Fonvizin, Denis Ivanovich
Denis Ivanovich Fonvizin 1744-1792
Russian playwright, translator, poet, and essayist.
Fonvizin is considered to be the most distinguished Russian playwright of the eighteenth century, largely on the strength of his satirical comedy Nedorosl' (1782; The Minor) and to a lesser degree on his play Brigadir (1792; The Brigadier). Both works are written in the neo-classical style, with a marked didactic purpose, as they satirize contemporary mores and urge virtuous behavior. Fonvizin's plays were admired by many of his contemporaries, including Catherine the Great, despite the works' often unsubtle criticism of the monarchy. Fonvizin was greatly interested in politics, and in many of his essays he explores the question of how society might best be organized. His letters to his friends reflecting on Russian and European culture are also considered to be works of considerable literary merit. Fonvizin's reputation has fluctuated widely, and in the early twenty-first century he is not widely read outside Russia. Indeed, even in his homeland, much of the interest in Fonvizin's work has been due to his critical stance toward the Russian monarchy. However, critics writing in English, while acknowledging the unevenness of his writings, have begun to pay more attention to their various aspects—including their undermining of ostensible Enlightenment ideals, borrowings from French philosophy, bold characterization, and the particularly Russian flavor of their dialogue and situations.
Fonvizin was born in Moscow on April 3, 1745, to a landowning family. He attended the Moscow University Gymnasium from 1755 to 1760, where he mastered Latin and German. In 1760 he entered Moscow University, where he became interested in theater and took part in amateur theatrical productions. He also learned French and began to publish translations from German and French. His first significant translation, which he undertook in 1761, was of the Danish writer Ludvig Holberg's Basni nravouchitel'nye s iz (Moral Fables with Explanation). In 1762, after finishing his university studies, Fonvizin moved to St. Petersburg and entered the civil service as secretary to Ivan Yelagin in the Foreign Ministry. While working for Yelagin, Fonvizin was sent on numerous diplomatic missions to Europe. At home, he was known in his circle as a man of considerable wit and style who entertained his friends with amusing stories and comic impersonations.
While he worked for the civil service, Fonvizin continued to publish translations and made acquaintances with people associated with the theater. In 1764 he staged his translation of Jean Louis Gresset's drama Sidney, which he called Korion. The play was successful among audiences but assailed by critics. In the 1760s Fonvizin also wrote a number of satirical poems, most notably Poslanie k slugam moim Shumilovu, Van'ke i Petrushke (1766; Epistle to My Servants Shumilov, Van'ka and Petrushka). In 1768 he took a leave of absence from his job and returned to Moscow. The following year he completed his play The Brigadier, which he read to the Empress Catherine at her palace with great success. This led to Fonvizin's appointment as secretary to the statesman Count Nikita Ivanovich Panin, who had helped Catherine seize the throne in 1762. Fonvizin became Panin's trusted friend until the latter's death in 1783.
In 1773 Panin fell out of favor with Catherine, which made Fonvizin's situation precarious. However, through Panin's generosity Fonvizin received a large estate with some thousand serfs. The following year Fonvizin married Yekaterina Khlopova, the daughter of a wealthy merchant, which further strengthened his financial position. From 1777 to 1778 the couple traveled to Germany and France, the first of several trips they took together. Fonvizin continued to work for the civil service and to write and publish essays and letters. In 1781 Fonvizin was assigned to the postal service and a year later he retired from government service, which enabled him to finish his play The Minor. The play was staged in 1782 in Moscow and published the following year. Even Catherine approved of the drama, despite its criticism of despotism and hints at the need to restrict the power of the monarchy. Fonvizin made similar criticisms of the monarchy in his essays published during this time, and even engaged in an anonymous debate with the empress in a leading literary journal.
After retiring from government service, Fonvizin spent his time writing and engaging in his other favorite activities, which included attending concerts, selling fine art, trading books, and travelling abroad. In 1783, together with other writers, he founded the Russian academy. Two years later he suffered a minor stroke, but he continued to pursue his literary activities despite his illness. In 1788 Fonvizin attempted to publish his collected works, but the project never materialized during his lifetime. Although his health was deteriorating, he continued to write. In 1791 he began writing his memoirs, Chistoserdechnoe priznanie v delakh moikh i pomyshleniiakh (A Candid Confession of My Deeds and Thoughts), which he did not complete. Fonvizin died in St. Petersburg on 1 December 1792 while visiting the home of the poet Gavriil Derzhavin.
Fonvizin's literary reputation rests on his two plays, The Brigadier and The Minor, which have been seen by many critics as some of the first significant original plays written in Russian. The plot of The Brigadier reveals the lives of ignorant landowners. The main characters, including the Brigadier, his wife Brigadirsha, and their son Ivanushka, are portrayed as crude, empty-headed, bigoted, and corrupt. The play also satirizes “Gallomania,” the phenomenon in Russian society at the time in which all things French were fashionable and imitated. The Brigadier is a neatly constructed play that uses slapstick comedy and the most natural-sounding dialogue yet to be heard on the Russian stage, but it has been faulted by critics for its contrived situations and overt moralizing. The Minor, Fonvizin's acknowledged masterwork, is about a pair of virtuous lovers. The central targets of the play's satire are uneducated country landowners and their legions of servants and tutors. The “negative” characters in the play are comic creations who entertain audiences using lively, idiomatic language, while the “positive” characters are stiff representatives of the good and true. The clear didactic purpose of the play is to uphold the claims of social justice and virtuous behavior and to suggest that they may be achieved through proper education, with the state doing all it can to foster such attitudes among its citizens. Fonvizin's concern with the function of the state was also explored in his unfinished play, Vybor guvernra (published 1830; The Selection of a Tutor), which suggests that personal concerns must be sacrificed for the greater good.
Although he is less well known today for his translations, essays, letters, and poems, during his lifetime Fonvizin was praised for the clarity and purity of style of these works. His numerous essays on political subjects were published in the leading journals of the day. The theme of most of these pieces is the role of the state and the moral and political ideals it should live up to, and many were highly critical of the monarchy's power. In the early 1780s some of Fonvizin's essays were temporarily banned for their political content. The essays are rarely read today except by scholars, but they do offer an interesting perspective on the events of the time. So too do Fonvizin's letters, particularly those written about his travels. These letters chronicle the contrast between Russia and Europe in the eighteenth century and also reveal a writer of great wit and style who was often critical of both European and Russian culture but who showed enormous faith in his country and its people.
Although he was a civil servant by profession for most of his life, Fonvizin was also respected as an accomplished translator, prose writer, poet, and playwright. With the production and publication of his play The Minor, Fonvizin's reputation as one of the most important figures of eighteenth-century Russian literature was secured. Grigorii Potemkin, one of Catherine the Great's powerful associates, is said to have told Fonvizin after reading the work, “Denis, either die or stop writing! This one play alone has immortalized your name.” The great nineteenth-century Russian poet Alexander Pushkin called Fonvizin “the scourge and terror of ignoramuses,” viewing him as a man who was frustrated by the stupidity of society. Pushkin admired Fonvizin's work, and there are echoes of Fonvizin in Pushkin's letters, essays, and poetry. There has also been some suggestion that the particularly Russian flavor of Fonvizin's writing influenced other nineteenth-century literary figures such as Nikolai Gogol and Fyodor Dostoyevsky, and that The Minor singlehandedly created the classical Russian theater of the nineteenth century.
Although Fonvizin's plays continued to be read in Russia in the twentieth century, many of his biographers offered less than flattering appraisals of the man and his works. Because of their critical attitude toward the monarchy, Fonvizin's plays continued to be produced in the Soviet Union, even when works by other authors were banned. The scholarship on his writings, although favorable, was quite limited, and tended to concentrate on Fonvizin's anti-imperial stance. There was virtually no Western scholarship on Fonvizin's writings until the 1970s, when an important French study by Alexis Stycek was published. Marvin Kantor was the first critic to offer any critical commentary in English, first with an article on The Brigadier and then a general study of his life and writings. Since then, a few other English-speaking critics have written about his works, focusing mainly on The Minor and The Brigadier. These modern scholars have discussed Fonvizin's indebtedness to other writers and thinkers, including Ludvig Holberg and Jean Jacques Rousseau, commented on the themes and structure of his plays, and considered the moral and political ideals he espoused. A few commentators have also written about Fonvizin's essays and travel letters, noting their witty style and the insights they provide into eighteenth-century life and political attitudes. In general, in their commentaries critics have tended to point out the shortcomings of Fonvizin's plays, including their artificial situations and overt moralizing, but note the writer's importance as an innovator and original voice in eighteenth-century Russian theater.
Basni nravouchitel'nye s iz [Moral Fables with Explanation; translator, from a work by Ludwig Holberg] (stories) 1761
Al'zira [Alzire; or, the Americans; translator, from a work by Voltaire] (poetry) 1763
Liubov' Karity i Polidor [The Love of Carite and Polydorus; translator, from a work by Jean-Jacques Barthélémy] (novel) 1763
Korion [adaptor, from a work by Jean-Baptiste Louis Gresset] (play) 1764
“Kratkoe iz”iasnenie o vol'nosti frantsuzskogo dvorianstva i o pol'ze tret'ego china” [“A Précis on the Freedom of the French Nobility and the Function of the Third Estate”] (essay) 1764
Poslanie k slugam moim Shumilovu, Van'ke i Petrushke [Epistle to My Servants Shumilov, Van'ka and Petrushka] (poetry) 1766
“Slovo na vyzdorovlenie Ego Imperatorskogo Vysochestva, gosudaria tsesarevicha i velikogo kniazia Pavla Petrovicha” [“Oration on the Recovery of His Imperial Highness, Sovereign Prince and Grand Duke Paul Petrovich”] (essay) 1771
Eloge de Marc-Aurèle [Eulogy for Marcus Aurelius; translator, from a work by Antoine-Léonard Thomas] (essay) 1775
“Rassuzhdenie o nepremennykh gosudarstvennykh zakonakh” [“Discourse on Indispensable Laws of State”] (essay) 1782
Nedorosl'. Komediia v piati...
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SOURCE: Kantor, Marvin. “Fonvizin and Holberg: A Comparison of The Brigadier and Jean de France.” Canadian American Slavic Studies 7, no. 4 (1973): 475-84.
[In the following essay, Kantor argues that the influence of Danish dramatist Ludvig Holberg's Jean de France on The Brigadier has been much exaggerated by critics. Holberg's play, Kantor maintains, is a satire with one theme, one hero, and one target, while Fonvizin's work has several themes, heroes, and targets, and is distinctly Russian in its situation, language, and concerns.]
Among the foreign authors whose works enjoyed considerable popularity in Russia was the Danish playwright, Ludvig Holberg (1684-1754). A number of his works appeared in the 1759 edition of the journal, The Industrious Bee (Trudoliubivaia pchela), and his plays Don Ranudo de Colibrados (Gordost' i bednost'), Henrich and Pernille (Henrik og Pernille/Genrikh i Pernila), Plutus (Plutus, ili spor bednosti i bogatstva), Jeppe of the Hill (Jeppe paa Bjerget/Prevrashchennyi muzhik), and Artaxerxes (Artaks) were translated soonafter.1 Furthermore, both Gukovskii and Stender-Petersen have pointed out that Holberg's Jean de France (1722) was known in Russia from German sources. In fact, this comedy appeared first in the 1741 edition of Gottsched's The...
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SOURCE: Kantor, Marvin. Introduction to Dramatic Works of D. I. Fonvizin, translated by Marvin Kantor, pp. 11-45. Bern: Herbert Lang, 1974.
[In the following essay, Kantor offers an outline of Fonvizin's life and literary career and examines the playwright's major writings, focusing especially on The Brigadier and The Minor. Kantor considers these plays flawed masterpieces notable for their bold characterization and daring attempts at presenting an ideological message against Catherine the Great's abusive regime.]
Laughter may be contagious but with the change of environment and time, it frequently ceases to infect. The humorous virulence of the many Russian comedies of the eighteenth century proved less than infectious and often stopped with the final curtain. However two comedies of this period, The Brigadier (Brigadir, 1769), and The Minor (Nedorosl', 1781), have demonstrated a striking vitality, a comic spirit that has continued to appeal to Russian audiences even down to our times. Denis Ivanovich Fonvizin (1743?-1792), the author of these plays, clearly transcended the spacial and temporal limits of comedy, and, in commenting upon the foibles and vices of his contemporaries, pinned the eighteenth-century nobleman upon the wall in all his grotesquerie and for all time.
Despite his popularity and distinction...
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SOURCE: Patterson, David. “Fonvizin's Nedorosl' as a Russian Representative of the genre sérieux.” Comparative Literature Studies XIV, no. 3 (September 1977): 196-204.
[In the following essay, Patterson examines the aspects of the genre sérieux, or serious comedy, in Fonvizin's The Minor, arguing that the play is a distinctly Russian example of the form as it is preoccupied with the dusha, or soul, and uses the situation of Russian serfdom to explore the choice between virtue and power.]
Although Denis Ivanovich Fonvizin was hardly a follower of the eighteenth-century French philosophes, he does seem to have fallen under the sway of some of their innovations in dramatic theory. One such innovator was Denis Diderot who, in 1773, set out from The Hague for St. Petersburg, where he met Fonvizin. We know that Diderot's two plays, Le Fils naturel (1757) and Le Père de famille (1758), were well received in Russia, and K. V. Pigarev has claimed that Diderot's aesthetics did indeed leave their mark on Fonvizin.1 In this paper, I shall examine the elements of Diderot's genre sérieux in Fonvizin's most famous comedy, Nedorosl' (The Minor) (1782), and then I shall discuss an additional feature of the play, one which stems from the genre sérieux, yet provides the drama with a distinction all its own.
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SOURCE: Moser, Charles A. Fonvizin, Russia, and Europe. Washington, D.C.: Kennan Institute for Advanced Russian Studies, 1978, 27 p.
[In the following essay, Moser examines Fonvizin's Travel Letters, which not only document the contrast between Russia and Europe in the eighteenth century but reveal a great deal about the author, his style, and his attitudes toward European and Russian culture.]
The works usually referred to as the Travel Letters are those which Fonvizin composed during his journey to Germany and France in 1777-78 and his visit in Germany and Italy in 1784-85. The letters from the first journey are approximately evenly divided between those addressed to his family in Moscow and those sent to Count Peter Panin, also in Moscow. The letters from the second journey consist almost entirely of missives to his family, with only two surviving letters addressed to Peter Panin. The letters to his relatives are more chattily intimate, the epistles to Panin more formal.
The content of the travel letters is understandably heterogeneous. Fonvizin writes about nearly everything which might have some relevance to the travels upon which he is embarked. These include comments on the vicissitudes of travel at that time; remarks on his own health and that of his wife (the first journey was undertaken largely for the purpose of curing her of a tapeworm, a process which Fonvizin...
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SOURCE: Moser, Charles A. “The Brigadier” and “The Minor.” In Denis Fonvizin, pp. 49-67; 68-85. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1979.
[In the following excerpts from his full-length study of Fonvizin's life and career, Moser offers detailed analyses of the author's greatest works, discussing the plays' background, place in Russian literature, and major themes.]
I. BACKGROUND OF A PLAY
The Brigadier was a genuine milestone in the development of the original Russian comedy. It also signaled the maturing of Fonvizin as a literary artist, indicating that the twenty-four-year-old author had discovered the genre which best suited him. Through that genre he would exercise lasting influence on the history of Russian literature.
The play's plot is constructed upon interlocking marital triangles involving two families. The first family is that of the Brigadier and the Brigadier's wife (Brigadirsha), whose son Ivanushka has been betrothed to Sofya, the daughter of the Counsellor (Sovetnik) and stepdaughter of the Counsellor's second wife (Sovetnitsa). As the play opens, these characters have gathered to make the final arrangements for the marriage at the bride's home, where all the action takes place.
Sofya has no desire at all to marry the blockhead Ivanushka, a...
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SOURCE: Barran, Thomas. “Rousseau and Fonvizin: Emile as a Source for The Minor.” Ulbandus Review 2, no. 2 (fall 1982): 5-22.
[In the following essay, Barran argues that The Minor is indebted to key ideas about politics, ethics, and social customs set forth in French philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau's Emile.]
Many scholars of eighteenth-century Russian literature dismiss the possibility that Rousseau's ideas exerted any influence on the work of Denis Fonvizin.1 They argue that Fonvizin rejected Rousseau's belief in man's primal innocence, along with the political ideal of popular sovereignty set forth in The Social Contract. While it may be true that Fonvizin disagreed with these beliefs, this does not mean that he rejected Rousseau's thought in its entirety. The innocent savage and the ideal democracy represent only the ahistorical beginning and end points of Rousseau's philosophy of man, and it is not necessary to accept Rousseau's speculations about human origins, or his vision of a pure democracy based on a social contract in order to endorse what he had to say about man in history. A close reading of Fonvizin's comedy The Minor (Nedorosl', 1782) reveals that whatever Fonvizin's attitude may have been towards Rousseau's Discourses and The Social Contract, he found much wisdom in the observations on contemporary...
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SOURCE: Alexandrov, Vladimir E. “Dialogue and Rousseau in Fonvizin's The Minor.” Slavic and East European Journal 29, no. 2 (1985): 127-43.
[In the following essay, Alexandrov contends that the emphasis by Soviet critics on the historical and political themes in The Minor has overshadowed other features of the play, notably its parallels with several works by Enlightenment thinker Jean Jacques Rousseau and the dialogic structure of the play, which serves to undermine its overt Enlightenment message as articulated by the play's “positive” characters.]
Most of what has been written about Fonvizin's famous comedy The Minor (Nedorosl', 1782) has come from the pens of Soviet scholars. As one might expect, they have focused on the relation of the play's themes to Russian history and culture, and, with particular zeal, on the supposed diligence with which Fonvizin scourged abuses rampant under the eighteenth-century Russian monarchy. One Soviet investigator wittily summarized this preoccupation as follows:
In the literary-methodological hierarchy he is assigned a place somewhere at the foot of the mountain (Classicism), as well as closer to the sun (pre-Realist), and almost at the very summit (Enlightenment Realist), and, finally, there where one can clearly hear the cries of eagles (Realist).
A view of...
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SOURCE: Gleason, Walter. “Introduction: State and Nationality in Fonvizin's Writings.” In The Political and Legal Writings of Denis Fonvizin, translated by Walter Gleason, pp. 1-21. Ann Arbor, Mich: Ardis Publishers, 1985.
[In the following essay, Gleason identifies the key arguments in each of Fonvizin's essays on political and social subjects; points out their concern with morality, political ideals, and the proper role and conduct of the state; and argues that Fonvizin's major contribution to eighteenth-century Russian political thought was his distinction between state and nationality.]
State and nationality: these two issues sum up the history of political thought under Catherine the Great. The topics are not independent of one another. The Imperial state laid claim to the banner of nationality as a means of maintaining the loyalties and enthusiasms of its citizens; nationality was the potential instrument to undermine the foundations of autocracy. While the advocates of each cause confined their debate to intellectual and literary forums in Moscow and St. Petersburg, the importance of the issues was vividly emphasized in the streets of Paris during the Great French Revolution of 1789. After July 14th monarchs throughout Europe knew they could not do without the prop of nationality. By the same token, proponents of the national cause found in the appeal to “the nation” or “the...
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SOURCE: Barratt, Andrew. “Working with Deconstruction: Fonvizin's The Minor Revisited.” New Zealand Slavonic Journal (1994): 1-15.
[In the following essay, Barratt deconstructs The Minor, examining the “marginalized” aspects of the play—notably the use of coincidence and the subplot concerning the love of the characters Milon and Sof'ia—to show how the play undermines its ostensible philosophy that champions Enlightenment ideals.]
Several years ago—rather more years than I care to remember, in fact—Patrick Waddington sent me a letter in which, among other things, he chided me gently, but nonetheless seriously, for what he felt to be an unseemly interest in ‘trendy’ modern Russian authors (I was, as I recall, working on Bulgakov at the time). For some reason, these words came back to me when I was asked to contribute to this festschrift and they fed a determination, on this occasion at least, to turn my attention to the work of a writer who can be considered neither trendy, nor modern—Denis Fonvizin. This is not to say, however, that I expect this essay to meet with Patrick's full approval; alas, I fear that the contrary is more likely to be the case, given the central position within it of the sorts of theoretical issues for which I know he has little sympathy. Be that as it may, I offer this piece sincerely as a personal tribute both to his scholarly...
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SOURCE: Cooper, Nancy. “A Chapter in the History of Russian Autobiography: Childhood, Youth, and Maturity in Fonvizin's Chistoserdechnoe priznanie v delakh moikh i pomyshleniiakh (A Sincere Anowal of My Deeds and Thoughts).” Slavic and East European Journal 40, no. 4 (Winter 1996): 609-22.
[In the following essay, Cooper examines Fonvizin's unfinished autobiographical essay A Sincere Avowal, exploring its depiction of childhood.]
Denis Fonvizin's Chistoserdechnoe priznanie v delakh moikh i pomyshleniiakh (A Sincere Avowal of My Deeds and Thoughts), written during the last years of his life and left unfinished at his death in 1792, is not only one of the very first autobiographical works in Russian to treat the topic of childhood in any detail, but it is also a very early example of a Russian autobiography concerned with the evolution of the subject's career as a writer.1 It was unusual for its time in that it was apparently intended by its author for publication or, failing that, wide distribution in manuscript (Tartakovskii 72). Moreover, it is the first Russian work to respond to Rousseau's Confessions.2 All of these facts make the Sincere Avowal, despite its brevity and unfinished state, an important transitional work in the history of Russian autobiographical writing.
In many ways the Sincere Avowal...
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Moser, Charles A. Denis Fonvizin. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1979, 151 p.
The first introductory book on Fonvizin's life and works in English; includes a biographical chapter, treatments of Fonvizin's major works from literary and historical points of view, an examination of Fonvizin and the history of the Russian literary language, and a discussion of Fonvizin's place in Russian literature.
Welsh, David. Russian Comedy 1765-1823. The Hague: Mouton & Company, 1966, 133 p.
Examination of representative Russian comedies from 1765 to 1823; includes scattered comments on Fonvizin's plays.
Additional coverage of Fonvizin's life and career is contained in the following source published by the Gale Group: Dictionary of Literary Biography, Vol. 150.
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