Ecofeminism and Nineteenth-Century Literature
Ecofeminism and Nineteenth-Century Literature
Ecologically centered discipline that critiques the dominant male practices and discourses relating to nature.
Ecological feminism, or ecofeminism, is an interdisciplinary movement that calls for a new way of thinking about nature, politics, and spirituality. Ecofeminist theory questions or rejects previously held patriarchal paradigms and holds that the domination of women by men is intimately linked to the destruction of the environment. Ecofeminists argue that traditional male-centered approaches involving exploitation of and supremacy over women are echoed in patriarchal practices and discourse with respect to the environment. Ecofeminism came into being in the early 1970s in the United States, when a number of women became disillusioned with the mainstream environmental movement and sought to create more awareness among feminists about environmental concerns. Feminists before this had seen it as important to deemphasize the differences between men and women, but ecofeminists embarked on a study of particularly female ways of being and thinking about nature throughout history. Thinkers in various fields, from science to anthropology, sociology, history, and politics began to critique traditional attitudes toward the environment from a feminist perspective. In the 1990s, a field of study called ecocriticism—an earth-centered approach to literary studies—began to emerge in literature departments in the United States. Ecocriticism studies the relationship between literature and the physical environment, asking how nature is represented in literary works. While ecofeminist literary criticism is similarly concerned with the depiction of nature, it emphasizes how traditional representations often see the land as innocent, female, and ripe for exploitation.
While ecofeminist literary critics examine literature from all cultures and throughout history to explore female perspectives on nature, nineteenth-century English and American literature is seen as a particularly rich area of study. As ecofeminist literary critics have shown, nature writing by women in both England and the United States flourished in the nineteenth century. The study of flora and fauna, which could be done relatively close to home, was seen as a respectable occupation for middle- and upper-class women; thus, a number of them took an interest in writing about their natural environment. Few of these female nature writers are well-known outside scholarly circles, but they are seen as important because they offer radically different perspectives on the study of plants and animals than do their male contemporaries. Also significant is that many of these women regarded nature as a liberating force, especially in contrast to their confining domestic existences.
For many nineteenth-century women, the sense of place was an important aspect of their writing and many wrote about the local landscape that was often an integral part of their daily life. One of the best-known writers who made place a central element in her fiction was the American novelist Sarah Orne Jewett. The Country of the Pointed Firs (1896), for example, is set in the fictional town of Dunnett Landing on the coast of Maine, and the action of the novel revolves around the town and surrounding islands. The story is of a young woman writer who spends a summer in the small town, where she falls in with a group of women who weave a web of stories about the place and its people. Jewett also portrays this circle of women as a manifestation of nature that seems to arise from the rugged landscape. Another important, but neglected, work about place is Rural Hours (1850) by Susan Fenimore Cooper, the daughter of the novelist James Fenimore Cooper. Rural Hours is one of the earliest examples of American nature writing and the first by a woman. In this work, Cooper describes an ideal rural society based on her experiences during her excursions in the local countryside. She also shows how that society is changing as the wilderness recedes and industrialization looms. Cooper suggests that knowledge of place encourages people to respect the land, and she discusses the moral obligation of human beings to create a society that is aware of the natural history of the environment and lives in harmony with the natural world.
Other female writers wrote about place not because it was familiar but because it was new and different from what they left behind as they sought a better life in new and distant regions. Many American frontierswomen left accounts of their travel experiences in diaries and letters which have been collected and studied by feminist scholars. These documents show how different their perspectives were from their male contemporaries. For many women, life on the frontier meant further drudgery and hard work doing domestic chores, and consequently they had a different sense of the possibilities of the landscape than did their husbands and sons. Other women travelers noted in their writings that despite the promise of untouched landscapes, women's domestic captivity prevented them from enjoying what the land had to offer. This is, for example, one of the themes of Margaret Fuller's Summer on the Lakes, in 1843 (1844), which chronicles the travels of Fuller and her companions as they visit Niagara Falls, the Great Lakes, Chicago, and the Wisconsin Territory.
Nineteenth-century nature writing by women took various forms, but one theme that is seen in most of these works is the importance of the link between human beings and their natural surroundings. For most female writers, concern with the environment is not tied to a romantic longing for the openness of the rugged landscape or the withdrawal from society, which are common themes in men's nature writing. Rather, the earth is seen as the sustainer of human life and relationships, and the fragile boundary between nature and humanity is emphasized. Critics who study these women's writings have been particularly interested to show how the “gendered” female landscape that is central to nineteenth-century male writing about the environment is given more complex expression in works by women. They also show how female writing about the environment weaves together concerns about ordinary life and explores questions of community, gender, domination, and exploitation.
Libby: The Sketches, Letters & Journal of Libby Beaman, Recorded in the Pribilof Islands, 1879-1880 (sketches, letters, and journals) 1998
Susan Fenimore Cooper
Rural Hours (nonfiction) 1850; revised 1887
Summer on the Lakes, in 1843 (nonfiction) 1844
Sarah Orne Jewett
Deephaven (novel) 1877
The Country of Pointed Firs (novel) 1896
A New Home—Who'll Follow? Or, Glimpses of Western Life (nonfiction) 1844
Recollections of a Happy Life (memoirs) 1894
Harriet Beecher Stowe
A Minister's Wooing (novel) 1860
Among the Isles of Shoals (nonfiction) 1873
The Wide, Wide World (novel) 1850
Letters Written during a Short Residence in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark (letters) 1796
Journal of a Tour on the Continent (journal) 1941
Journals of Dorothy Wordsworth. 2 vols. (journals) 1941
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SOURCE: Buell, Lawrence. “Pastoral Ideology.” In The Environmental Imagination: Thoreau, Nature Writing, and the Formation of American Culture, pp. 31-52. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1995.
[In the following excerpt, Buell discusses the distinct manner in which nineteenth-century women depicted nature.]
The feminist critique of wilderness romance should not block us from seeing how pastoral modes have functioned as a means of empowerment for women writers. While researching environmental writing and commentary from Thoreau's day to ours, I was surprised to find a significant degree of interdependence between the “major” male figures and the work and commentary of women writers less well known. Roughly half the nature essays contributed to the Atlantic Monthly during the late nineteenth century, the point when the nature essay became a recognized genre, were by female authors.1 Among early appraisals of Thoreau, I found, unexpectedly—given the predominant notion of Thoreau as appealing more to men than to women—that commentaries by women were more likely to be favorable than those by men. The first posthumous fictional recreation of Thoreau was by a woman, Louisa May Alcott (Moods ). The first book, to my knowledge, published by an outsider to the transcendentalist circle that celebrates nature as a refuge from hypercivilization with...
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SOURCE: Donovan, Josephine. “Ecofeminist Literary Criticism: Reading the Orange.” In Ecofeminist Literary Criticism: Theory, Interpretation, Pedagogy, edited by Greta Gaard and Patrick D. Murphy, pp. 74-96. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1998.
[In the following essay, Donovan posits that Western literary discourse has objectified and degraded nature by using inaccurate symbols (words) to displace the true meaning of the thing being described. According to Donovan, a better approach would be to direct close attention at each individual subject and to portray it in the most literal terms in order to provide a respectful description without distortion.]
There is a time for listening to the vibrations that things produce in detaching themselves [imperceptibly from] the nothing-being to which our blindness relegates them, there is a time for letting things struggling with indifference give themselves to be heard.
Il y a un temps pour écouter les vibrations que produisent les choses en se détachant imperceptiblement de l'être-rien en lequel notre aveuglement les relègue, il y a un temps pour laisser les choses en lutte avec l'indifférence, se donner à entendre.
Hélène Cixous, “Vivre l'Orange” (“To Live the Orange”)
Ecofeminist theory has provided a...
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SOURCE: Littenberg, Marcia B. “Gender and Genre: A New Perspective on Nineteenth-Century Women's Nature Writing.” In Such News of the Land: U. S. Women Nature Writers, edited by Thomas S. Edwards and Elizabeth A. DeWolfe, pp. 59-67. Hanover, N. H.: University Press of New England, 2001.
[In the following essay, Littenberg discusses the conditions surrounding the flourishing of women's nature writing in the late nineteenth century.]
In the last decades of the nineteenth century, American popular culture embraced nature and nature study in a number of important ways that encouraged women writers. Women writers published in a wide variety of popular magazines, as well as in scholarly journals, ranging from the Atlantic Monthly and Harper's New Monthly Magazine to Nature, Scientific Monthly, Audubon, and the American Naturalist.1 As this partial list indicates, a distinction was not always made between scholarly, scientific nature writing, and popular writing; the genre of nature writing during the late nineteenth century embraced not only appreciative personal essays and sketches but narratives of field work that combined science and sentiment. In addition to the narrative flexibility of nature writing during this period, women nature writers found a growing marketplace after 1860 in the popular journals and magazines that turned writing into a commercially viable...
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Criticism: The Local Landscape
SOURCE: Westling, Louise H. “Pastoral Ambivalence in Emerson and Thoreau.” In The Green Breast of the New World: Landscape, Gender, and American Fiction, pp. 39-53. Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 1996.
[In the following essay, Westling examines ideas about gender at the heart of the nature writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau.]
What James Fenimore Cooper defined through fiction as white Americans' innocent inheritance of the landscape, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau addressed explicitly in Nature and Walden, through deliberate acts of self-evaluation and national mythmaking (Lewis, American Adam, 13-27; Nash 2-10, 67-95). Oelschlaeger claims that as Thoreau's reputation has grown, Emerson has come to be seen more as a popularizer of European ideas than as an original thinker (133). But among scholars of American literature Emerson has experienced renewed popularity as a deconstructive thinker in the past fifteen years. In any case Walden grows so directly out of Nature, and echoes it so richly, that the two works must be considered together. Walden is as interlaced with European learning as Nature is, in spite of both writers' protestations of independence from the past. We have already seen how masculine opposition to the feminine metaphoric identification of land and nature is implicated in that past, and...
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SOURCE: Hoyer, Mark T. “Cultivating Desire, Tending Piety: Botanical Discourse in Harriet Beecher Stowe's The Minister's Wooing.” In Beyond Nature Writing: Expanding the Boundaries of Ecocriticism, edited by Karla Armbruster and Kathleen R. Wallace, pp. 111-25. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2001.
[In the following essay, Hoyer argues that Harriet Beecher Stowe's The Minister's Wooing is a good example of how women writers adapted male-dominated discussions about science and nature to their own purposes.]
In 1858 the preeminent American botanist Asa Gray opened his book Botany for Young People and Common Schools by quoting Matthew 6:28: “Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow” (1). Gray explains this verse as Christ's mandate to study the plants and, in so doing, to examine God's plan for humans. Later in the same volume, in describing flowers, Gray elucidates part of that plan: “The object of the flower is the production of seed. The flower consists of those parts, or organs, which are subservient to this end” (84). Those flowers that have “no proper covering or floral envelope” are “naked” (90).
Ten years later, in the first issue of the popular journal American Naturalist, another author began his article “The Fertilization of Flowering Plants” by declaring, “It is now universally accepted by...
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SOURCE: Richardson, Kelly L. “‘A Happy, Rural Seat of Various Views’: The Ecological Spirit in Sarah Orne Jewett's The Country of Pointed Firs and the Dunnet Landing Stories.” In Such News of the Land: U. S. Women Nature Writers, edited by Thomas S. Edwards and Elizabeth A. DeWolfe, pp. 95-109. Hanover, N. H.: University Press of New England, 2001.
[In the following essay, Richardson analyzes Sarah Orne Jewett's ecological focus, the connections she makes between people and nature, and her concern with spirituality in The Country of the Pointed Firs.]
“I think,” said Kate, “that the more one lives out of doors the more personality there seems to be in what we call inanimate things. The strength of the hills and the voice of the waves are no longer only grand poetical sentences, but an expression of something real, and more and more one finds God himself in the world, and believes that we may read the thoughts that He writes for us in the book of Nature.”
—Sarah Orne Jewett, Deephaven1
But Nature repossesses herself surely of what we boldly claim.
—Sarah Orne Jewett, “An October Ride”2
Along with themes of community, gender, and rural and city locations, discussions of nature play a significant role in Sarah...
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SOURCE: Blair, Andrea. “Landscape in Drag: The Paradox of Feminine Space in Susan Warner's The Wide, Wide World.” In The Greening of Literary Scholarship: Literature, Theory, and the Environment, edited by Steven Rosendale, pp. 111-30. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2002.
[In the following essay, Blair discusses the metaphor of land-as-woman, offers a theoretical foundation for a balanced exploration of gendered landscape representation, and tests her new approach by applying it to Susan Warner's 1850 novel The Wide, Wide World.]
Since the 1970s, the feminization of space has piqued the interest of geographers, feminists, and ecocritics alike. The essentializing link between women and the environment has become either a union to esteem—as some early ecofeminists affirmed—or to vilify. Recently, the ecocritical treatment of gender and the environment has been dominated by thinkers who rigorously condemn any determinist bind between women and the natural world. These writers have sought to sever the discursive equation of land and the feminine, viewing this equation as one that reduces women and nature to biological functions and fosters infantile, masculinist relations that are harmful to women and land alike. By equating women with the natural world, they reason, women are diminished to biological impulses and unalterable gender codings. Conversely, by gendering landscape female, the...
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SOURCE: Bryson, Michael A. “‘The Earth Is the Common Home of All’: Susan Fenimore Cooper's Investigations of a Settled Landscape.” In Visions of the Land: Science, Literature, and the American Environment from the Era of Exploration to the Age of Ecology, pp. 105-33. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2002.
[In the following essay, Bryson examines Susan Fenimore Cooper's scientific, literary, and environmental approach to her community in Rural Hours.]
From within the forests of central New York State in the mid-1800s, a land of expansive woodlands, rolling hills, quiet lakes, and small but growing communities, writer and naturalist Susan Fenimore Cooper published a book entitled Rural Hours (1850), which described the local environment and rural customs of her home village, Cooperstown. Cooper's text, like that of fellow diarist and enthusiastic observer of nature Henry David Thoreau's Walden (1854), is organized as a daily journal and covers the span of one year, season by season. Within this deceptively simple structure, however, is a complex, multilayered narrative that integrates natural history, cultural analysis, and personal stories—together, these elements form an environmental and social snapshot of Cooperstown in the mid-nineteenth century.
As one of the earliest works of nature writing by women in America and an important part of the...
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Criticism: Travel Writing
SOURCE: Kolodny, Annette. “Margaret Fuller: Recovering Our Mother's Gardens.” In The Land Before Her: Fantasy and Experience of the American Frontiers, 1630-1860, pp. 112-30. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1984.
[In the following essay, Kolodny contends Margaret Fuller's travel writings, particularly Summer on the Lakes, express the existence of an Edenic world that is beyond the reach of women because of their domestic captivity.]
When Mary Austin Holley first visited Texas in the autumn of 1831, she brought rose slips from her daughter's garden in Kentucky to plant around her brother's home at Bolivar; some years later, she set out “the first strawberries in Texas.”1 If the women who first contemplated making a home for themselves on the vast expanse of the American prairies thus felt the need to bring their gardens with them, a later generation claimed to discover on those same prairies a ready-made “garden interspersed with cottages, groves, and flowery lawns.”2 The promotional appeals to a prairie Eden had had their effect—even on a self-willed New Englander who anticipated only antipathy at “‘the encircling vastness,’” a woman who came “to the west prepared for the distaste I must experience at its mushroom growth” (SL, pp. 35, 28).
To be sure, Margaret Fuller was not contemplating settlement nor...
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SOURCE: Hust, Karen. “In Suspect Terrain: Mary Wollstonecraft Confronts Mother Nature in Letters Written during a Short Residence in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark.” Women's Studies 25 (1996): 483-505.
[In the following essay, Hust examines Mary Wollstonecraft's perception of nature in her travel writings about Scandinavia's rugged and rocky coasts.]
The landscape [or representation of a natural scene] is not so much a paradise to long for … as it is a mirror that reflects our own cultural image. We now view landscape photographs, both past and present, much like the shadows on the walls of Plato's cave. They are artifacts of what we think we know about the land, and how we have come to know it—the language of an individual's experience in his or her time, and at their best a form of commentary.
Mark Klett, 72-3
Over two hundred years ago, in June of 1795, Mary Wollstonecraft and her infant daughter boarded a ship bound for Sweden. Wollstonecraft, the English radical reviewer and polemicist for the rights of women, was on the trail of a deal that had gone bad for her smuggler lover, Gilbert Imlay.1 But while Wollstonecraft helped Imlay, she also suspected that he was unfaithful, and she needed a way to earn the money to leave him. So on her trip to Sweden she was planning to write a popular book of her...
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SOURCE: Kollin, Susan. “‘The First White Women in the Last Frontier’: Writing Race, Gender, and Nature in Alaska Travel Narratives.” Frontiers: A Journal of Women's Studies 18, no. 2 (1997): 105-24.
[In the following excerpt, Kollin focuses on Elizabeth Beaman's Alaskan travel narrative in order to explore the intellectual labor that white women performed in claiming a space for themselves in new environments.]
NEW LANDS, NEW WOMEN
The period that gave rise to the United States' quest for a northern frontier also saw the emergence of what historian Walter LaFeber calls the “New Empire,” the project of global economic and cultural expansion that arose after the Civil War.1 The incorporation of Alaska aimed to secure the nation's hegemonic control across the Western Hemisphere, the extension of its course of empire from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from the “Arctic to the Tropics.”2 William Henry Seward laid the foundations for these new imperialist ambitions, negotiating the 1867 purchase of Alaska from Russia in order to establish an expanded arena for the nation's acquisitional activities. In his own words, Alaska was “the sure stepping stone to world empire,” a useful land bridge to the markets of the Far East.3 Other nation builders supported Seward's expansionist projects; for instance, one lawmaker hoping to curtail...
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SOURCE: Losano, Antonia. “A Preference for Vegetables: The Travel Writings and Botanical Art of Marianne North.” Women's Studies 26 (1997): 423-48.
[In the following essay, Losano discusses Marianne North's memoirs and examines her observations of flora during her travels, her stance against notions of women's role in botanical sciences, and her revision of the Romantic notions of nature. Losano also discusses North's paintings and their relation to her writing.]
1. IN WHICH AN EXPLODING MUSHROOM PROPELS THE YOUNG MARIANNE INTO A CAREER AS A BOTANICAL ARTIST
Marianne North (1830-1890), in her memoir Recollections of a Happy Life, describes her first encounter with plant life—the kingdom which will become the main interest of her adult life and the motivation behind her extensive travels1—in rather suggestive terms:
Amongst others, Mrs. Hussey's two large volumes on British fungi were my great delight one summer, and started me collecting and painting all varieties I could find at Rougham, and for about a year they were my chief hobby. One, I remember, had a most terrible smell [North's footnote: Phallus impudicus]; it came up first like a large turkey's egg, and in that state was inoffensive; and as I was very anxious to see the change, I put it under a tumbler in my bedroom window one night, and the next...
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Dixon, Terrell F. “Nature, Gender, and Community: Mary Wilkins Freeman's Ecofiction.” In Beyond Nature Writing: Expanding the Boundaries of Ecocriticism, edited by Karla Armbruster and Kathleen R. Wallace, pp. 162-76. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2001.
Asserts that Mary Wilkins Freeman's short stories offer thoughtful examinations of nature, gender, and community while presenting a complex ecofeminist vision that addresses the concerns of ordinary life.
Kirwan, James. “Vicarious Edification: Radcliffe and the Sublime.” In The Greening of Literary Scholarship: Literature, Theory, and the Environment, edited by Steven Rosendale, pp. 224-45. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2002.
Discusses Ann Radcliffe's conception of the moral and religious significance of the sublime in nature.
Kolodny, Annette. The Land Before Her: Fantasy and Experience of the American Frontiers, 1630-1860, Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1984, 293 p.
Charts a tradition of women's statements about the American West using letters and diaries written between 1630 and 1860.
Lander, Dawn. “Eve Among the Indians.” In The Authority of Experience: Essays in Feminist Criticism, edited by Arlyn Diamond and Lee R. Edwards, pp. 194-211. Amherst: The...
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