Douglas MacArthur (Dictionary of World Biography: Twentieth Century)
Article abstract: MacArthur had a greater impact on American military history than virtually any other officer in the twentieth century. Variously gifted, he was a hero to much of the American public but a center of controversy on several occasions.
Douglas MacArthur, the son of Captain Arthur MacArthur and Mary Pinckney “Pinky” Hardy, was born on January 26, 1880, at an army post in Little Rock, Arkansas. MacArthur and his older brother (another had died early) led gangs of young army brats, growing up in a succession of forts scattered throughout the United States as his father, a Civil War veteran of distinction, climbed to the highest ranks of the army before running afoul of civilian authorities and ending his career in bitterness in 1909.
In 1899, Douglas MacArthur entered the United States Military Academy in West Point, New York. Nearly six feet tall, he was slender—as a plebe he weighed less than one hundred and forty pounds—but gave the impression of Western ruggedness. Pushed to excel by his devoted mother, who resided in the West Point area during his four years there, MacArthur finished first in his class academically, rivaling the record compiled by Robert E. Lee more than half a century before. Also like Lee, MacArthur achieved the signal honor of being chosen cadet first captain in recognition of his leadership and military bearing.
Yet he also exhibited some of...
(The entire section is 3191 words.)
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Douglas MacArthur (Magill’s Guide to Military History)
Article abstract: Military significance: MacArthur commanded Allied forces in the Southwest Pacific during World War II and was instrumental in defeating Japan. After commanding the occupation of Japan, he led United Nations forces in the Korean War until relieved of his command following a public controversy.
Douglas MacArthur was the son of General Arthur MacArthur, the highest ranking officer in the U.S. Army from 1906 to 1909. He attended West Point, graduating in 1903 with the highest marks ever recorded there. He rose rapidly through the ranks, becoming a captain in 1908, major in 1915, and colonel in 1917. In World War I, he earned numerous medals and emerged as a brigadier general. During three years as West Point commander, he broadened the curriculum and raised standards. In 1930, President Herbert Hoover named MacArthur chief of staff. His five-year term was marred in 1932 when he used the army to drive bonus marchers, World War I veterans seeking relief from the Depression, out of the capital because of unfounded fears of communist influence. In 1935, President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed him military adviser to the Philippines. Philippine president Manuel Quezon named MacArthur field marshal in 1936, leading to his resignation from the U.S. Army in December, 1937.
(The entire section is 763 words.)