Timeline of Events
- Tenth century B.C.E.
The Jewish Temple of Solomon is constructed in Jerusalem.
- 63 B.C.E.
Jerusalem falls under the control of the Roman Empire.
- 70 C.E.
Romans destroy the Second Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem.
Roman Emperor Constantine converts to Christianity.
- Fifth century
The breakup of the Roman Empire creates the Byzantine Empire in the East; Jerusalem falls into the hands of the Byzantines.
- c. 610
Muhammad experiences revelations that lead to the founding of Islam.
The death of Muhammad marks the beginning of a long period of Islamic civil war and separation of Islam into Sunni and Shiite sects.
The second Muslim caliph, Umar, captures the city of Jerusalem....
(The entire section is 424 words.)
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Words to Know
The name of the deity in the Islamic faith.
- Byzantine Empire:
The eastern half of the Roman Empire, whose capital was Byzantium, renamed Constantinople.
Any successors to Muhammad, the founder of Islam, and the spiritual and earthly leader of Islam.
The office of a caliph or the territory ruled by a caliph.
A large sling used to hurl firebombs and anything else that could cause harm over the walls of a fortified castle or city.
A sect, or subgroup, of Christians that appeared in southern France around the time of the Fifth Crusade and who were declared heretics, or people who disagreed with...
(The entire section is 831 words.)
Research and Activity Ideas
The following research and activity ideas are intended to offer suggestions for complementing social studies and history curricula; to trigger additional ideas for enhancing learning; and to provide cross-disciplinary projects for library and classroom use.
Building a Model: Conduct further research about an event during the Crusades, such as a particular battle or siege. An example might be the siege of Antioch during the First Crusade or the siege of Acre in 1291. Then build a scale model that would show the city, the arrangement of the troops on both sides, and other significant events during the battle or siege. Another possibility is to conduct further research into the architecture of castles during the Middle Ages and build a scale model of a castle that might have been found in the Middle East at the time of the Crusades. Or you might build a model of a siege engine that was used to hurl missiles at castles and fortified cities during the Crusades. Be prepared to explain to your classmates how the siege engine works.
Maps: Frequently, the course of a battle during the Crusades turned on characteristics of the geography of the place where the battle was fought. For example, a force of soldiers might have had to travel through a narrow mountain pass, where they met the danger of ambush, or surprise attack, by opposing forces. In the desert climate of the...
(The entire section is 1498 words.)