Study Guide

The Crucible

by Arthur Miller

The Crucible Analysis

Salem and Puritanism

The government of Salem in 1692 was a Puritan theocracy. In other words, the town was under the unbending authority of the church. The leaders of the church, and especially the minister of the church, were very powerful figures, comparable to our elected officials. A person who was not a member in good standing of the church was not allowed to live in the community. All citizens were expected to conform to the teachings of the church at all times and to know its catechism, which contained the written statements of the church’s beliefs.

Puritan theology was largely based on the teachings of John Calvin. Calvin was one of a group of theologians who protested against the Roman Catholic church’s departure from the Bible as the ultimate authority. Based on their reading of Saint Paul in the New Testament, they particularly disagreed with the Roman Catholic emphasis on earning your salvation through good deeds on earth. These protesters, or Protestants, believed that salvation could not be earned. The only way to get to heaven was to be chosen by God and to have faith that He would save you from eternal damnation. Some people were predestined, or chosen to be saved, while others were not. While good works would not earn your salvation if you had not been chosen, believers desired to do good works on earth and thus follow the example set by Jesus Christ. Good works were visible signs of your commitment to God.

At the time of the Reformation most of Europe was ruled by a theocracy of its own; that of the Roman Catholic church. The Protestants were compelled by their beliefs to disregard many of the practices of the Catholic church, including buying indulgences and approaching God only through a priest. The church was not pleased with this rebellion against its authority, and the Protestants were greatly persecuted. Many of them left Europe and settled in America to escape this persecution and practice their religion in peace. This was the case with the colony at Salem.


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The Crucible Form and Content (Survey of Young Adult Fiction)

The Crucible is based on actual persons and events. While some dialogue and characterizations are based on legal records of the Salem witch trials, other details crucial to the play are inventions or suppositions by the author. The published version of The Crucible includes occasional prose discussions of the characters and themes that are not part of the play in performance. The play as published begins with several pages describing the Puritan environment in which the events take place. Arthur Miller explains that the witch trials occurred because of a theocratic government that repressed individual freedom.

The play opens in the home of Reverend Samuel Parris, where his daughter Betty is suffering from a mysterious ailment. Parris had discovered Betty and his niece Abigail Williams dancing naked in the forest and fears that Betty’s ailment is supernatural in origin. Other Salemites—including Ann Putnam, who has lost several children—believe that witchcraft has been responsible for local misfortunes. The girls have, in fact, been playing at witchcraft, a crime that carries a penalty of death. In order to protect themselves from punishment, the girls confess that they were under the spell of other witches within the community, and they provide Parris with the names of those witches. Parris is a vain man who seeks to be the central power within the community. His sermons have more often concerned his desires for increased pay and gold candlesticks than spiritual or moral lessons. Lately, his congregation has developed a faction opposed to his authority. Parris sees the girls’ accusations as a chance to regain the power that he has lost.

One of Parris’ most vocal critics has been John Proctor, a farmer. Abigail had been a servant for Proctor and his wife, Elizabeth, until Elizabeth discovered that Proctor was having an affair with Abigail. Abigail still harbors a hatred for Elizabeth, and, as the trials progress, Elizabeth becomes one of the accused. In a scene that Miller added after the play was first produced, Proctor confronts Abigail after the arrest of Elizabeth, only to discover that Abigail has become insane.

Before long, many of the most respected citizens of Salem—especially Rebecca Nurse and Giles Corey—have been condemned or executed. Proctor defends his wife before the tribunal and even confesses his adultery, a ploy that fails because Elizabeth, not aware of his confession, denies her husband’s sin in order to protect him. The Proctors’ current servant, Mary Warren, who is also one of the accusers, knows Elizabeth to be innocent but lacks the courage to reveal the trials as a sham. The trials have become a self-justifying institution; anyone who attempts to oppose them instantly faces the accusation of witchcraft, and to be accused is to be assumed guilty. Proctor’s defense sways Reverend Hale, a minister from a neighboring community, but even Hale cannot save Proctor from being placed under a sentence of death.

Those condemned for witchcraft can save themselves by confessing their guilt and naming other witches (thereby validating the trials). As Proctor and others await their executions, Hale pleads with them to confess because he knows their condemnations to be unjust. After much prodding, Proctor agrees to confess but refuses to name others. In the end, he goes offstage to be hanged.

The Crucible Places Discussed (Critical Guide to Settings and Places in Literature)


*Salem. Small Massachusetts town on the Atlantic coast, about twenty miles northeast of Boston. A small community sandwiched between the ocean and the wilderness, Salem felt itself surrounded by danger, a danger that could be combated only by hard work, perseverance, and strict religious observance. The Native Americans living in the area presented a threat, but the devil, who lurked in the nearby wilderness, was a far greater threat, tempting villagers to worship him. The theocracy that governed Salem was designed to prevent this from occurring; thus any departure from orthodoxy was condemned, and any opposition was summarily crushed.

Parris’s house

Parris’s house. Home of the Reverend Parris in Salem. It is symbolically appropriate that the home of Parris, the congregation’s minister, is the site of the first outbreak of witchcraft hysteria. Act 1 occurs in an upstairs bedroom of the Parris house. The room contains only “a narrow window,” a metaphor for the narrowness of Puritan beliefs, through which not much light is allowed to shine. The somber room “gives off an air of clean spareness,” and the “raw and unmellowed” nature of the wood coincides with the nature of Puritan life.

Proctor home

Proctor home. Farmhouse five miles from Salem. Act 2 takes place in John and Elizabeth Proctor’s home. The room where the act is set seems cold; although it is spring, John declares, “It’s winter in here yet,” signifying the emotional distance between John and Elizabeth. Court officials travel five miles to arrest Elizabeth, indicating how widespread the witch hysteria has become.

Salem meetinghouse

Salem meetinghouse. Church building in Salem in whose vestrom act 3 is set. It is a “solemn, even forbidding” room with heavy timbers, now used as the anteroom of the court. A symbol of the religion, the gloomy meetinghouse is where people are condemned rather than brought to the light of God. Although churches traditionally offer sanctuary to even the lowest of criminals, the church in Salem is where innocent people are condemned. Ironically, at the end of the act, a bird (not the dove of the Holy Spirit, but a demoniac bird) appears in the high rafters of the room.

Salem jail

Salem jail. Act 4 takes place in a jail cell, a dark place that looks empty even though two prisoners are kept here. All the prisoners are filthy, cold, and weak from hunger. The play ends in the jail, indicating that death is the ultimate outcome of such a cruel and narrow religion.


Forest. Wilderness west of Salem. The forest represents humankind’s pagan instincts, which the Puritans have set out to suppress. In spite of their role in the church, Parris has caught his own family members dancing with the devil in the forest. Although John Proctor cultivates the earth right to the edge of the forest, the forest itself remains wild and uncultivated.


*Andover. Massachusetts town a few miles from Salem in which rebellion against the court is rumored to be afoot. Parris fears it will spread to Salem.


*Boston. Leading Massachusetts city, located about twenty miles southwest of Salem. The judges come from the General Court of Boston, and Boston carries a great deal of weight with Salemites. A witch had been hanged in Boston two years before the opening of the play.


*Beverly. Massachusetts town a few miles from Salem from which the Reverend Hale comes. The town seems to be slightly more enlightened than Salem.

The Crucible The Play (Comprehensive Guide to Drama)

The Crucible begins at daybreak in the house of the Reverend Samuel Parris, who is praying at the bed of his motionless daughter, Betty. Her apparently incurable illness sets in motion the action of the play, which centers on the historic Salem witch trials. In quick succession, key characters enter; the first is slave Tituba, on whose exit follows Parris’ ward, the seventeen-year-old Abigail Williams. Interrogating her sparks off Parris’ fear that “unnatural things” may be going on, occult practices that could wreck his career; he has already been shocked to discover the “sinful” dance of Tituba and the girls in the forest.

Ann and Thomas Putnam enter, two characters who have strong motivations for crying “witch”: Ann has no living children and envies happier mothers, while land-rich Thomas stands to gain still more if some of his neighbors are indicted. One neighbor is John Proctor, who appears while the adults are offstage praying, and after Abigail and her girlfriends have discussed what to reveal about Tituba, who indeed performed voodoo rites. Abigail even drank chicken blood to cast a deadly spell over Proctor’s wife Elizabeth, so that she could marry Proctor, with whom she had an affair before his wife cast her out.

When her girlfriends leave, Abigail attempts to seduce Proctor, who refuses and threatens her with the whip. As the adults come back, new characters appear, such as wily old Giles Corey, a friend of Proctor’s, and Rebecca Nurse, who looks at one of the sick girls and states calmly that “a child’s spirit is like a child . . . for love, it will soon itself come back.” Only Proctor and Giles listen; all others await the arrival of the demonologist, the Reverend John Hale. The moment he arrives, Hale starts his interrogation of Abigail, who confesses and turns against Tituba, who admits her dark practices.

Act 2 opens at Proctor’s house, where he tries in vain to regain the respect of his wife. Afraid of Abigail, Elizabeth implores Proctor to testify at the witch trials in Salem that he heard her earlier claims that the dancing was not connected to witchcraft—claims the girl had indeed made before discovering a better way to save her hide. It is too late; Reverend Hale enters with a warrant for Elizabeth, whom Abigail has implicated with the unwitting help of maid Mary Warren, one of the “bewitched” girls testifying in court.

Throughout the ensuing struggle, the dialogue expresses to what degree Salem has become paranoid; Hale rightly observes, “No man may longer doubt the powers of the dark are gathered in monstrous attack upon this village.” Proctor’s position becomes increasingly untenable: His dislike for Parris’ greed, along with economic concerns, has led him to neglect formal Christian duties, such as keeping the Sabbath and regularly attending church. His voice of reason is silenced, and his observation that the girls “were startled and took sick” after Parris discovered them sporting in the woods—as Abigail herself told him—is wiped off the record. At the end of act 2 Hale faces an increasingly painful moral dilemma, exacerbated by unmistakable signs of a judicial system going haywire.

This concern leads directly into act 3. Shouts are heard offstage as Corey defends his wife, another accused witch. Soon, the empty anteroom of Parris’ meeting house fills with characters entering from the courtroom or, like Proctor, from outdoors. Deputy Governor Danforth, not an unintelligent man, reluctantly hears Corey and Proctor. The latter now presents Mary Warren, who recants her earlier story of witchcraft; to strengthen his case, by presenting a motive for Abigail’s lying, Proctor even confesses his adultery. Sensing the impact of this, Danforth summons Elizabeth and asks her why she dismissed Abigail; she lies to protect her husband, thereby sabotaging his defense. Just as a now-remorseful Hale tries to intervene, the girls, whom Danforth has brought in, start a ghastly pantomime, pretending to have been bewitched by Mary. They mock her every word until she breaks down and accuses Proctor of having worked with the Devil to extort a false recantation. Act 3 ends with Corey and Proctor thrown into jail and a disgusted Hale quitting the court.

Act 4 commences in a moonlit prison chamber just before dawn, as Danforth and Parris try to bring Proctor to confess so that they can avoid hanging him, with other prominent citizens, for being an unrepentant sinner. Hale reenters, bitterly ready “to do the Devil’s work” of persuading Proctor to commit the sin of a false confession. In a clever move, Danforth uses the pregnant Elizabeth, who has been spared from execution, to persuade Proctor to opt for confession and life.

To get the most out of his triumph, Danforth asks Proctor to sign his confession, so that it can be posted upon the church door. This, however, is too much for Proctor. He snatches the confession and tears it apart, ready to die rather than to give false testimony publicly. Deeply moved by her husband’s heroism, Elizabeth refuses to work a change of his mind. “He have his goodness now,” she says in the last speech of The Crucible; “God forbid I take it from him!”

The Crucible Dramatic Devices (Comprehensive Guide to Drama)

The Crucible is a drama in the tradition of American realism, and Arthur Miller strives for historic verisimilitude both through his deliberate use of archaic language in the dialogue and by prescribing settings with a distinctly realistic look. Proctor’s house has the “low, dark, and rather long living room of the time.” Samuel Parris’ house, with its “air of clean spareness,” where “the roof rafters are exposed, and the wood colors are raw and unmellowed,” accords with the audience’s preconception of a Puritan minister’s home. Clearly, Miller is also re-creating the myth of Puritan drabness here: His theatrical setting eschews the bright blues and reds with which the Puritans actually decorated their homes.

The lighting of the opening moments of the play has its obvious diegetic source in “the morning sunlight” that streams through the leaded panes of a narrow window at the left. Against this appropriate backdrop, the events of the previous night are brought to light. Characters are neatly grouped into units by the possibility of having some go “downstairs,” into the meeting room offstage. Thus, there is private space created for the girls and, later, for a key scene between Proctor and Abigail. To reinforce the audience’s sense of a coming eclipse of Proctor’s fortunes, and to create an outer manifestation of the inner darkness of the characters and the city of Salem, his house is visited in the evening, after a hard day in early summer. In contrast, the courtroom drama of act 3 is played out in broad daylight. Proctor and Corey face the juggernaut of Danforth’s witch trial in a well-crafted liminal space, the anteroom of the courtroom; this both avoids the distracting spectacle of a full courtroom and—since the anteroom has doors to the court and the street (stage left and right respectively)—creates a spatial image of purgatory. In this space Proctor faces the hell of a justice system set to make a mockery of rational law and due process.

With a touch of the melodramatic, the jail scene of act 4 opens in the dark hours before an autumn dawn; Miller’s stage directions have characters blowing on their hands in order to emphasize the coldness of the near dungeon. Here, the play has come full circle from act 1’s (false) promise of a spring day. Yet through Proctor’s steadfastness and his reconciliation with his pregnant wife, the possibility of a rebirth—following the autumnal day of the hanging and the winter of injustice—is strongly suggested; such a rebirth is confirmed by Miller’s epilogue to the printed play.

The Crucible Historical Context

Miller warns in the preface to The Crucible that "this play is not history," but it is certainly dependent on historical events for...

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The Crucible Literary Style

The Meaning in Miller's Title
The title The Crucible hints at paradoxical concerns which run throughout the...

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The Crucible Quizzes

Act I, Scene 1 Questions and Answers

Study Questions
1. What do we learn in the opening narrative that is important to the events that follow?

2. What happened in the woods the night before Act One -begins?

3. How did the events come to light, and what was the effect on Betty and Ruth?

4. Why is the town so stirred up by these events?

5. What is Reverend Parris’ first reaction to the crisis?

6. What reason does Ann Putnam have to be resentful?

7. What reason does Thomas Putnam have to be resentful?

8. Why do the girls argue about whether or not to tell the truth?

9. How does Abigail eventually get her way?

10. What is a crucible?


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Act I, Scene 2 Questions and Answers

Study Questions
1. Why was Abigail dismissed from her job at the Proctor’s house?

2. What does Abby tell Proctor about the events in the woods?

3. How have Proctor’s feelings toward Abby changed?

4. When does Betty cry out?

5. How is this cry interpreted?

6. How is Betty finally calmed?

7. How does Rebecca explain the events in the woods?

8. Why would anyone resent the Nurses?

9. Why does Proctor dislike Parris?

10. Why does Parris dislike Proctor?

1. Abigail was dismissed from her job when Elizabeth discovered her affair with John.

2. Abby...

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Act I, Scene 3 Questions and Answers

Study Questions
1. Why is Hale invited to Salem from Boston?

2. Has Hale ever found a witch?

3. What is significant about the timing of Hale’s entrance?

4. What do we learn about Rebecca Nurse from Hale?

5. What does Giles mention to Hale about Proctor?

6. What does Giles mention about his wife?

7. What are Rebecca and John’s roles in the proceedings?

8. What does Abigail do when questioned?

9. How is Tituba treated when she finally concocts a conversation with the devil and names a Salem woman as a witch?

10. What does Abby do when she sees this reaction?


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Act II, Scene 1 Questions and Answers

Study Questions
1. What is the significance of John’s re-seasoning the soup?

2. What is the relationship between John and Elizabeth like?

3. What new position does Mary Warren now hold?

4. Who is in charge of this court?

5. What action has the court taken?

6. What will happen if the accused do not confess?

7. How has Mary’s personality changed since her involvement in the court?

8. What issue does Elizabeth continue to hound her husband about?

9. What does Elizabeth’s lack of mercy and understanding foreshadow?

10. Why does John hesitate to go to the court and reveal Abigail’s fraud?


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Act II, Scene 2 Questions and Answers

Study Questions
1. What does Mary Warren give Elizabeth?

2. What is Elizabeth’s reaction to the gift?

3. How many people have now been arrested?

4. What will happen to those who do not confess?

5. Who has confessed?

6. What does this mean for the others?

7. What would spare Sarah Good from hanging?

8. What shocking news does Mary offer regarding Elizabeth?

9. What cause does Elizabeth immediately suspect?

10. Now that Elizabeth is accused, does John go quickly to the court to clear her name?

1. Mary gives Elizabeth a poppet, or doll, that she had sewn that...

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Act II, Scene 3 Questions and Answers

Study Questions
1. Why does Hale appear at the Proctor house?

2. Why would John’s Christian character be in question?

3. What reason does John first give for not going to church regularly?

4. What reason does John finally admit to for his behavior?

5. Why is John’s not going to church significant to the play?

6. What does Hale request the Proctors do to show their faith?

7. Are the Proctors successful in fulfilling this request?

8. Why is this particular commandment significant?

9. What news briefly shakes Hale’s belief in the court system?

10. What is his ultimate conclusion about the system at...

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Act II, Scene 4 Questions and Answers

Study Questions
1. What orders do Cheever and Herrick have at the Proctor house?

2. What has happened to Abigail?

3. Why is this related to the poppet?

4. Did Elizabeth keep poppets in her house?

5. What is found in the poppet?

6. How did the needle get there?

7. Do the authorities believe Mary’s admission?

8. What does John do with the warrant for Elizabeth’s arrest?

9. What does Proctor believe is motivating the court at this point?

10. What does Mary warn will happen if Proctor attempts to interfere with the court?

1. Cheever and Herrick are to search...

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Act III, Scene 1 Questions and Answers

Study Questions
1. What is the significance of lighting described in the stage directions?

2. Who is being charged as Act Three begins?

3. What possible motive does Giles Corey offer for the accusations against his wife and others?

4. How are these charges received?

5. Why does Giles feel guilty?

6. What do Proctor and Mary Warren bring with them as -evidence?

7. How does Judge Danforth measure his worth?

8. What does Parris do when Proctor attempts to make his case?

9. What is happening to Hale at this point?

10. How is Mary’s statement that the accusations are mere pretense received?


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Act III, Scene 2 Questions and Answers

Study Questions
1. What news does Danforth give John Proctor about his wife?

2. Why did the court not believe this assertion at first?

3. What does Proctor tell Danforth about his doubts?

4. What offer is made to Proctor by Danforth?

5. What happens to the people who signed the deposition upholding the three women?

6. What does Giles Corey charge in his deposition againstThomas Putnam?

7. How does Putnam answer, and who is believed?

8. What does Mary Warren’s deposition claim?

9. What does Hale suggest after the deposition is read?

10. Why does Danforth not allow Proctor to obtain a lawyer?


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Act III, Scene 3 Questions and Answers

Study Questions
1. What does Abigail do when confronted with Mary’s accusation of pretense?

2. What behavior of Abby’s does Proctor bring to the judges’ attention?

3. Why does he choose to reveal these things?

4. What is Reverend Parris’ reaction to these charges against his niece?

5. How is Mary asked to prove that the girls were lying?

6. How does Abigail respond to Mary’s assertions that the girls were all lying?

7. What does Proctor finally call Abigail?

8. Who is brought in to back up this accusation, and what does she do?

9. How does Mary finally respond to Abby’s behavior?

10. What...

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Act IV, Scene 1 Questions and Answers

Study Questions
1. What are Tituba and Sarah Good discussing as the act opens?

2. How does Tituba describe the devil in Barbados?

3. What has happened that has made Parris so anxious?

4. What happened in Andover?

5. Why is Parris afraid to hang John Proctor and Rebecca Nurse the next morning?

6. Why is Parris more frightened to hang Proctor and Nurse than anyone else?

7. Why does Parris request a postponement of the hangings?

8. What does Hale request instead of postponement?

9. Why does Danforth refuse Hale’s request?

10. What has Hale been advising those condemned to do?


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Act IV, Scene 2 Questions and Answers

Study Questions
1. What does Hale plead with Elizabeth to do?

2. Why does Hale believe a lie would not be a sin in this case?

3. Why is Hale so adamant in his attempts to convince Elizabeth?

4. Have any of the other prisoners confessed?

5. What reason does John give for not confessing?

6. What further reason keeps John from confessing?

7. What has John decided to do before he sees Elizabeth?

8. What does Elizabeth advise him to do?

9. How has Elizabeth changed?

10. What reason does John have for not telling the truth and going to his death?

1. Hale pleads with...

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Act IV, Scene 3 Questions and Answers

Study Questions
1. Why is Rebecca Nurse brought in to witness Proctor’s confession?

2. Why does Proctor refuse to name the names of other witches?

3. Why does Proctor refuse to give Danforth the paper with his signature on it?

4. What is the climax of the play?

5. What does Proctor do with the signed confession?

6. How has Proctor earned his death?

7. How does Elizabeth react to his choice of death?

8. When does Proctor claim his good name?

9. What reaction does Rebecca Nurse have to John Proctor’s confession?

10. Does Rebecca Nurse confess?

1. It is hoped...

(The entire section is 228 words.)