The bird soaring in the sky has always been used as an example of freedom from the bonds of gravity, which anchors plants, people, and most animals to the earth. The eagle in this poem is pictured “close to the sun”—another symbol of highflying freedom that is not controlled by the limitations of the earth’s atmosphere. This area of the sky, just inside of and barely contained by the “azure world” of outer space, is what is meant by “lonely lands.” Loneliness implies detachment or a lack of responsibility to any other thing, while referring to the eagle’s perch as a different land once more enforces the idea that it is free of the rules and constraints that govern the lands of the earth.
He is not, however, completely detached: as the poem’s first words put it, the eagle “clasps” onto the side of a mountain. This verb usage implies a sense of desperation. In a poem this short, using so few words, the words that the author chooses to include must be chosen with precision for their broadest implications. Tennyson’s use of the word “wall” suggests more than the simple description of the side of a mountain and can be taken as a reminder of the limitations that a wall usually implies. The eagle is free to roam the skies but is also attached to a stone wall. It hangs on tightly to the wall instead of soaring freely, and when it lets go of its grasp, it does not move freely but falls to earth like a rock. Even if the action at the end is not just the eagle succumbing to gravity but is in fact a dive toward a prey that it has seen, the thunderbolt- like speed of its descent still implies a compulsion beyond its free will.
Flesh versus Spirit
Readers are not told anything directly about the eagle’s spirit in this poem. It is written from the point of view of an observer down on the ground, who sees the bird high above, with the sky as a backdrop. The eagle’s spirit is implied in the words that were chosen by Tennyson. There is strength implied by the hard k sounds repeated, early on, in the words “clasps,” “crag,” and “crooked.” Other words stir up emotional associations of power in the reader because they are commonly used to describe powerful things. These words, used for their connotative effect, include “clasps,” “sun,” “ringed,” “stands,” “mountain,” and especially “thunderbolt.” All of these images of strength are associated with the...
(The entire section is 1005 words.)