Griffith, D. W.
D. W. Griffith 1875-1948
(Full name David Wark Griffith) American filmmaker.
As the first filmmaker to exploit the potential of film editing to convey the impression of simultaneous action, and for his promotion of a style of acting and innovative uses of the camera that suited the representation of character psychology, Griffith is generally acknowledged by scholars and critics as the most influential figure in film history. Exemplified in his epic silent movies The Birth of a Nation (1915) and Intolerance (1916), his techniques were copied and refined by the majority of filmmakers in the United States and Europe, and were closely studied by Sergei Eisenstein, Vsevolod Pudovkin, and other directors in pre- and post-revolutionary Russia. Most critics note, however, that as a storyteller Griffith was prone to bombastic thematic pretension, sentimentality, and was capable of only pedestrian insight. Moreover, The Birth of a Nation, which is often considered the apotheosis of his technical achievement, can no longer be shown outside of academic settings because it is blatantly racist, depicting blacks as either buffoons or savages and the Ku Klux Klan as heroes. For these reasons, modern critical attention tends to focus on two areas of his career: the early, formative period from 1908 through 1913 when he made over 480 short films for the Biograph Company; and the later phase that included important yet less well-known works such as Broken Blossoms (1919), Way Down East (1920), and Isn't Life Wonderful (1924).
Griffith was born in Oldham County, Kentucky, to parents whose families had been in the United States since the revolutionary period. His father, Jacob, was a doctor who participated in the California Gold Rush, was a member of the Kentucky legislature, and, prior to the Civil War—in which he served as an officer in the Confederate cavalry—had been a prosperous slave owner with a large plantation. With the family's fortunes greatly diminished after the war, Griffith was born into impoverished circumstances. His father died in 1882 and his mother moved the family to Louisville where she ran a boarding house. Griffith, who never finished high school because of his obligation to help support the family, had decided early in life to be a writer; his temperament and personality, however, led him to pursue the more social and flamboyant art of stage acting. He joined a travelling theatrical company in 1895, and for the following ten years made a meager living acting and holding odd jobs. In 1906 he married his first wife, the actress Linda Arvidson, who later appeared in many of his films. After the marginal success in Washington, D. C. and Baltimore of a play he wrote called A Fool and a Girl (1907), Griffith moved to New York City to resume acting. There he began selling story ideas to various motion picture companies—which at the time were located primarily in that city—and in 1908 he was hired by the Edison Company to act in two films, Cupid's Pranks and Rescued from an Eagle's Nest; the latter was directed by Edwin S. Porter, director of two much-studied films, Life of an American Fireman (1902-1903) and The Great Train Robbery (1903). He was then hired by the Biograph Company as a writer and actor. He appeared in at least twenty films before June, 1908, when he was given the opportunity to direct a film, The Adventures of Dollie. He became Biograph's principal director, and in the next five years he made over 480 short, very popular films. In this time, because of the success of his work, Griffith gained increasing control over the major aspects of film production at Biograph, from writing, casting, and editing to promotion. In 1913, when the owners of Biograph rejected his demands to make longer, more elaborate, and thus more expensive films, Griffith left the company, taking with him his cameraman, G. W. "Billy" Bitzer, and several of his favorite actors, including Lillian and Dorothy Gish, Robert Harron, and Henry B. Walthall. Relocated in Southern California, Griffith made several films for the Reliance-Majestic company and raised money for The Birth of a Nation. This film generated significant controversy upon its release—the protests of a number of black groups and prominent critics impelled Griffith to write a pamphlet, The Rise and Fall of Free Speech in America (1915), defending himself and the movie against charges of racism. Nonetheless, The Birth of a Nation was widely hailed as "the greatest film ever made." Its success enabled Griffith to make the grandly elaborate Intolerance, a two-and-a-half hour film presenting four intertwined historical dramas and employing massive, spectacular sets and hundreds of extras. Although it drew big crowds upon its release and soon after, audiences quickly dwindled as word spread that its four-part structure was confusing. The film was a financial failure and marked the beginning of a gradual decline in Griffith's ability to dictate the terms of his career. In 1919, Griffith, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, and Charlie Chaplin formed United Artists, a production company designed to give them the freedom they felt they were losing in the face of the growing, consolidating, and realigning film industry. Griffith's first film released by United Artists was Broken Blossoms. Seeking even greater independence, he moved his troupe of actors and technicians out of California to Mamaroneck, New York, where he bought an estate that he turned into a film studio. Facing financial difficulties, Griffith quickly made several lesser films in order to allow the filming of Way Down East, which has endured as one of his best works. But continuing and increasing financial problems made it impossible for Griffith to exercise the control over his productions that he once enjoyed. Even with United Artists he was assigned films to make and was overseen by producers wary of his profligate tendencies. After Isn't Life Wonderful, Griffith made largely unremarkable films, save for Abraham Lincoln (1930), his first film with synchronized sound and featuring Walter Huston in the title role. His last film, The Struggle (1931), a melodrama about an alcoholic, impressed neither critics nor audiences. For the next seventeen years, Griffith could not find backers willing to fund his projects; he was offered work and tributes by friends—the director George Cukor unsuccessfully petitioned the owners of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to "pension" him for his contributions to the art of film—but Griffith declined what he felt to be charity. He died in Hollywood in 1948.
By the standards of its day, Griffith's first film as director, The Adventures of Dollie, is typical, well-made, and evidence of the first-time filmmaker's mastery of contemporary film form. In a series of linked vignettes, each consisting of one shot, the film presents the story of a little girl who is kidnapped by an evil gypsy; when the girl's father searches for her at the gypsy camp, she is spirited away in a barrel; the barrel eventually falls into a river and Dollie is carried back to her home. In plot and premise, The Adventures of Dollie is typical of many of Griffith's subsequent Biograph films: a tranquil, bourgeois domestic situation is upset; daring measures are undertaken in response; and tranquility is restored. Over the course of his next 480 or so films, Griffith experimented with ways in which to heighten the viewer's identification with the characters' experiences and states of mind. Among the innovations evident in his Biograph films are: 1) the increased and refined use of point-of-view shots, in which the viewer sees what the character sees; an early example of this occurs in Griffith's second film, The Redman and the Child (1908), when an Indian witnesses a murder through a telescope; 2) an increasingly restrained and naturalistic style of acting, one that eschewed the broad gestures of the nineteenth-century "histrionic" style; among the many films in which this new style dominates, The New York Hat (1912) is often cited because the subtle performances of Mary Pickford and Lionel Barrymore contrast strikingly with the more demonstrative and obviously stylized actions of the rest of the cast; and 3) the use of what has been called "switchback" or "parallel" editing, by means of which two or more events taking place in different locations are presented as occurring simultaneously; Griffith—and most filmmakers after him—used this technique in a variety of ways: from increasing the suspense in a "last minute rescue" sequence, as in The Lonely Villa (1909) when a man must race home to prevent criminals from attacking his wife and daughters; to the breaking down of individual scenes into numerous closer and more detailed shots, a technique that creates a "synthetic" space, one that exists as a unified whole only in the viewer's imagination. All of these innovations were adopted by other filmmakers and came to be hallmarks of the Hollywood style. Critics argue, however, that Griffith's own style should not be thought of as synonymous with the "classic realist text" of Hollywood, that his films characteristically employ devices that distance the viewer and prevent the kind of identification and "suspension of disbelief" thought typical of Hollywood. A case in point is The Birth of a Nation, the Civil War saga that tells the story of two families—one from the North, one from the South. While the film deploys the realistic techniques mentioned above, and is often described as the culmination of Griffith's experiments in the "narrative integration" of such techniques, the film also explicitly re-creates famous paintings and photographs—for example, those of Abraham Lincoln signing the Emancipation Proclamation—and identifies these recreations as such on screen. Thus, The Birth of a Nation combines two modes of addressing the viewer: one that tries to efface itself through realistic techniques designed to heighten the viewer's identification with the action on screen; and one that calls attention to itself, addressing the viewer directly and reminding him of the unreality of the depicted events. The first mode—which Griffith did not invent, only refined and exploited on a grand scale—became the dominant one for narrative filmmaking; the second—which was, in fact, the dominant mode of early cinema, before "narrative integration"—influenced Eisenstein and the Soviet filmmakers who were interested in a more didactic approach to film form. This dual approach is also evident in Intolerance, an epic film that intertwines four stories: a tale set in the film's present day that depicts what happens when upper-class matrons crusade to "refine" the lower classes; the massacre of the Huguenots; the fall of Babylon; and the life of Jesus. Griffith continuously cuts from one story to another, inviting the viewer to, at once, get caught up in each individual story and set of characters, and to draw thematic, moralistic connections between them. Because of this alternation between identification and intellectual distance, Eisenstein is reported to have been surprised to learn that Griffith was not a communist—so much did this approach mirror and influence his own. Griffith's other major films—including Hearts of the World (1918), Broken Blossoms, True Heart Susie (1919), and Way Down East—emphasize melodrama over didacticism and are romantic, tragic visions of ill-fated love. In criticizing the thematic content of Griffith's films, Eisenstein wrote: "In social attitudes Griffith was always a liberal, never departing far from the slightly sentimental humanism of the good old gentlemen and sweet old ladies of Victorian England, just as Dickens loved to picture them. His tender-hearted film morals go no higher than a level of Christian accusation of human injustice and nowhere in his films is there sounded a protest against social injustice." Finally, Orson Welles once wrote that, toward the end of his life, Griffith "was an exile in his own town, a prophet without honor, a craftsman without tools, an artist without work. No wonder he hated me. I, who knew nothing about films, had just been given the greatest freedom ever written into a Hollywood contract [when he was hired by RKO to make Citizen Kane (1941)]. It was the contract he deserved.… I never really hated Hollywood except for its treatment of D. W. Griffith. No town, no industry, no profession, no art form owes so much to a single man. Every filmmaker who has followed him has done just that: followed him."
A Fool and a Girl (drama) 1907
The Adventures of Dolly (film) 1908
After Many Years [adaptor; from the poem "Enoch Arden" (1864) by Alfred Lord Tennyson] (film) 1908
The Fatal Hour (film) 1908
The Greaser's Gauntlet (film) 1908
The Redman and the Child (film) 1908
The Salvation Army Lass (film) 1908
The Song of the Shirt (film) 1908
A Convict's Sacrifice (film) 1909
A Corner in Wheat [adaptor; from the short story "A Deal in Wheat" (1903) by Frank Norris] (film) 1909
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D. W. Griffith (essay date 1924)
SOURCE: "The Movies 100 Years from Now," in Film Makers on Film Making: Statements on Their Art by Thirty Directors, edited by Harry M. Geduld, Indiana University Press, 1967, pp. 49-55.
[In the following essay, originally published in 1924, Griffith speculates on a number of innovations he believed will occur in filmmaking during the next one hundred years and predicts that movies will become an influential social force.]
They say I am a realist—a man who functions best when reproducing in the films life as he sees it or knows it. Whereupon the editor promptly assumes that fantasy will be perfectly easy for me, and propounds a question that scarcely can be answered...
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Peter Noble (essay date 1946)
SOURCE: "A Note on an Idol," in Sight and Sound, Vol. 15, No. 59, Autumn, 1946, pp. 81-2.
[In the following essay, Noble outlines the racist trappings of The Birth of a Nation.]
Griffith has one of the great poetic minds of the cinema. He ranks with Chaplin, Von Stroheim and René Clair among the immortals of the screen, and it is in no way meant to decry his genius that I draw attention to a facet of his work which has not been fully examined. I refer to his anti-Negro bias, as demonstrated in that otherwise superb film The Birth of a Nation and in such of his later films as One Exciting Night. He is indeed a pioneer, but a pioneer of...
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Sergei Eisenstein (essay date 1949)
SOURCE: "Dickens, Griffith, and the Film Today," in Film Form: Essays in Film Theory and The Film Sense, edited and translated by Jay Leyda, Meridian Books, 1957, pp. 195-255.
[In the following essay, originally published in 1949, Eisenstein explores Griffith's innovative use of montage as well as film techniques which can be traced in literary form to the works of Charles Dickens.]
"The kettle began it.…"
Thus Dickens opens his Cricket on the Hearth.
"The kettle began it.…"
What could be further from films! Trains, cowboys, chases… And The Cricket on the Hearth? "The kettle began it!" But,...
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Everett Carter (essay date 1960)
SOURCE: "Cultural History Written with Lightning: The Significance of The Birth of a Nation," American Quarterly, Vol. XII, No. 3, Fall, 1960, pp. 347-57.
[In the following essay, Carter points out thematic flaws in The Birth of a Nation which prevent the film from being an artistic success.]
On February 20, 1915, David Wark Griffith's long film, The Clansman, was shown in New York City. One of the spectators was Thomas Dixon, the author of the novel from which it was taken, who was moved by the power of the motion picture to shout to the wildly applauding spectators that its title would have to be changed. To match the picture's greatness, he...
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Bosley Crowther (essay date 1967)
SOURCE: "Intolerence: 1916," in The Great Films: Fifty Golden Years of Motion Pictures, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1967, pp. 17-20.
[In the following review, Crowther praises Intolerance for its ambitious scope and complex editing while acknowledging the film's failure to rise above melodrama.]
Would success spoil D. W. Griffith?
That thought surely never occurred to anyone at the time The Birth of a Nation was vaunting the fame of the great director throughout the land. Such a triumph must certainly have seemed evidence of his infallibility. And, of course, people were not then as knowing about the evanescence of screen success as they...
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George E. Dorris (essay date 1967)
SOURCE: "Griffith in Retrospect," in Man and Movies, edited by W. R. Robinson, Louisiana State University Press, 1967, pp. 153-60.
[In the following essay, Dorris looks back thoughtfully at Griffith's oeuvre.]
When the Museum of Modern Art announced its D. W. Griffith retrospective in the spring of 1965, I decided to attend the complete series. But I had no real idea of what I was letting myself in for. Like most filmgoers, I knew the legend of the shattered titan, living out the last years of his life as a virtual recluse. I had seen The Birth of a Nation and Intolerance and been moved by the beauty, the dramatic sweep, and the emotional...
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Pauline Kael (essay date 1970)
SOURCE: "A Great Folly, and a Small One," in Going Steady, Atlantic-Little, Brown, 1970, pp. 42-8.
[In the following essay, Kael reflects on Griffith's pioneering cinematic accomplishments.]
"She is madonna in an art as wild and young as her sweet eyes," Vachel Lindsay wrote of Mae Marsh, who died on Tuesday of last week. She is the heroine of D. W. Griffith's Intolerance, which came out in 1916 and which will soon have its annual showing at the Museum of Modern Art. Intolerance is one of the two or three most influential movies ever made, and I think it is also the greatest. Yet many of those who are interested in movies have never seen it....
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William Cadbury (essay date 1974)
SOURCE: "Theme, Felt Life, and the Last-Minute Rescue in Griffith After Intolerance," in Film Quarterly, Vol. XXVIII, No. 1, Fall, 1974, pp. 39-49.
[In the following essay, Cadbury asserts that a mature artistic vision is present in Griffith's earlier films.]
There have come to be two positions on D. W. Griffith, a modern orthodoxy and a much-needed revisionism. The orthodoxy is a picture of Griffith the great innovator, whose values and intentions however amount only to a style for his times. When those times changed (it happened with startling suddenness, Karl Brown reminisces, between the making and exhibiting of Intolerance), Griffith's values...
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John Dorr (essay date 1974)
SOURCE: "The Griffith Tradition," in Film Comment, Vol. 10, No. 2, March-April, 1974, pp. 48-54.
[In the following essay, Dorr surveys key movies, by Griffith and other directors, which were inspired by a filmmaking style known as the "Griffith Tradition."]
The first strain of the American filmmaking tradition grew directly from the all-pervasive influence of the early work of D. W. Griffith. This essentially nationalistic tradition of dramatic narrative was rooted in the simple, direct montage principles that Griffith evolved in his Biograph one- and two-reelers. In 1915, The Birth of A Nation became the official lexicon of these principles....
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John B. Kuiper (essay date 1985)
SOURCE: "The Growth of a Film Director—D. W. Griffith," in Wonderful Inventions: Motion Pictures, Broadcasting, and Recorded Sound at the Library of Congress, Library of Congress, 1985, pp. 11-16.
[In the following essay, Kuiper describes Griffith's early film career at Biograph Studios.]
During the early part of 1908 an unusual man of thirty-three years began to work at the old Biograph Studios, 11 East 14th Street in New York City. Author, poet, and playwright by predisposition and a reasonably successful actor by practice and experience, David Wark Griffith began his work in the motion-picture medium first by acting in a short picture for the Edison Company and...
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Jean E. Tucker (essay date 1985)
SOURCE: "Voices from the Silents," in Wonderful Inventions: Motion Pictures, Broadcasting, and Recorded Sound at the Library of Congress, edited by Iris Newsom, Library of Congress, 1985, pp. 31-9.
[In the following essay, Tucker creates a portrait of Griffith by drawing on memories and reflections from several of his contemporaries.]
The origins of the motion picture as an art form can be traced to the turn of the century. Since the late 1800s, motion pictures have drawn what they have needed from the other arts—music, literature, and the theater—and have attained an artistic maturity of their own in a relatively short period of time. The artistic attainment has...
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William M. Drew (essay date 1986)
SOURCE: "Artistic Influences," in D. W. Griffith's Intolerance: Its Genesis and Its Vision, McFarland & Company, Inc., 1986, pp. 63-101.
[In the following essay, Drew highlights the various artistic influences Griffith drew upon during the making of Intolerance.]
Utilizing elements from music, painting, theater, poetry and novels, Griffith produced a twentieth-century masterwork, adapting and synthesizing the art forms of the nineteenth century into the new medium of cinema. In addition, he was stimulated by the work of the European filmmakers, absorbing some of their techniques in spectacle and costume productions. As a result, Intolerance is...
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William Rothman (essay date 1988)
SOURCE: "D. W. Griffith and the Birth of the Movies" and "Judith of Bethulia," in The "I" of the Camera: Essays in Film Criticism, History, and Aesthetics, Cambridge University Press, 1988, pp. 11-17, 18-30.
[In the following essay, Rothman discusses Griffith's early post-Biograph film work, with an emphasis on Judith of Bethulia.]
Film was not invented to make movies possible. The Lumière brothers' first public screening in 1895 was the culmination of innumerable technical developments that finally allowed films to be made and projected, but the invention of film did not immediately give rise to movies as we know them. Within ten years, film had become a sizeable...
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Michael Rogin (essay date 1989)
SOURCE: "The Great Mother Domesticated: Sexual Difference and Sexual Indifference in D. W. Griffith's Intolerance," in Critical Inquiry, Vol. 15, No. 3, Spring, 1989, pp. 511-54.
[In the following essay, Rogin analyzes the sexual undercurrents of Intolerance.]
A giant statue of the mother goddess, Ishtar, presides over Intolerance (1916), the movie D. W. Griffith made after his triumph with The Birth of a Nation (1915). Ishtar sits above Babylon's royal, interior court, but the court itself is constructed on so gigantic a scale that it diminishes the size of the goddess. Perhaps to establish Ishtar's larger-than-life proportions,...
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Kenneth S. Lynn (essay date 1990)
SOURCE: "The Torment of D. W. Griffith," in The American Scholar, Vol. 59, Spring, 1990, pp. 255-64.
[In the following essay, Lynn recounts the production history of Broken Blossoms and other films, focusing on Griffith's relationship with actor Lillian Gish.]
The first masterpiece by an American director to emerge from the post-World War I search for a new art of film was D. W. Griffith's Broken Blossoms, which had its premiere in New York in May 1919. Filmed in constricted studio settings under artificial lights, rather than in the open expanses of California fields in which Griffith had mounted so many of the scenes in The Birth of a...
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Vance Kepley, Jr. (essay date 1991)
SOURCE: "Intolerance and the Soviets: A Historical Investigation," in I nside the Film Factory: New Approaches to Russian and Soviet Cinema, edited by Richard Taylor and Ian Christie, Routledge, 1991, pp. 51-9.
[In the following essay, Kepley evaluates the influence Intolerance had on early cinema in the Soviet Union.]
Tracing lines of influence in film history is one of the most popular endeavours among film scholars; it is also one of the most treacherous. The appearance of similar styles or conventions among different schools of film often invites premature conclusions about direct lines of descent. The historian, therefore, must penetrate below such...
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Scott Simmon (essay date 1992)
SOURCE: "'The Female of the Species': D. W. Griffith, Father of the Woman's Film," in Film Quarterly, Vol. XLVI, No. 2, Winter, 1992-93, pp. 8-20.
[In the following essay, Simmon maintains that Griffith was the progenitor of the "woman's film" and probes the director's use of females in such movies as A Flash of Light and The Painted Lady.]
Traditionally, D. W. Griffith is credited as "father" of a host of cinematic techniques and Hollywood patterns. If he is to be given progenitive tags at all, he deserves a more surprising one as "The Father of the Woman's Film"—and deserves too all the psychosexual conflicts such paternity entails.
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Brown, Karl. Adventures with D. W. Griffith. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1973, 252 p.
Anecdotal reminiscence of working with Griffith. Brown was an assistant cinematographer to G. W. "Billy" Bitzer, Griffith's cinematographer, from 1913 and the making of The Birth of a Nation until Broken Blossoms and Griffith's return to New York in 1920.
Schickel, Richard. D. W. Griffith: An American Life. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984, 672 p.
Massive biography that synthesizes the work of many previously published and unpublished accounts and brings new insights to some of Griffith's lesser-known films....
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