The late 1960s and early 1970s in America was a period marked by huge and permanent economic and demographic changes. Particularly hard hit by these sweeping changes were many of the country’s large industrial cities. Detroit became synonymous with urban decay and what soon came to be known as ‘‘white flight.’’ As the narrator describes it, Detroit is ‘‘a large famous city that is a symbol for large famous American cities.’’
The trends had begun much earlier. In the years immediately following the end of World War II, veterans and their families enjoyed unprecedented prosperity and the high birth rate now known as the baby boom. As a consequence these families began to leave the inner cities for newly created suburbs and housing developments. This exodus from what had been thriving mixed-use neighborhoods in large cities set off a chain reaction that reached a crisis in the late 1960s and that continues to reverberate today. As families with at least modest means abandon urban neighborhoods, only those too poor to move remain. The poorer residents are unable to support the surrounding businesses and they in turn must move outward to the suburbs to be closer to their customers. Thus, the inner city loses the tax base that commercial property provides, further depleting the resources and degrading the services for the remaining residents. Public schools struggle to meet children’s needs and to attract qualified...
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Even many years after the story’s publication, the structure of ‘‘How I Contemplated’’ is still striking and somewhat unsettling to readers. The experimental form Oates uses is fragmentary and full of gaps. Instead of writing the story of an affluent young girl’s temporary descent into a life on the streets and in a house of corrections, she gives readers only the girl’s own notes for an essay that she may or may not ever write.
What appears to be an orderly outline in twelve sections is really a random and partial arrangement of information recollected a year after the events. In the words of critic Sue Simpson Park, the sections are ‘‘repetitive, disjointed, and dispersive . . . indicative of the state of mind of the sixteen-year-old protagonist, confused, questioning, attempting to make sense of the senseless, to impose order upon the chaos.’’ Although the complete title removes any doubt the reader may have about whether the story has a ‘‘happy ending,’’ (she is writing a paper for a private school and has declared that she began her life over again), readers still have to piece together the narrative and read between the lines. One of the most significant gaps appears in the section titled ‘‘People & Circumstances Contributing to This Delinquency.’’ Under this heading is only the word, ‘‘nothing,’’ which suggests to the reader not that there are no contributing...
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Topics for Further Study
Although the narrator seems genuinely frightened by the beating she received and seems happy to be home, do you think she is sorry for her other offenses? Has she taken responsibility for her stealing and vandalism? What do you predict for the remainder of her teenage years?
What do you think is attractive about Simon? Why does she say she would go back to him ‘‘over and over again.’’?
What did the city of Detroit look like in 1968? Write a description of the scene the narrator would have encountered when she got off the bus?
Could this story be written today? How would it be different? Is this story of teenage rebellion and isolation universal, or is it a story of the 1960s?
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‘‘Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been,’’ the companion story to ‘‘How I Contemplated,’’ was adapted as a film, Smooth Talk, directed by Joyce Chopra and starring Laura Dern, Treat Williams, and Mary Kay Place. It was originally produced in 1985 for the ‘‘American Playhouse Series’’ on the Public Broadcasting System and is available from Live Home Video and Vestron Video.
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What Do I Read Next?
Dubliners (1914; rpt. 1949) by James Joyce is a collection of short stories that has become one of the classics of the coming-of-age genre. Joyce’s protagonists struggle to find their identities and learn the meaning of life in vividly depicted Catholic neighborhoods of Dublin.
‘‘Where are You Going, Where Have You Been?’’ by Joyce Carol Oates is the companion story to ‘‘How I Contemplated’’ in which a young girl’s sexual awakening occurs against a backdrop of potential violence.
This Boy’s Life (1989) by Tobias Wolfe is the successful college professor and writer’s memoir of his childhood in an unstable family in a working-class town in the Northwest. The book, which was made into a film starring Robert De Niro and Leonardo De Caprio, is notable because the point of view never wavers from the child’s perspective.
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Bibliography and Further Reading
Avant, James A. Interview, in The Library Journal, September 1, 1970.
Gilman, Richard. Review of The Wheel of Love, in The New York Times Book Review, October 25, 1970, p. 4.
Long, R. E. Review of The Wheel of Love, in The Saturday Review, October 24, 1970.
Phillips, Robert. Interview, in The Paris Review, Fall, 1978, pp. 199-206.
Showalter, Elaine. ‘‘My Friend, Joyce Carol Oates: An Intimate Portrait,’’ in Ms. Magazine, March, 1986, pp. 44-50.
Creighton, Joanne. Joyce Carol Oates, TUSAS, Twayne Publishers: Boston, 1979. Like all volumes in this series, this book provides an overview of the author’s life and work to date. It also contains a thorough and easy to use bibliography.
Milazzo, Lee, ed. Conversations with Joyce Carol Oates, University Press of Mississippi: Jackson, 1989. A collection of interviews from 1969-1988, the book provides insight into the life and work of a dedicated and prolific writer.
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