Defeat of the Spanish Armada (Chronology of European History)
Article abstract: The defeat of the Spanish Armada eliminates Spain’s threat to the English navy, prevents Spanish conquest of the Republic of the Netherlands, and limits Spanish involvement in the French religious wars.
Summary of Event
“The Enterprise” of the Spanish Armada was part of Philip II’s strategy to defeat the Republic of the Netherlands, which rebelled against Spanish rule (1568-1648). Queen Elizabeth feared the expansion of Spanish power in the French religious wars (1562-1594) and sought to divert it by supporting the Dutch revolution. At the inception of the Netherlands’ revolt, Elizabeth I seized the Spanish pay fleet for its famed army of Flanders and sent John Hawkins and Francis Drake to raid coastal cities in the Spanish Indies. Finally, Philip II decided to take action against the English and reviewed several plans in 1586. Alexander Farnese, duke of Parma and commander of the army of Flanders in the Netherlands, proposed a secret, quick channel crossing by his troops. Spain’s foremost admiral, the marquis de Santa Cruz, believed a self-sufficient army and navy should sail from Spain prepared for an eight-month campaign; he requested 150 galleons and 320 auxiliary supply ships to carry the soldiers, munitions, and supplies. The cost of the Santa Cruz plan seemed prohibitive while the Parma plan seemed extremely risky.
Exactly who bears the responsibility for Philip’s...
(The entire section is 1452 words.)
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