Form and Content (Masterplots II: Women's Literature Series)
The Edible Woman, the premier work of fiction by noted Canadian poet Margaret Atwood, is a forerunner of much of the feminist literature that would follow the theme of woman in search of individual identity and worthwhile meaning in her life. The work is divided into three distinct sections, separated by the literary device of alternating narrative point of view. Although the narrator does not change, the voice changes as her perspective of herself alters. Section 1 employs first-person, though unreliable, narration, in section 2 the narrator refers to herself in third person as she essentially loses touch with who she is, and the third section returns to first person as the narrator reclaims her identity. At the time of its release, the novel was a fresh approach to the presentation of women characters in fiction, an almost surreal type of feminist black humor.
Although the story is set within the time frame of the free-love 1960’s, when women were beginning to discover themselves as individuals, the protagonist, Marian MacAlpin, seems wedged in by the values and myths of the generation that preceded her. Consequently, it is her adopted belief that in order for a woman, even an educated woman, to attain full identity, she must be defined by association with a successful man. In acquiescence to this code, Marian becomes involved with and subsequently engaged to Peter, an attractive young up-and-comer who expects her to act and react only in...
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Context (Masterplots II: Women's Literature Series)
Although The Edible Woman was poorly received in initial reviews, it has come to be considered one of the first heraldings of women’s right to independence. The book was not released until 1969, after a delay of five years, and despite the fact that the women’s movement had made significant strides during the 1960’s, an independent woman was not yet a totally acceptable ideal at that time. Additionally, and regardless of the fact that ritualistic cannibalism has been a theme in the world’s literary canon since its conception, some critics were offended by the approach in Atwood’s work, chiding her for moral irresponsibility when discussing birth and emotions in such tones.
Near the end of the work, Duncan, as alter ego to the protagonist, points out, as they sit on the edge of an empty pit, that Marian’s life is her “own personal cul-de-sac,” that she invented it and she would have to find her own way out. Though Marian MacAlpin has been little changed by the unfolding events in her life, she nevertheless becomes more human as she retreats slightly from her dead-end destination and becomes a hero of sorts in accepting her own complicity in her victimization, thus serving as a positive role model for future authors and readers alike. One reviewer missed this point, however, and complained that the novel was wasted paper, peopled with insignificant characters. Although the work is open-ended, one is left with the faint hope that...
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Historical and Cultural Context
Patricia Goldblatt in "Reconstructing Margaret Atwood's Protagonists" begins her essay by describing the historical and cultural context within which Margaret Atwood lives and works:
Margaret Atwood weaves stories from her own life in the bush and cities of Canada. Intensely conscious of her political and social context, Atwood dispels the notion that caribou-clad Canadians remain perpetually locked in blizzards while simultaneously seeming to be a polite mass of gray faces, often indistinguishable from their American neighbors. Atwood has continually pondered the lack of an identifiable Canadian culture ... In an attempt to focus on Canadian experiences, Atwood has populated her stories with Canadian cities, conflicts, and contemporary people.
Atwood and a handful of other women writers in Canada are considered to have marked a turning point in Canadian literature. Her first novel, The Edible Woman, was written before the resurgence of the women's movement, but the ideas in her novel helped to spark the need for change. Atwood attended college during the 1960s, both in Canada and in the United States. It was during this time that the feminist movement, also referred to as the Women's Liberation Movement, experienced a renaissance in both countries. Intrinsically involved in this...
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Chapters 1-4: Questions and Answers
1. What is Marian’s job?
2. Why does she envy Ainsley her job as a tester of defective
3. Where do Marian and Ainsley live?
4. Describe Marian’s relationship to Ainsley.
5. What does Marian look at on her way to work?
6. Why is Marian unhappy with her company’s mandatory pension plan?
7. What is Ainsley’s nickname for Marian’s colleagues, Emmy, Lucy, and Millie?
8. Why is Peter upset about his friend Trigger’s marriage?
9. When Marian visits her friend Clara, what does she think her role will be for the evening?
10. What does Ainsley think of Marian’s relationship to Peter?
1. Marian works for Seymour Surveys, a market research company. She revises questionnaires.
2. She thinks Ainsley is lucky because her job is more temporary and unusual.
3. They live on the top floor of a large house in one of the older and more genteel districts of town.
4. They are roommates but do not have very much in common. They met just before they moved in together. Before that Ainsley was a friend of a friend.
5. She likes to look at the advertisements in the bus on her way to work.
6. Marian feels as though the pension plan binds her to an unavoidable future where a preformed self awaits.
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Chapters 5-8: Questions and Answers
1. Why does Ainsley criticize Clara’s lifestyle?
2. What reason does Ainsley give for wanting to have a baby?
3. What does Marian decide to do about her friend’s sudden decision to have a child?
4. What is Marian’s first impression of Duncan?
5. How did Marian meet Peter?
6. Why does Peter choose the bathtub (according to Marian)?
7. Why does Ainsley show up at the bar dressed to look much younger than she actually is?
8. What does Marian decide to do about Ainsley’s use of
9. How does Marian interpret the look Len gives her in the bar?
10. Why does Marian run away? What (or who) is she running from?
1. Ainsley thinks that Clara allows herself to be treated like a thing. She thinks that she should do something.
2. Ainsley thinks every woman should have a baby because “it fulfils your deepest femininity.”
3. Marian initially tries to think of a way to stop Ainsley but then becomes resigned, thinking that it isn’t any of her business. She decides that she will simply have to “adjust to the situation.”
4. When Marian first sees Duncan she thinks that he is about 15. She is also struck by his thinness (he is described as
“cadaverously thin” and as an “emaciated figure” whose ribs stick out) and...
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Chapters 9-12: Questions and Answers
1. Describe Peter’s, Len’s, and Ainsley’s reactions when Marian begins to run away from them.
2. What does Marian find so attractive about the dusty space beneath Len’s bed?
3. Describe Marian’s thoughts as she lies hidden beneath the bed.
4. Why does Marian run away yet again after Peter gets her up?
5. How does Peter react to the property damage he causes with his car?
6. What is Ainsley’s reaction to Marian’s engagement to Peter?
7. How do Marian and Peter view their engagement to each other?
8. Describe Duncan’s fascination with laundromats. Why does he go there so often?
9. What are Duncan’s thoughts on being a graduate student of English Literature?
10. Summarize Marian’s thoughts in the last chapter of Part One. Is she being honest with herself? Is she trying to justify her actions somehow?
1. At first all three are astonished and do nothing. Peter and Len start after Marian but Peter turns back to get his car. When they finally catch up to her, Peter asks what the hell got into her. Len tells her that he did not think her the
hysterical type. The next morning, Ainsley tells Marian that she behaved like a “real idiot.”
2. She thinks it would be quiet. Once underneath, she feels like she is underground, as though she had dug herself...
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Chapters 13-16: Questions and Answers
1. How has Marian’s attitude towards her job changed since her engagement?
2. Why do Marian and her friends from work go to a fancy restaurant for lunch?
3. What are the three office virgins hoping to get from Marian following the announcement of her engagement?
4. What is the link between Peter and the “Underwear Man”?
5. What peculiar sensation overcomes Marian in the movie theatre?
6. Why has Marian been avoiding her friend Clara?
7. What does Marian think she has escaped when she leaves Clara’s hospital room?
8. Explain Duncan’s addiction to ironing.
9. What goes through Marian’s mind as Duncan pulls her down beside him on his bed?
10. What is Duncan’s reaction when he learns that Marian is engaged to be married?
1. Now that she is engaged, Marian knows that her job at Seymour Surveys is temporary. As a result, she views her surroundings with a certain amount of detachment and is unable to feel a sense of participation with the turmoil around her.
2. It is Lucy who suggests the fancier-than-usual restaurant. Lucy has been eating at fancier restaurants because she reasons that these are the places “the right kind of men might be expected to be lurking.”
3. They want to know how Marian caught her man.
4. After hearing about...
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Chapters 17-19: Questions and Answers
1. Describe Marian’s feelings towards Peter as they sit together in the restaurant.
2. What triggers Marian’s thought of the diagram of the planned cow?
3. What does Marian make of her inability to eat certain foods?
4. Does Peter have any difficulty finishing his steak? What does he say when he is finished eating?
5. What brand of beer does Marian offer Len? Why did she choose to buy this particular brand?
6. After learning that Ainsley planned to get pregnant, Len makes a comment concerning women and college education. What does he say?
7. At the office Christmas party, Marian sits with Lucy, Millie, and Emmy even though they are now treating her coolly. Why has their behaviour towards Marian changed?
8. What does Marian buy Peter for Christmas?
9. Is there any evidence in the text that Marian is somehow affected by the story about the girl who stopped washing?
10. Walking in the snowy park near the university, Marian decides that she is just about ready to go home and eat half a cow. What stops her?
1. Marian thinks of Peter as “nicely packaged” and, sitting with him here in this public place, feels a sense of “proud
2. Watching Peter cut his meat leads to thoughts about Moose Beer commercials, removed violence, and the cow diagram....
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Chapters 20-22: Questions and Answers
1. Why does Marian resent the music that is filtered through the aisles of the supermarket?
2. How does Marian’s knowledge of marketing strategies help protect her against the various schemes used to increase the desire to buy?
3. Earlier in the novel, Len made a comment about women and education. In Chapter 20, a similar view is expressed. What is it?
4. Marian’s dinner party is not a success. After her guests have left, Peter decides that he and Marian will never be like Clara and Joe. Marian decides that it does not matter if Peter does not get along with them—why?
5. According to Duncan, what do sex and the writing of term papers have in common?
6. After being invited to dinner by Duncan’s roommate, Trevor, Marian tells Duncan about her eating problem. What is his diagnosis?
7. Summarize Fish’s reading of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.
8. Walking home after dinner, Marian asks Duncan why he does not consider moving. What is his answer?
9. When Marian and Duncan stop to sit near a baseball park, what does Marian suddenly get the urge to do?
10. Before dinner, Marian removed her engagement ring. Where did she put it?
1. Because she knows why it is there: it is supposed to lull shoppers into a “euphoric trance” and lower sales resistance to the point where...
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Chapters 23-25: Questions and Answers
1. Lying in bed with Peter on the day after Valentine’s Day, Marian worries about her body’s recent rejection of rice pudding. What else is Marian worried about?
2. Explain the jealousy Marian feels towards her friend Clara.
3. What does Marian give Peter for Valentine’s Day? Why? When?
4. Does Peter like the gift? Does Marian?
5. Why does Marian choose to buy a red sequined dress that she does not really like?
6. Marian is not pleased with her new hair style but does not ask the hairdresser to change it. Why not?
7. Why is Marian afraid of losing her engagement ring?
8. What does Marian do when feeling herself dissolve in the tub?
9. Does this ease her panic?
10. What does she do next?
1. What bothers her, essentially, is the thought that she may not be normal. She is afraid to tell Peter about her problem because he might think that she is “some kind of freak” and postpone the wedding.
2. Marian envies Clara because whatever was going to happen to her had already happened. She does not want to change places with Clara; she simply wants to know what she is becoming.
3. Marian gives Peter a heart-shaped cake with pink icing. She buys it because he had sent her a dozen roses and she, having no gift for him, felt guilty. She buys the cake on the day...
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Chapters 26-29: Questions and Answers
1. Describe Marian’s feelings as she contemplates Peter’s wardrobe closet.
2. What is Peter’s response when Marian asks if he loves her?
3. Why is Joe so happy that he and Clara were invited to the party?
4. What is Trevor’s reaction when Marian opens the door?
5. What is Duncan’s reaction?
6. How does Peter react to Len’s “baptism in utero”?
7. When Marian realizes that she is still safe, that Peter has not yet snapped her photo, she decides that she must get out before it’s too late. Too late for what?
8. Where does Marian go when she leaves the party?
9. On the morning after their night together, what reason does Duncan give for not wanting to stay with Marian?
10. Why does Duncan discourage Marian from seeing a psychiatrist?
1. She feels that Peter’s clothes assert an “invisible silent authority” and regards them with fear.
2. He kisses her on the earring and assures her that he loves her, especially in the red dress.
3. Because Clara never gets the chance to get out of the house.
4. Trevor does not recognize Marian. He then tells her that she should wear red more often.
5. Duncan examines Marian carefully and asks her who she is supposed to be.
6.He takes a picture.
7. By now a...
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Chapters 30-31: Questions and Answers
1. Why does Marian bake a cake shaped like a woman?
2. What does she hope to accomplish by presenting Peter with a substitute woman?
3. When Marian completes her cake, she feels a certain pity for it. Why?
4. Is there any evidence that Marian is still not completely sure of herself?
5. What does Ainsley think of Marian’s cake-woman?
6. What is to be made of Marian’s statement, “Now that I was thinking of myself in the first person singular again. . .”
7. Does Ainsley find a father image for her baby?
8. What does Duncan think of Marian’s explanations for breaking off her engagement to Peter?
9. How does Duncan interpret Marian’s new-found ability to eat?
10. Who severs the cake’s head from its body?
1. The simplest answer to this question is that Marian wishes to present Peter with a test.
2. Marian accuses Peter of trying to assimilate her. By presenting him with this substitute cake-woman, she hopes to reclaim her right to determine her own identity and reject the version of herself that he has been trying to create.
3. Marian feels powerless: the fate of the cake, which looks delicious and very appetizing, has been decided.
4. She believes that her actions will appear infantile to a rational observer. She also thinks that if...
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Point of View
One of the most obvious style techniques that Atwood uses in The Edible Woman is her unusual use of point of view, or the perspective from which the story is told. Atwood begins the story with a first-person narrator, Marian McAlpin, telling the story from her own perspective, almost sounding as if she were talking to herself.
However, immediately following Marian's engagement to Peter, Atwood changes the narrator, and for the entire second part of the book, the story is told from a third-person point of view. This distances the reader from Marian, just as Marian begins distancing her mind from her body. Darlene Kelly says in "Either Way, I Stand Condemned" that Marian "seems always out of touch with reality, even with who she is ... this estrangement from herself corresponds perfectly to her use of a detached, third-person voice." In the last two chapters of the book, Marian comes back to herself with the statement, "Now that I was thinking of myself in the first person singular again, I found my own situation much more interesting." Correspondingly, Atwood switches back to a first-person narration.
Prevalent in The Edible Woman is the cultural attitude of the early 1960s toward women and the institution of marriage. This was a time prior to the revitalization of the women's movement, a time when women were expected to marry and upon...
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Given Atwood's proclivity for creating first person narrative voices, her experimentation in The Edible Woman is doubly intriguing. Parts I and III allow Marian to speak in her own voice, emphasizing her greater sense of personal control and identity, while in Part II, which begins soon after her engagement to Peter, she is presented in the third person. Although it becomes clear that here too Marian's consciousness still shapes the narrative, the third person objectification stylistically supports the fact that Marian feels herself becoming a thing, the object of other people's appropriation of her life. It is after she bolts from her engagement party and bakes her edible woman that she regains the use of her own voice, acknowledging that now "I was thinking of myself in the first person singular again."
Another striking stylistic aspect of the novel is Atwood's skillful blending of realistic surfaces and fantastic, even surreal, depths, as a recognizable and wittily observed social scene becomes the milieu through which the idiosyncratic psyche of the narrator travels. On one level the novel functions as an entertaining comedy of manners in its juxtaposition of widely divergent communities in a rapidly changing Toronto, including upwardly-mobile young singles, would-be intelligentsia, and aggressively conventional middle- class families. On a more abstract level Atwood's poetic sensibility enables her to create powerful symbols like that of...
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Ideas for Group Discussions
The Edible Woman offers a fascinating glimpse into the situation faced by talented young women before the social changes brought about by feminism, and as such it should provoke considerable conversation among older readers about the starkness of the choices women were permitted in the not so distant past. But it should also stir debate about the emotional turmoil still facing women trying to determine the direction of their lives since the Women's Movement has rendered such decisions so much more self-conscious. It thus invites discussion about the ambivalence with which young women assess their options and the complex baggage they must sort out concerning traditional roles as wives and mothers. Readers might also be intrigued by Marion's fears of being devoured by adult female responsibilities, particularly the "traps" of sexuality and fertility. Eating disorders, one expression of that fear, have become a familiar topic of conversation since the novel's publication, and will no doubt elicit considerable commentary.
The trenchant satire of contemporary consumer culture offered by this late sixties novel should stimulate analysis about how the situation might be described today—which assumptions of that earlier era can be said to have continued on pace, for example, and which have been discredited or reconfigured. In sum, has the condition of consumer society improved or worsened?
1. How do you assess the circumstances in which...
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Margaret Atwood's first published novel, The Edible Woman, introduced readers to many of the themes that she elaborates in her later fiction. The feminist dimensions of Marian McAlpin's struggle to define her own identity within the conventionalized and artificial context of contemporary mass society were immediately recognized by critics, for Marian progresses from docile amiability in the pursuit of marriage and security, to hyperbolic repudiation of male parasitism.
The mordant satirical bite of the novel includes other frequent Atwood targets. The female identity crisis Marian suffers reflects the cultural assumptions of a society that not only dictates traditional roles but also replaces individuality with plastic inauthenticity; no one can achieve real identity in the deadening atmosphere of such technocratic societies. Marian's job creating inane surveys for a marketing firm highlights the intrusiveness of consumer culture and its self-interested emphasis upon image rather than substance; reality is intentionally obscured, and the resulting inability to penetrate surfaces one knows intuitively to be false causes a schism in the contemporary psyche which breeds the alienation and confusion that overcome Atwood's protagonist. Despite clever packaging, Marian becomes increasingly repulsed by the voracious animal appetite driving human consumption and its wanton exploitation of the planet's other living species. But she herself invites the...
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Compare and Contrast
1965-1969: Forty women in Canada are reported to have died because of illegal attempts to end their pregnancies.
1968: The McGill Student Society publishes "The Birth Control Handbook" although the distribution of information on birth control is illegal in Canada. It becomes an underground bestseller.
1969: The House of Commons in Canada passes an Omnibus Bill covering birth control. The dissemination of birth control information is decriminalized.
1991: A federal law that would legalize abortions in Canada is defeated although it is legal in some provinces.
1992: The number of abortions in Canada exceeds 100,000.
1969: The Montreal Movement is founded.
1990: A young man shoots and kills fourteen young women in Montreal, stating, "You are all feminists."
1993: The Canadian federal government sets up a panel on violence against women.
1973: A farm wife is denied half-interest in the farm that she and her husband built together. Her work is seen simply as the fulfillment of her wifely duties.
1984: The Canadian Royal Commission on Equality in Employment makes recommendations for sweeping changes in this area but later tables its report.
1970: In Canada, almost 52...
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Topics for Further Study
Americans are constantly exposed to ads each day via television, radio, billboard signs, and printed material. But even more interesting is the general acceptance of consumers to wear apparel with company names stamped in large letters across their heads, backs, and feet. Take a class survey of how many people object to wearing company logos on their clothes. Then debate the pros and cons of such a practice, keeping in mind topics such as consumer rights and possible actions that consumers might take to ban this type of free advertising.
Today, even though women have gained more rights and recognition, the industrial world is still very much a patriarchal society. Think about what a matriarchal society might be like, then discuss what you think the differences between the two societies would be in terms of employment and marriage.
A woman often has to choose between motherhood and a profession. If she wants both, she finds herself in a constant battle to meet the responsibilities of both. If she chooses to work full time, her children are often left in day-care centers for long periods of time. What do you see as the future solution for this problem? Should one of the parents stay at home to raise the children until they are at least of school age? Which one? And should there be monetary compensation for the stay-at-home parent? If so, where do the funds come from? Or should the government and business communities work together to establish...
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Atwood's self-conscious literary sensibility and training make her very aware of the traditional forms she adapts for her own uses, and in this case she pointedly labels The Edible Woman "an anti-comedy": the protagonist's success lies in not marrying the supposed hero after all, since he actually represents the restrictive societal controls that comic lovers traditionally escape.
Atwood's fondness for intertextual dialogue between her own work and that of a precursor fiction surfaces here in the inclusion of a lengthy discussion of Alice in Wonderland offered by Duncan's graduate student friend Fish. Alice's experience in a world where the everyday has been rendered absurd invites obvious analogy to Marian's passage beyond the looking glass of convention that has regulated her life. But by putting such analysis into the mouth of the pedantic Fish she exposes the political uses of literary criticism wherein many a female story falls prey to male appropriation and distortion. With his phallocentrism evident in his explicitly Freudian approach to Carroll's text, Fish transforms the established interpretation of Alice as a girl suffering a sexual identity crisis into a more narrowly prescriptive cautionary tale of thwarted female maturation. Alice, he asserts, repudiates the models of responsible femininity she is offered and instead goes off with the Mock Turtle in regressive preadolescent indifference to her proper adult identity. Despite its...
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Published in 1971, Atwood's poetry collection entitled Power Politics offers another study in the decay of a relationship amid the various miscommunications and misunderstandings that plague them. The female speaker of the poems, initially relishing her self-proclaimed victim status, gradually moves beyond such defeatism by deconstructing the myths that distort the ways men and women see one another.
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Margaret Atwood wrote two screenplay versions of The Edible Woman for Minotaur Films in 1970 and for Windfall Ltd. in 1971.
Dave Carley wrote a play adapted from Margaret Atwood's novel The Edible Woman. The play premiered with the 2000 summer season in both Canada and the United States.
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What Do I Read Next?
Margaret Atwood's prize-winning 1996 novel Alias Grace is about a young woman who is accused of murder. Atwood provides a vivid portrait of the status of women in nineteenth-century Canada.
Margaret Atwood's Dancing Girls and Other Stories (1982) is a collection of short stories about women, relationships, and life.
Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique, published in 1963, explores the causes of women's frustrations with their traditional roles in late 1950s and early 1960s America. It describes the sense of personal worthlessness that women were feeling during those decades, as their roles demanded that they seek their identities only as wives and mothers.
Kate Millett's Sexual Politics, published in 1970, was one of the first major theoretical works in the renaissance of feminism. It helped to define the ideas and goals of the women's movement.
Virginia Woolf is often called the mother of twentieth-century feminist literary criticism. Her book Orlando (1928) analyzes the way gender determines the individual's relationship to property and art at different moments in history.
Alice Munro, another Canadian writer, has a collection of short stories called Open Secrets: Stories which was...
(The entire section is 314 words.)
Bibliography (Masterplots II: British and Commonwealth Fiction Series)
Grace, Sherrill E., and Lorraine Weir, eds. Margaret Atwood: Language, Text, and System. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1983. A compilation of critical essays written about Margaret Atwood and her work. One piece discusses Atwood’s transition from poetry to fiction; another is a feminist reading of her poetry. The longest entries discuss the novel Surfacing in relation to syntax and theme, particularly related to Amerindian influences and shamanism.
McLay, Catherine. “The Dark Voyage: The Edible Woman as Romance,” in The Art of Margaret Atwood, 1981. Edited by Arnold E. Davidson and Catherine Davidson.
MacLulich, T. D. “Atwood’s Adult Fairy Tale: Levi-Strauss, Bettelheim, and The Edible Woman,” in Essays on Canadian Writing. No. 11 (Summer, 1978), pp. 111-129.
Nicholson, Mervyn. “Food and Power: Homer, Carroll, Atwood, and Others.” Mosaic 20 (Summer, 1987): 37-55. This essay discusses the uses of ritualistic cannibalism for effect throughout literature. Although the majority of the text is devoted to Homer, there are many references to Atwood as well as comparisons to Lewis Carroll.
Nodelman, Perry. “Trusting the Untrustworthy,” in Journal of Canadian Fiction. No. 21 (1977-1978), pp. 73-82.
Page, Sheila. “Supermarket...
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Bibliography and Further Reading
Atwood, Margaret, “Great Unexpectations: An Autobiographical Foreword,” Margaret Atwood: Visions and Forms. Kathryn VanSpanckeren and Jan Garden Castro, eds. Carbondale:
So. Illinois UP, 1988.
Atwood, Margaret, "Margaret Atwood, Writing Philosophy," Waterstone's Poetry Lecture Series delivered at Hay On Wye, Wales, June 1995, taken from "Canadian Poets" on the Canadian Poetry website, University of Toronto, 2000, www.library.utoronto.ca/canpoetry (last accessed March, 2001).
Atwood, Margaret, The Edible Woman, First published 1969. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1989.
Avant, John Alfred, Review, in Library Journal, Vol. 95, No. 16, September 15, 1970, p. 2934.
Bedell, Geraldine, "Nothing but the Truth Writing between the Lines," in Independent on Sunday, September 1, 1996, p. 17.
Cameron, Elspeth, “Famininity, or Parody of Autonomy: Anorexia Nervosa and The Edible Woman,” Journal of Canadian Studies, Vol. 20, No. 2 (Summer 1985): 45-69.
Carrington, Ildiko de Papp, Margaret Atwood and Her Works, Toronto: ECW Press, 1985.
Davey, Frank, “An Unneeded Biography,” Margaret Atwood: A Feminist Poetics, Vancouver: Talon Books, 1984.
Deutsch, Andre, Review,...
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