Destruction of the Golden Horde (Chronology of European History)
Article abstract: The destruction of the Golden Horde marks the emergence of Russia as a European political entity out from under the dominance of the Mongol khans.
Summary of Event
The destruction of the Golden Horde marked the end of nearly two and a half centuries of Mongol rule in Russia. The Mongols first appeared in Russia in May of 1223, when a raiding party, pushing northward from Persia, defeated a joint Russian-Polovtsy force at the Kalka River in the steppes north of the Black Sea. In 1237, Batu, the grandson of Genghis Khan, began a systematic campaign to extend the Mongol Empire to the west. In the winter of 1237-1238, Batu’s forces sacked the Russian city of Riazan, destroyed the then small town of Moscow, and devastated Vladimir, the capital city of northern Russia. Batu’s army laid waste in Kiev in 1240, and gained control of southern Russia. Domestic problems within the empire cause the Mongols to halt their advance, which had taken them into Poland and Hungary. They pulled back into the Russian lands, where they established the Golden Horde, the westernmost subdivision of the Mongol Empire, with its capital at Sarai, in the lower Volga Valley.
At first, the Golden Horde was an integral part of the great Mongol Empire, but by the beginning of the fourteenth century, it had become an independent state. In general, although the Mongols interfered little in Russian life, they maintained an...
(The entire section is 791 words.)
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