Dario Fo 1926-
Nobel Prize-winning playwright, director, and actor Dario Fo is one of the most controversial figures in Italian theater. Through his avant-garde comedic stage productions—the spirit of which has been likened to that of such diverse artists as German plawright Bertolt Brecht and American comedians Lenny Bruce and the Marx Brothers—Fo reacts against injustice, discredits symbols of authority, and espouses a progressive left-wing political theory. Although his works were banned and censored in both Europe and the United States for years, by the mid-1980s Fo gained prominence as one of the most widely produced contemporary Italian playwrights outside of his native country.
Fo was born in San Giano, Lombardy, Italy, the son of Felice (a railroad stationmaster) and Pina Rota Fo. Young Fo began refining his animated method of storytelling as a child, listening to the tales told by the locals in San Giano. After leaving Milan's Academy of Fine Arts without earning a degree, Fo wrote and performed with several improvisational theatrical groups. He first earned acclaim as a playwright in 1953 with Il dito nell'occhio (A Finger in the Eye), a socially satiric production that presented Marxist ideas against a circus-like background. His 1954 attack on the Italian government in I sani de legare (A Madhouse for the Sane), in which Fo labeled several government officials fascist sympathizers, resulted in the cutting of some material from the original script and the mandated presence of state inspectors at each performance of the play to insure that the country's strict libel laws were not violated. Also in 1954, Fo married the actress Franca Rame, with whom he began to collaborate. The couple established a touring company and appeared on Italian television in a popular comedy revue.
By the 1960s Fo and Rame were censored for the explicit political content of their routines, and Fo vowed to "stop playing the jester of the bourgeoisie." Amid the social and political turmoil in Europe in 1968, the couple formed a new troupe, Nuova Scena, under the sponsorship of the Italian Communist Party. Fo first performed Mistero Buffo, generally considered his greatest and most controversial play, in 1969. Fo's criticism of the Communist party bureaucracy soon led to a split with Nuova Scena, and Fo and Rame formed Il colletivo teatrale la comune in 1970. Fo's best-known works come from the early years of this group, whose explicit goal was to raise the consciousness of the working classes and encourage the overthrow of the bourgeois state to bring about a socialist government. Fo's strong sense of justice prompted him to compose the absurdist play Morte accidentale di un anarchico (Accidental Death of an Anarchist) in response to the 1969 death of anarchist railway man Giuseppi Pinelli. The play was a smash hit in Italy, playing to huge crowds for more than four years. When officials pressured a theater in Bologna to halt plans for production, the work was alternatively staged in a sports stadium for an audience of more than six thousand people.
In 1980 and 1984 Fo and Rame were denied visas to the United States because of their alleged involvement in fund-raising activities for an Italian terrorist organization. The couple dismissed the accusation and maintained their innocence. Through the efforts of civil libertarian and cultural groups in Europe and the United States, Fo and Rame ultimately received visas, and Mistero Buffo finally opened in New York in the spring of 1986. Throughout his career Fo has been the recipient of numerous prizes, including the Sonning Award, Denmark (1981), an Obie Award (1987), and a Nobel Prize in Literature (1997).
Fo's artistic style draws on the venerable Italian traditions of the medieval giullari, itinerant street entertainers, and the more polished ensemble commedia dell'arte of the Renaissance to stage polemical works rooted in Marxist ideology. His signature piece, Mistero Buffo, first produced in 1969, consists of a series of skits that satirize Italy's institutions of power, including the government and the Pope, as well as farcical inversions of traditional folk tales and biblical morality lessons. Broad international acclaim came with Morte accidentale di un anarchico in 1970. This was Fo's first play to be produced in both England and the United States. The work concerns the death of the railway worker Guiseppi Pinelli. The death was apparently connected to efforts by right-wing extremists in Italy's military and secret service agencies to discredit the Italian Communist party by staging a series of seemingly leftist-engineered bombings. The railway worker was implicated in the worst of these bombings, the 1969 massacre at Milan's Agricultural Bank. While being held for interrogation, Pinelli fell—it was later shown that he was pushed—from the fourth-floor window of Milan's police headquarters. In his play Fo introduces a stock medieval character, the maniac, into the investigation of the bombing to illuminate the truth. Fo's other works include Non si paga, non si paga (We Won't Pay! We Won't Pay!), a farce lampooning consumer economics, and Clacson, trombette e pernacchi (produced as Trumpets and Raspberries in England and About Face in the United States) a reworking of the Aldo Moro kidnapping into a satire on capitalist/worker relations. Since the 1980s Fo has increasingly collaborated with Franca Rame, and their productions have featured Rame's feminist perspective while focusing on male/female relationships. Fo explained the more personal focus of these works when he said, "In the face of the failure of revolutionary ideals, the basic problem is how people relate to one another." Because all of Fo's works rely so heavily on improvisation and audience interaction, each production bears only a general similarity to its published text.
In bestowing the 1997 Nobel Prize for Literature on Fo, the Awards Committee said, "He if anyone merits the epithet of jester in the true meaning of mat word. With a blend of laughter and gravity he opens our eyes to abuses and injustices in society and also the wider historical perspective in which they can be placed." The Committee's award is one of the most controversial decisions in the history of the Nobel Prize. While his broad farce, wild slapstick, and earthy irreverence have made him one of the world's most widely produced contemporary playwrights, Fo's political ideology has earned him the enmity of the rich and powerful objects of his satires. His style has also deeply divided critical response to his work along political lines. The Swedish Academy addressed this aspect of his work as well: "Fo is an extremely serious satirist with a multifaceted oeuvre. His independence and clear-sightedness have led him to take great risks, whose consequences he has been made to feel while at the same time experiencing enormous response from widely differing quarters." Such divergent groups as the Italian government and police, the Italian Communist Party, the Vatican, and the U.S. State Department have all denounced and sanctioned Fo.
In its zany humor and slapstick exaggeration, Fo's work has been compared with that of Charlie Chaplin, the Marx Brothers, and Monty Python. His biting satire and scatological humor have led many to liken him to Lenny Bruce. Some critics have praised Fo's abilities as both writer and performer. "Imagine a cross between Bertolt Brecht and Lenny Bruce, and you may begin to have an idea of the scope of Fo's anarchic wit," said Mel Gussow in The New York Times in 1983. Responding to Fo's receipt of the Nobel Prize, Italy's best-known theater director, Giorgio Strehler, said, "With Dario Fo, we feel honored as Europeans and as men of the theater." Fo's own response to receiving the award bears no trace of his onstage jester persona: "I'm flabbergasted," he is reported to have said. "I'd be a hypocrite if I told you that I counted on it. I didn't. I didn't expect it at all."
Il dito nell'occhio [A Finger in the Eye] 1953
I sani da legare [A Madhouse for the Sane] 1954
Ladri, monachini e donne nude [Thieves, Dummies, and Naked Women] (four short plays) 1958
Comico finale [Comic Finale] (four short plays) 1958
Gli arcangeli non giocano a flipper [Archangels Don't Play Pinball] 1959
Aveva due pistole con gli occhi bianchi e neri [He Had Two Pistols with White and Black Eyes] 1960
*Storia ver di Piero d'Angera: che alla crociata non c'era [The True Story of Piero Angera, Who Wasn't at the Crusades] 1960
Chi ruba un piede è fortunato in amore [He Who Steals a Foot Is Lucky in Love] 1961
Isabella, tre caravelle, e un cacciaballe [Isabella, Three Sailing Ships, and a Con Man] 1963
Settimo: rub un po' meno [Seventh Commandment: Thou Shalt Steal a Bit Less] 1964
La colpa è sempre del diavolo [Always Blame the Devil] 1965
La Signora è buttare [The Lady Has to Be Thrown Away] 1967
Grande pantomima con bandiere e pupazzi piccoli e medi [Grand Pantomime with Flags and Small and Medium-Sized Puppets] 1968
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Dario Fo Explains (1978)
SOURCE: "Dario Fo Explains: An Interview" by Luigi Ballerini and Giuseppi Risso, in The Drama Review, Vol. 22, No. 1, March 1978, pp. 34-48.
[In the following, Fo discusses influences on his work in the theater.]
At the Rai Studios in Milan, Dario Fo is just finishing the editing of a series of shows to be aired in the Spring of 1978. We are at a delicate moment in the comedy La signora e da buttare (The Lady Has To Be Thrown Away), a satire of bourgeois imperialism. At this moment, parts of the dialog are being "reinforced." Dario's finger is pointed at the technician: "Here!" At his command, applause and laughter mingle artfully with the murmur of the audience.
The monitors reflect several sequences of Dario Fo's mocking face. He is a man of 50—actor, singer, dancer, mime, writer, impresario, choreographer, political activist, and a personality both feared and opposed, like one of the characters in the farces he realizes onstage: opposed by government, politicians, the church, and the petty bourgeois. He is the only actor in Italy who can boast of performances attended by 25,000 spectators; the only one whose visibility, in the history of postwar Italian theatre, can be compared with that of Eduardo DeFilippo and Strehler.
On the monitors, we watch a few scenes from the comedy that takes place under...
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Overviews And General Studies
Franca Rame (essay date 1975)
SOURCE: An introduction to Dario Fo Plays: Two, Methuen Drama, 1994, pp. xix-xxx.
[Rame is Fo's wife and collaborator. In the essay below, which was written in 1975, she recalls their early years working together.]
There are many people who seem to think—perhaps because it is easier and more exciting—that our transition (I mean Dario's and mine) from the traditional theatre to that in which we now work, occurred suddenly, almost overnight, as a consequence of a sort of mystical crisis, as though we had been overcome by the 1968 wave of students' protest and workers' struggles. As if one fine morning we woke up saying: 'That's enough, let's wrap ourselves up in the red flag, let's have our own cultural revolution!'
In fact our true turning point, the point that really mattered, we took at the very beginning of our journey, twenty-two years ago, when with Paventi, Durano and Lecoq we staged for the first time The Finger in the Eye. Those were the days of Scelba and his 'subculture', of Pacelli (the pope) with his civic committees, the days of total censorship. Police superintendents, ministers, bishops and cops understood it immediately: we were 'a company of communists' and we were making 'red propaganda'. Every night there would be an inspector in the auditorium checking our words one by one against the script and...
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Tony Mitchell (essay date 1984)
SOURCE: "Mistero Buffo: Popular Culture, The Giullari and the Grotesque," in Dario Fo: People's Court Jester, Methuen, 1984, pp. 10-33.
[Mitchell offers a detailed examination of Mistero Buffo. This work, he declares, "and its many offshoots, together with the countless improvised routines and sketches on topical events which Fo frequently makes up on the spot, reveal him as the 'theatrical animal' that he is, and show his unique capacity for turning a one-man show into a piece of epic and total theatre."]
Italian actor-playwright Dario Fo, who also combines the roles of director, stage designer, song-writer, and political campaigner, has in recent years become the most widely-performed dramatist in the European and world theatre. He has himself performed his solo pièce celêbre, Mistero buffo, throughout Europe, Eastern Europe, Scandinavia, and in Canada and Peru, and it has become one of the most controversial and popular spectacles of the post-war European theatre. When Mistero buffo was presented on Italian television in 1977, after Fo had performed it live more than 1,000 times to audiences in Italy of more than a million and a half, and throughout the world to an estimated 40 million, public outcry from sources as varied as the Vatican (who described it as 'the most blasphemous show in the...
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Accidental Death Of An Anarchist
Suzanne Cowan (essay date 1979)
SOURCE: "Dario Fo, Politics and Satire: An Introduction to Accidental Death of an Anarchist," in Theater, Vol. 10, No. 2, Spring 1979, pp. 7-11.
[Cowan presents a brief survey of Fo's career and the background of Accidental Death of an Anarchist, and offers a concise appreciation of the play itself]
I The Author
Dario Fo is one of Italy's most popular and successful playwrights. He is also an actor, director, choreographer, set and costume designer, painter, graphic artist, poet, musician, scholar, cultural organizer and political activist. Such extraordinary versatility approaches the fifteenth and sixteenth century ideal of the cultivated individual; it may not seem surprising that Fo comes from the country which gave birth to the popular concept of the "Renaissance man." However, in the most fundamental respect, his work arises out of the specific conditions of contemporary Italian society, and reflects the profound social, economic and political tensions which have marked that society since the fall of the Fascist regime.
Born in 1926, son of a working-class family from northern Lombardy, Fo inherited from his immediate environment both a strongly democratic, anti-fascist political persuasion, and a love for popular drama in the form of highly imaginative "yarns" invented and...
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Gussow, Mel. "Dario Fo's Barbed Wit Is Aimed at Many Targets." The New York Times (14 August 1983): 3, 11.
Appreciative survey of Fo and his works.
Hirst, David. Dario Fo and Franca Rame. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan, 1989, 218 p.
Biographical and critical study of Fo and Rame's career together.
Jenkins, Ron. "Drawing from the Imagination: The Comic Art of Dario Fo." Aperture 132 (Summer 1993): 12-19.
Offers an appreciation of Fo and a translated excerpt from Fo's Johan Padan and the Discovery of the Americas.
——. "The Nobel Jester." American Theatre 15, No. 2 (February 1998): 22-4.
Applauds the awarding of the Nobel Prize for literature to Fo, considering it a "courageous and controversial choice."
Mitchell, Tony, comp. File on Fo. London: Methuen, 1989, 108 p.
Casebook that provides a descriptive catalogue of Fo's pieces, a chronology, and primary and secondary bibliographies.
Pertile, Lino. "Dario Fo." In Writers & Society in Contemporary Italy, pp. 167-90. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1984.
Traces Fo's career and wonders whether "Fo did not, despite himself, pander to the lowest cultural denominator of the farce, the belch and the raspberry, and thus promote, or at least contribute to, the...
(The entire section is 362 words.)