Depersonalization (Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders)
Depersonalization is a mental state in which a person feels detached or disconnected from his or her personal identity or self. This may include the sense that one is "outside" oneself, or is observing one's own actions, thoughts or body.
A person experiencing depersonalization may feel so detached that he or she feels more like a robot than a human being. However, the person always is aware that this is just a feeling; there is no delusion that one is a lifeless robot or that one has no personal identity. The sense of detachment that characterizes the state may result in mood shifts, difficulty thinking, and loss of some sensationsa state that can be described as numbness or sensory anesthesia. Twice as many women as men are treated for depersonalization, which can last from a few seconds to years. Episodes may increase after traumatic events such as exposure to combat, accidents or other forms of violence or stress. Treatment is difficult and the state is often chronic, although it may occur during discrete periods or increase and decrease in intensity over time. Individuals with depersonalization often feel that events and the environment are unreal or strange, a state called derealization.
(The entire section is 220 words.)
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Depersonalization (International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis)
The term "depersonalization" refers to the appearance of subjective impressions of change affecting the person or the surrounding world. Their intensity varies, ranging from a simple feeling of dizziness to painful feelings of physical transformation, from the fleeting feeling of estrangement to the impression that the world has become unrecognizable, dead, or uninhabited. Moments of depersonalization can occur during the customary development of any individual or within overtly pathological clinical settings.
The concept of depersonalization is not directly present in the work of Sigmund Freud. In "Psychoanalytic notes on an autobiographical account of a case of paranoia (dementia paranoides)" (1911c ), the elements of depersonalization perceptible in the subject's memoryhemes of physical transformation, nerves of voluptuousness, the "hastily improvised men"re not treated as such by Freud. Similarly the themes of depersonalization found in the Wolf Manhe "veil" that is torn during successive washingsre not referred to as such even though they are analyzed in depth (1918b ). It is possible that it was only after the development of his concept of narcissism and the reorganization of the concept of the ego it contained that Freud became aware of depersonalization, in "The Uncanny" (1919h) and later in "A Disturbance of Memory on the Acropolis" (1936a). In both cases it is through feelings affecting the perception of the outside world that the topic is addressed, that is through the question of "derealization," which can be considered the result of a type of depersonalization.
Paul Schilder was one of the first authors to take an interest in depersonalization. He saw it as a function of the libido's withdrawal of cathexis from the image of the body. Paul Federn believed it corresponded to an alteration of the distribution of narcissistic libido throughout the body and its boundaries. Hermann Nunberg associated it with the loss of a significant object. Clarence Oberdorf emphasized the polymorphism of the clinical situations in which it could be observed and Andrew Peto investigated the role of the precocious loss of introjection. Maurice Bouvet, in an important study entitled "Dépersonalisation et relation d'objet," demonstrated the similarity of structure between states of depersonalization in their various clinical forms and treated "depersonalization as a state of weakened ego structure." He insisted on the importance of a "rapprochement" with the object, that is a decrease in the creation of psychic distance to the object, whereby the object returns to the position it held in the subject's unconscious fantasies. He also pointed out the character of the object relation that made it a narcissistic object since "the maintenance of the ego structure . . . depends on its unconditional and absolute possession." Bouvet also noted the importance of the conflict between the need to introject the object and the fear of this introjection.
See also: Boredom; Bouvet, Maurice Charles Marie Germain; Ego boundaries; Ego feeling; Estrangement; Face-to-face situation; Disintegration, feelings of, (anxieties); Rosenfeld, Herbert Alexander; Self-consciousness; Tomasi di Palma Lampedusa-Wolff Stomersee, Alexandra.
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Freud, Sigmund. (1919h). The uncanny. SE, 17: 217-256.
. (1936a). A disturbance of memory on the Acropolis. SE, 22: 239-248.
Stewart, Walter A. (1964). Depersonalization. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 12, 171-186.
Jacobson, Edith. (1959). Depersonalization. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 7, 581-610.
Renik, Owen. (1978). The role of attention in depersonalization. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 47, 588-605.
Rosenfeld, Herbert. (1947). Analysis of a schizophrenic state with depersonalization. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 28, 130-139.