Timeline of Events
- American mechanics in the Northeast begin to apply principles learned from the English Industrial Revolution in their innovations on tools and machines.
- Oliver Evans invents machines to replace human labor in flour mills.
- Eighty percent of the nation's population is made up of farmers and ninety-five percent of the population lives in rural areas.
- Congress passes the first patent law.
- Eli Whitney proposes to make 4,000 muskets for the U.S. government, using new machine-making tools and interchangeable parts.
- Robert Fulton's steamboat, the Clermont, makes its maiden voyage from New York City to Albany, New York.
- Eli Terry builds four thousand clockworks on a tight schedule using the latest principles of mass production.
- Congress authorizes the construction of the National Road, the first road to run west across the Appalachian...
(The entire section is 1458 words.)
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Words to Know
- An individual who advocates the use of force to overthrow all government.
- antitrust laws:
- Laws opposing or regulating trusts or similar business monopolies.
- Someone who is bound to work for someone else for a specific term in order to learn a trade.
- A government controlled by a wealthy, privileged social class.
- A person who is skilled at a particular trade or craft.
- The social process of being absorbed, or blending into the dominant culture.
- The operation and manufacture of aircraft.
- A state of financial ruin in which an individual or corporation cannot pay its debts.
- A tube (or several connected tubes) in which water is heated to steam.
(The entire section is 1843 words.)
Research and Activity Ideas
Research: Invention and innovations
Choose one of the following American inventors: Eli Whitney, Oliver Evans, Samuel Colt, Robert Fulton, Samuel F. B. Morse, or Cyrus McCormick. Research his life and invention at the library and/or on the Internet. Then write a one- or two-page essay on the inventor, focusing mainly on his invention and how it advanced industrialism in the United States. Be sure to discuss the inventor's business efforts with the invention.
Activity: Business monopolies
Form a group of four. Prior to the day of the activity each member should read about the rise of big business monopolies from the early 1860s to the 1920s. Then the group should play the board game Monopoly. Afterward, discuss among your group the principles of business monopolies that arose in the game. Begin by discussing what a monopoly is. Who in the game achieved a monopoly, or came close? What was the effect of the monopolies? What kinds of competition were presented in the game? How did competition affect each player?
Research: Social Darwinism
Research the concept of social Darwinism, or the "survival of the fittest" in the social and economic world. Write a paragraph briefly explaining what social Darwinism is. Then write one paragraph discussing the reasons that some people thought...
(The entire section is 900 words.)