1691), for example, we read, “Unless he had written none of us could write”; and in his preface to The Second Part of Mr. Waller's Poems (1690) Atterbury boldly declared, thinking primarily of Waller, “I question whether in Charles the Second's Reign English did not come to its full perfection; and whether it has not had its Augustan Age.”
Modern critics have, however, responded to this rather too liberal praise with equally immoderate censure. Mr. J. B. Emperor's study of “The Catullian Influence in English Lyric Poetry” (University of Missouri Studies, 1928) alludes to the poet as “the frigid and time-serving Waller, who rhymed insipidly under both Jameses, both Charleses, and the Protector.” The same critic continues, “Perhaps none of the...
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SOURCE: Allison, Alexander Ward. “The Refinement of Our Language.” In Toward an Augustan Poetic: Edmund Waller's “Reform” of English Poetry, 24-46. University of Kentucky Press, 1962.
[In the following essay, discusses the influences of Waller's poetic diction.]
There is general consent, now as in 1700, that the language of English poetry should simultaneously fulfill our expectations of our tongue as it is spoken and be set apart from the most ordinary discourse. But there also existed then a rather general consensus that felicitous combinations of familiar words alone could not sustain the style of serious poetry. Neoclassical poets might rejoice in lines and phrases which were at once natural and noble. Dryden was pleased that for “Open the door,” there existed the alternative “Set wide the palace gates.”1 But most poets and critics of the period also advocated the avoidance of low words in nobler or politer ventures and the cultivation of a distinctively poetic idiom.
The poet before Waller who had contributed most toward such an idiom was Edmund Spenser, and Spenser had purchased his style at the expense of eccentricity. Shakespeare was thought to have been sometimes mean and sometimes tumid; one could not say of him even at his best that he had raised his diction consistently above the commonplace. The language of Ben Jonson and John Donne, finally, had...
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SOURCE: Korshin, Paul J. “The Evolution of Neoclassical Poetics: Cleveland, Denham, and Waller as Poetic Theorists.” Eighteenth-Century Studies 2 (1968): 125-35.
[In the following excerpt, Korshin outlines Waller's contributions to the development of poetic verse and neoclassical poetic theory.]
As an example of the evolution of neoclassical poetics, Waller presents certain difficulties which we do not encounter in the study of the other precursors of the period, for his career, which starts earlier than Cleveland's, continued until past 1680, when the style which he helped to propagate had achieved considerable influence and great appreciation. His widest reputation has always been as a poetic technician, a refiner of language, a master of sweetness and elegance, but generally lacking in profundity or sublimity. Waller, moreover, avoided controversy rather successfully; with the exception of his two poems on Cromwell, he prosecuted a long career as a successful Royalist, writing leisurely and occasionally. His love poetry and vers de société, since they relate more closely to the Cavaliers than to the Restoration, will not concern us here, though it may be observed that this poetry brought Waller considerable acclaim; the Biographia Britannica even called him “the most celebrated Lyric Poet that ever England produced.”1 Yet the tendency to associate Waller with merely...
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SOURCE: Chernaik, Warren L. “The Rise of Heroic Satire.” In The Poetry of Limitation: A Study of Edmund Waller, pp. 172-92. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968.
[In the following excerpt, Chernaik argues that Waller was instrumental in the development of poetic satire.]
Waller served as an example to his neoclassical successors in two ways—as a model for imitation, especially in panegyric and satire, and as an innovator in technique. Waller's role in the development of the heroic couplet is a subject several critics have commented upon; the only book-length study of the poet, Alexander Ward Allison's Toward an Augustan Poetic: Edmund Waller's “Reform” of English Poetry, devotes itself entirely to this subject. But other equally important aspects of Waller's influence, in particular the relationship between his panegyrics and Augustan verse satire, have received much less attention.
One index to the major role Waller played in forming the Augustan sensibility is the frequency with which his poems were imitated. Waller's “sweetness,” as exemplified in his lyrics, gave rise to a large and undistinguished progeny of occasional love songs and jeux d'esprit by one or another young gentleman, dotting the pages of Tonson's Miscellanies and similar volumes. The most persistent of the epigoni was George Granville, Lord Lansdowne, who in Johnson's words “seems to...
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SOURCE: Miner, Earl. “The Social Mode.” In The Cavalier Mode from Jonson to Cotton, pp. 15-42. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971.
[In the following excerpt, Miner analyzes Waller's works to demonstrate the use of conventional motifs in Cavalier poetry.]
II. THE CREATION OF PERSON AND PLACE
One purpose of this study is to show how the best Cavalier poetry works, how it enlivens conventions, whether social or literary, and how, to a reader grown accustomed to the accent of this province of English poetry, it has something enduringly important to say. As Charles Cotton had served my purpose earlier to convey something of the quality of the musical key, as it were, of the social mode, so now Edmund Waller may be taken to show something of the range of Cavalier motifs after Jonson. Waller's name is no longer the coffee-house word it was to critical Dick Minims in the eighteenth century, and his poetry has not been analyzed out of existence. To such negative reasons for choosing him, I may add the historical one that he did truly seem to another generation of writers to have played a significant role in the development of poetry in their times. I also like him. Waller's “Of the last Verses in the Book” provided him with an opportunity to be personal in the manner of a Roman poet (or Chaucer) bidding his little book farewell. Instead he seems about to write a public...
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SOURCE: Gilbert, Jack G. “Waller's View of Art and His Place in English Literature.” In Edmund Waller, pp. 109-40, Boston: Twayne, 1979.
[In the following essay, Gilbert discusses the influence of the myth of Orpheus on Waller's aesthetic and analyzes the reception of his work by his contemporaries and by present-day commentators.]
I WALLER'S VIEW OF ART
A. THE ORPHIC FORCES
Little attention need to be paid to the commendatory verses which good nature prompted him [Waller] to address to such of his friends as were authors,” wrote G. Thorn-Drury in his brief commentary on the poetry.1 For several reasons I believe the judgment to be wrong. Waller wrote a number of poems to and about artists: “To Mr. Henry Lawes,” “To Mr. George Sandys,” “To Vandyck,” “Upon Ben Jonson,” “To Sir William Davenant,” “To His Worthy Friend, Master Evelyn,” “Upon the Earl of Roscommon's Translation of Horace.” Reflections upon art are a persistent theme in diverse poems throughout his career; and, as I shall try to show in the second part of this chapter, his poems to artists and about art elucidate his position in English literature.
Still another reason may be adduced as refutation of Thorn-Drury's dismissal of the poems to authors (and, as the topic naturally broadens, about art). Waller is essentially a poet of...
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SOURCE: Chambers, A. B. “Waller and the Painter.” In Andrew Marvell and Edmund Waller: Seventeenth-Century Praise and Restoration Satire, pp. 85-107. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991.
[In the following essay, Chambers examines Waller's role in the evolution of painter poems.]
On 3 June 1665, English forces commanded by James, Duke of York, defeated a Dutch navy under the admiralty of Jacob Wassenaer, Baron von Opdam, in a battle fought in the North Sea off the coast of Lowestoft, the easternmost extreme of England. That much is clear enough, and since almost everything thereafter was evidently mishandled, it probably is true that “the English victory off Lowestoft” was “the high point of this Second Dutch War.”1 The first one (1652-54) had been ended by the Treaty of Westminster, some of the terms of which included Dutch reparations for actions dating from as far back as 1623, but this second one was to be concluded indecisively, and part of it was to be humiliating. As of July 1664, the Dutch were sufficiently wary to avoid the English Channel, preferring—when feasible—to send cargos north around Scotland despite the longer distance. One month later, an English fleet was so ill-prepared to counter the Dutch presence at Guinea that it got as far as Portsmouth but not out of that port. On 20 November, however, some Dutch ships en route from Bordeaux...
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SOURCE: Kaminski, Thomas. “Edmund Waller: English Precieux.” Philological Quarterly 79, no. 1 (Winter 2000): 19-43.
[In the following essay, Kaminski argues that Waller was the first English precieux poet.]
Everyone who has pondered the vagaries of poetic reputations knows that Edmund Waller is a problem. When he died in 1687, his tomb was graced with a Latin epitaph that declared him “among the poets of his time, easily the first”—and the poets of his time included Milton, Cowley, the Cavaliers, several of the Metaphysicals, and Dryden. This praise was by no means a distortion of his contemporary reputation: as late as 1766 the authors of the Biographia Britannica could still call him “the most celebrated Lyric Poet that ever England produced.”1 To modern critics such estimates seem the result of an affected (or perhaps depraved) poetic taste. Today when Waller is not ignored, he is generally disparaged.2 Those who would approach him sympathetically remove him from his contemporary context and turn him into a “predecessor,” into the poet who showed the way to Dryden and Pope. F. W. Bateson, for example, posited two Wallers, “a minor Renaissance poet and a major Augustan poet.”3 If my intention were to rehabilitate Waller, I would probably follow a similar strategy; but I wish to do something else, to put Waller into an authentic seventeenth-century...
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Drury, G. Thorn. Introduction to The Poems of Edmund Waller, edited by G. Thorn Drury, vol. 1, pp. xiii-lxxiv. London: George Routledge & Sons, 1893.
Discusses Waller's life and works.
Skelton, Robin. “The Cavalier Poets: Edmund Waller (1606-1687).” In Poets: American and British, edited by Ian Scott-Kilvert, George Stade, Leonard Unger, and A. Walton Litz, vol. 1, pp. 306-10. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1998.
A brief biographical overview.
A review of Poetical Works of Edmund Waller. North American Review 91, no. 2 (October 1860): 376-84.
Negative review of a collection of Waller's poetry.
Wikelund, Philip R. “Edmund Waller's Fitt of Versifying: Deductions from a Holograph Fragment, Folger MS. X.d.309.” Philogical Quarterly 49, no. 1 (January 1970): 68-91.
Analyzes changes Waller made to certain manuscripts.
Additional coverage of Waller's life and career is contained in the following source published by the Gale Group: Dictionary of Literary Biography, Vol. 126.
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